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G-ift  of 

Lydia  Priclic>,rcL  liar  tin 
irmstead  Head  Pricha.rd,   Jr. 

I3etty  Jacqueline 

Pri  chard  Ea.sper 
in  jiienory  of  their  ^^rents 

AriJistead  Llead  Prich^ird 

Betty  PcODson  Priclmrd 

West  Virginia  University  Libraries 

3  0802  100302094  9 

^-'.  .. 


Wes^  Virginia   University  Library 

This  book  is  due  on  the  date  indi 
cated  below. 





FEB      2  196$ 


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JUl  12  1*7^     _,    ^    ^, 

JAN  2  ^  I96f  S'^^-'^^T 

SEP  2  3  1969 
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Professor  of  History,  State  Normal  School,  Harrisonburg,  Va. ;   Member 
Virginia  Historical  Society,  American  Historical  Association, 
Pennsylvania-German  Society,  Etc.;  Author  of  "Politi- 
cal Opinions  of  Thomas  Jefferson,"    "The  Ger- 
man Element  of  the  Shenandoah  Valley 
of  Virginia,"  Etc. 




Copyright,  1912, 
JOE  K.  RUEBUSH  and  P.  H.  ELKINS 

Published  and  Sold  by 


Dayton,  Va. 



PART  L— Chronological. 


L  Geography  of  Rockingham  County. 

IL  Geological  Features. 

in.  First  White  Settlers:  1727-1738. 

IV.  Rockingham  as  Part  of  Augusta:  1738-1777. 

V.  The  New  County  and  the  New  Nation:  1777-1820. 

VI.  A  Growing  Community:  1820-1860. 

VII.  Rockingham  in  the  Civil  War:  1861-1865. 

VIII.  The  Days  of  Reconstruction:  1865-1876. 

IX.  From  1876  to  1912. 

X.  Rockingham  To-Day. 

PART  IL -Topical. 

XL  Towns  and  Villages  of  Rockingham. 

XII.  Roads  and  Railroads. 

XIII.  Race  Elements  and  Population. 

XIV.  Churches  and  Religious  Life. 

XV.  Education  and  Schools. 

XVI.  Charitable  Institutions. 

XVII.  Writers  and  Printers:  Books  and  Periodicals. 

XVIII.  Singers  of  Rockingham. 

XIX.  Rockingham  Statesmen  and  Jurists. 

XX.  Farms  and  Farmers. 

XXI.  Domestic  Arts  and  Manufacturing^Enterprises. 

XXII.  Banks  and  Banking. 

XXIII.  Health  Resorts. 

XXIV.  Natural  Curiosities. 

XXV.  Hunting  in  the  Western  Mountains. 

XXVI.  Boating  on  the  Shenandoah  River. 

try  A  y^  I  ^^  *  €D 

XXVII.  Court  Days  of  Long  Ago. 

XXVIII.  Some  Interesting  Incidents: 

Spotswood's  Expedition  of  1716  and  the  Uni- 
versity Pageant  of  1909. 
The  Coming  of  the  Lincolns. 
Daniel  Boone  on  Linville  Creek. 
Valentine  Sevier's  Sale  Bill. 
The  Influenza  of  1806-7. 
A  Case  of  Body-Snatching. 
A  Visit  to  Philadelphia  in  1847. 
Death  of  Ashby:  1862. 
Stonewall  Jackson  at  Port  Republic. 
Killing  of  John  Kline:  1864. 
Death  of  Meigs:  1864. 
The  Thurman  Movement. 
Sidney  Lanier  at  Rockingham  Springs. 
A  Fence  Corner  Council. 



Sheriffs  of  Rockingham. 

County  Judges  and  Circuit  Judges. 

County  Clerks  rnd  Circuit  Clerks. 

Commonwealth's  Attorneys. 

Superintendents  of  Schools. 

County  Surveyors. 

Members  of  House  of  Delegates. 

Members  of  State  Senate. 

Marriages  in  Rockingham,  1778-1720. 

Landowners  in  Rockingham  in  1789. 

Muster  Rolls  of  Rockingham  Soldiers. 

Business  and  Professional  Directory  of  Rocking- 
ham County:  1912. 

Bibliography:  A  list  of  books,  magazines,  and 
newspapers  containing  information  con- 
cerning Rockingham  County  and  Rock- 
ingham People. 



Frontispiece,  The  Peak 

District  Map 16 

Geological  Map 24 

General  John  Sevier         ..-..-  32 

Site  of  First  Court  House 48 

Bear  Lithia  Spring 48 

Suter  Wheat  Field 48 

Steam  Plow 48 

Court  House  of  1833 64 

Court  House  of  1874,  two  views        .        -         -        -  64 

Court  House  of  1896 64 

Chesapeake-Western  Bridge 80 

Bridgewater  Bridge        ------  80 

Confluence  of  the  Rivers,  Port  Republic        .        -        -  80 

Lethe 96 

Lincoln  Homestead 96 

Miller  Farm  Scene 96 

Mt.  CHnton 96 

State  Normal  School 112 

Senator  John  F.  Lewis -  128 

Etching,  10th  Va.  Regt.  Camp  Equipment        -         -  138 

Battle-Flag  10th  Va.  Reg. 144 

Flag  of  Chrisman's  Boy  Company        .        -        -        -  144 

Flag  Saved  at  Appomattox        .        .        .        -          .  144 

Port  Republic   Battlefield 144 

Hon.  John   T.   Harris 160 

Fort  Lynne -  176 

Conrad's  Store 176 

Funk  Printing  House 176 

Madison  Hall        .---.---  176 

Smithland        -        - 176 

Old    Stone    Fort        -------  176 


Bowman's  Mill -  176 

Bogota        -        -        : 176 

Waterman  House 192 

Chinkapin   Tree 192 

Town   Hall,    Bridgewater        -----  192 

Farm   Lands  on   Cook's   Creek         _        -        -         -  192 

Historical  Map         -        - 198 

Bridgewater  College        -        - 204 

Elkton  Hotel        -        -         - 208 

Singer's  Glen        --------  208 

First  Postoffice        ------         -  208 

Stonewall  Jackson's  Headquarters     -        -        -         -  208 

View  of  Harrisonburg        ------  224 

Site  of  Salyards  School  (McGaheysville)         -         -  224 

Singers  Glen  High  School 224 

Orphans'  Home -        -  224 

Old  Elk  Run  Church         -         -         -         -        .        -  224 

Blosser  Hatchery 224 

Henry  Tutwiler      - 240 

Bishop  James  Madison 256 

Big  Spring 272 

Ashby's  Monument 272 

Olden  Days  on  Court  Square        -----  272 

Asbury's  Chapel 272 

Old  St.  Peter's  Church        - 272 

District  Sunday  School  Map 280 

Bridgewater  Graded  and  High  School        -        -         -  288 

Waterman  School        -        - 288 

Harrisonburg  High  School 288 

McGaheysville  Graded  and  High  School        -      -         -  288 

Shenandoah  Collegiate  Institute        _        -        _        _  296 

Joseph  Salyards        -------  304 

U.  S.  Court  House  and  Postoffice        _        -        _        -  312 

Rockingham  Memorial  Hospital        _        _        _        _  312 

Rockingham  County  Almshouse        -        -         -         -  312 

Old  Folks'  Home 312 

Dr.  Gessner  Harrison 320 

Etching,  Oldest  Known  Number  Rockingham  Register  336 

Title-Page  Genuine  Church  Music        -       -        -        -  342 

Judge  Daniel  Smith 352 

Hon.  Chas.  T.  O'Ferrall 358 

Judge  John  Paul 360 

Senator  I.  S.  Pennybacker 368 

Hand-Woven  Coverlets 384 

Rawley  Springs 394 

Massanetta  Springs 394 

Washington's  Profile        .--.-.  400 

Giant's  Grave 400 

Cedar  Cliff  Falls        - 400 

Formation  in  Massanutta  Cave         .        .        -        -  400 

Diamond  Lake,  New  Market  Endless  Caverns  -  400 

Sidney  Lanier  Cottage -  416 

Keezletown  School  Building 416 

A  Rockingham  Orchard 416 

First  Piano  Brought  Into  Rockingham        .        -        .  416 

Pageant,  Knights  of  Golden  Horseshoe        -        .        -  426 

Mt.  Vernon  Furnace 432 

Where  Meigs  Fell 432 

The  Falls,  Bridgewater 432 

Brock's  Gap        -        - 432 

Lincoln  Graveyard         ...--.  432 

Silver  Lake,  Dayton        - 432 

Sidney  Lanier 434 

particular  interests  and  activities  that  have  given  the  county 
its  distinctive  character  and  influence;  (3)  to  find  and  pre- 
serve some  treasures  lost,  or  nearly  lost,  in  the  lapse  of  time 
and  the  obscuring  din  of  busy  days. 

Inasmuch  as  Rockingham  is  a  great  county,  mine  has 
been  a  great  task.  How  well  it  has  been  performed,  the 
intelligent  reader  must  judge.  No  one  more  than  the  author 
will  realize  the  lacks  and  deficiencies  in  the  result,  but  he 
hopes  and  beheves  that  all  will  at  least  credit  him  with  a 
sincere  purpose  and  an  earnest  effort.  No  opinion,  however 
adverse,  and  no  criticism,  however  sharp,  can  take  from  him 
the  joy  that  he  has  found  in  the  work.  To  him  it  has  been 
indeed  a  labor  of  love.  The  splendid  achievements  and  re- 
sources of  the  county  have  been  appreciated  as  never  before, 
and  things  in  her  history  have  been  found— often  by  seeming 
chance  or  rare  good  fortune— that  were  before  undreamed  of. 

At  the  laying  of  the  corner  stone  for  the  new  Court 
House  in  1896,  Judge  John  Paul  delivered  an  address  that 
contains  much  valuable  information  concerning  the  courts  and 
civil  officials  of  Rockingham.  This  address  has  been  found 
very  helpful  by  the  author  of  this  book.  In  1885  Mr.  George 
F.  Compton,  now  of  Charlottesville,  Va.,  published  an  ex- 
tended and  interesting  series  of  historical  articles  on  the  county 
in  the  Rockingham  Register;  in  1900  Mr.  John  H.  Floyd  of  Day- 
ton wrote  a  series  of  ten  historical  papers  concerning  Rock- 
ingham, and  published  them  in  the  Harrisonburg  Free  Press; 
in  addition,  many  historical  pieces,  in  books,  magazines,  and 
newspapers  have  appeared  from  time  to  time.  To  all  these, 
so  many  as  he  has  seen,  the  author  makes  due  and  grateful, 
acknowledgement;  all  that  he  has  found  published,  in  any 
available  form,  he  has  fisted,  and  in  many  cases  described,  in 
the  appended  Bibliography;  at  the  same  time  he  begs  leave 
to  state  that  the  bulk  of  the  matter  presented  in  this  volume 
has  been  collected  and  prepared  by  himself,  with  the  gen- 
erous aid  of  many  friends,  from  sources  that  may  in  a  large 
measure  be  termed  original.  It  would  of  course  be  impossible 
to  enumerate  all  the  sources  from  which  materials  have  been 
obtained;  but  some  of  the  more  important  ones  are  herewith 


First  in  natural  order  and  importance  are  the  official 
records  to  be  found  in  the  land  office  at  Richmond  and  in  the 
county  clerks'  offices  of  Orange,  Augusta,  and  Rockingham 
County.  The  records  of  marriages,  of  land  sales,  and  of 
court  proceedings  are  rich  in  facts  and  interest  and  signifi- 
cance. Of  almost  equal  importance  with  these  original 
records,  are  the  many  printed  volumes  of  Hening's  Statutes 
and  the  Acts  of  the  General  Assembly  of  Virginia.  Old 
almanacs  and  files  of  old  newspapers  have  been  found  to 
contain  circumstantial  accounts  of  important  events  that 
could  scarcely  be  obtained  from  any  other  source.  Old  files  of 
the  Rockingham  Register  have  proved  of  special  value  in  this 
respect.  Containing  as  they  do  particular  and  contemporary 
accounts  of  practically  every  notable  happening  in  the  county 
within  the  past  ninety  years,  the  successive  issues  of  the 
Register  are  a  very  treasure-house  to  the  student  and  anti- 
quarian. A  complete  and  well-preserved  file  of  the  Register, 
from  the  first  issue  in  1822  to  the  present,  would  be  sought 
after  eagerly  by  any  of  the  great  libraries  of  the  country, 
and  would  command  almost  any  price.  Although  the  writer 
has  not  seen  any  complete  file  of  this  paper,  he  has  been 
exceedingly  fortunate  in  securing  what  is  perhaps  the  best 
file  in  existence.  Through  the  generous  kindness  of  Mr.  R. 
B.  Smythe,  manager  of  the  News-Register  Company,  Har- 
risonburg, Va.,  he  now  has  in  his  possession  Register  files 
covering  many  years.  These  have  been  found  most  helpful 
in  the  preparation  of  this  book.  Miss  Hortense  Devier, 
whose  father,  Giles  Devier,  was  for  many  years  editor  of  the 
said  paper,  has  made  a  generous  loan  of  extended  files.  In 
addition  to  these  files,  many  fugitive  copies  of  the  Register, 
some  dating  back  almost  to  the  first  issue,  have  been  put 
into  the  author's  hands  by  his  friends,  as  either  a  gift  or  a 
loan.  Special  acknowledgement  is  made  to  Hon.  Geo.  E. 
Sipe  for  access  to  files  of  the  Old  Commonwealth.  For  all 
these  favors  he  is  duly  grateful. 

He  has  also  had  put  at  his  disposal  files  of  other  pe- 
riodicals, old  ledgers  and  day  books,  and  even  personal  manu- 
scripts and  diaries.     A  manuscript  account  of  Harrisonburg, 


its  people,  and  the  activities  centering  in  it  as  the  county- 
seat,  written  in  1892  by  a  lady  who  was  born  in  the  town  in 
1812,  and  giving  realistic  descriptions  of  days  and  doings 
nearly  a  century  ago,  should  be  specially  mentioned.  The 
records  of  the  Methodist  church,  dating  back  in  their  begin- 
ning more  than  a  hundred  years,  have  been  a  source  of  much 
information  having  a  general  as  well  as  a  particular  interest. 
Photographers  have  contributed  pictures,  authors  have  given 
their  books,  publishers  have  opened  their  presses  in  hearty 
and  generous  co-operation.  The  librarians  at  Richmond  and 
at  the  State  University,  as  well  as  at  other  places  where  the 
author  has  gone  gathering  facts,  have  been  obliging  and 
helpful;  hundreds  of  persons  all  over  the  county,  and  in 
many  other  parts  of  our  great  country,  have'  responded 
cheerfully  to  personal  letters  requesting  particular  informa- 
tion. It  is  indeed  an  embarrassment  of  riches  that  has 
confronted  the  author;  the  task  has  been  one  of  selection 
rather  than  of  collection,  though  he  has  sought  far  and  long 
for  some  things  herein  presented.  He  feels,  therefore,  that 
he  may  be  justly  criticised,  not  so  much  for  what  he  has 
given  in  this  book  as  for  what  he  has  been  obliged  to  leave 
out.  It  has  been  deemed  wiser,  on  the  whole,  to  keep  the 
volume  within  reasonable  size  and  cost  than  to  include  so 
much  as  to  make  it  cumbersome  in  bulk  or  expensive  in  price. 
We  have  tried  to  make  a  book  for  the  average  reader,  for 
every  citizen,  as  well  as  for  the  scholar  and  antiquarian. 

Grateful  acknowledgement  is  made  to  special  contributors 
and  others  who  have  given  aid  in  supplying  materials  or  sug- 
gesting lines  of  choice,  and  the  names  of  many  of  these  will 
be  found  in  the  proper  connections  throughout  the  volume. 

Special  mention  is  yet  due  in  this  place,  and  is  gratefully 
made,  of  the  uniform  courtesy  extended  to  the  author  by 
Col.  D.  H.  Lee  Martz,  clerk  of  the  circuit  court  in  Rocking- 
ham, and  by  his  assistants,  Mr.  C.  H.  Brunk  and  Mr.  J. 
Frank  Blackburn. 


1716— September— Spotswood  visits  the  Valley— East  Rock- 
1727— Adam  Miller  settles  on  the  Shenandoah  River. 
1738— November— Act  of  Assembly  passed  creating  Frederick 

and  Augusta  Counties. 
1745— September  23— John  Sevier  born  in  Rockingham. 
1749— August  27— James  Madison,  first  Protestant  Episcopal 

bishop  of  Virginia,  born  at  Port  Republic. 
1751— Thomas   Lewis  and  Gabriel  Jones   buy  land  in   East 

1753— May  11— Valentine  and  Joannah  Sevier  sell  land   to 

Andrew  Byrd,  on  or  near  Smith's  Creek. 
1758— April  28— Massacre  at  Fort  Seybert. 
1763— April  18— Valentine  Sevier  sells  his  personal  property 

to  Andrew  Byrd. 
1769— Lutheran  and  Reformed  congregations  at  Peaked  Moun- 
tain agree  to  build  a  union  church. 
1773— August  15— Valentine  and   Joanna  Sevier  sell  land  in 

Long  Meadow  to  Michael  and  David  Holsinger. 
1775— October— John  Alderson  installed  as  pastor  of  the  Lin- 

.    ville  Creek  Baptist  church. 
1777— October— Act  of  Assembly  passed  creating  Rocking- 
ham County. 
1778— April  27,  28— First  court  held  for  Rockingham  County. 
1779— August   5— Thomas    Harrison    sells    lot    for    county 

1780— May— Act  of  Assembly  passed  establishing  Harrison- 
1780— First  Presbyterian  preaching  in  Harrisonburg,  accord- 
ing to  tradition. 
1782— Abraham   Lincoln  goes  from  Rockingham  County  to 


1784 — First  court  house  for  Rockingham  completed. 

1787 — December — Act  of  Assembly  passed  creating  Pendleton 

1789— October  29— Rockingham  Union  Lodge,  No.  27,  A.  F. 

&  A.  M.,  chartered. 
1791 — December — Act  of  Assembly  passed  establishing  Kee- 

1794 — Bishop  Asbury  organizes  Methodist  school  in  Harrison- 
1801 — McGaheysville  named  for  Tobias  Randolph  McGahey. 
1802 — January  14 — Port  Republic  established   by  Act  of  As- 
1804 — January  5— New  Haven  established   by  Act  of  As- 
1805— Robert  Gray  locates  at  Harrisonburg. 
1807 — November  16 — Henry  Tutwiler,  first  M.  A.  of  Univer- 
sity of  Virginia,  born  in  Harrisonburg. 
1807 — December — Dr.  Peachey  Harrison  writes  of  Rocking- 
ham for  Philadelphia  Medical  Museum. 
1809 — George  Rockingham  Gilmer  of  Georgia  visits  Rocking- 
1809 — Bishop  Newcomer  (U.  B. )  confers  with  Bishop  Asbury 

(M.  E. )  at  Harrisonburg. 
1811 — February  20— Dr.  Asher  Waterman  sells  35,000  acres 

of  West  Rockingham  land  for  $13, 125. 
1813 — Daniel  Bryan  publishes  the  "Mountain  Muse." 
1816 — Rockingham     Methodists    prepare  memorial    against 

1818 — Brown's  "Circular"  pubhshed. 
1818— Harrison's  Cave  discovered. 
1820  (?)— Garber's  Church  built. 
1822— Trissel's  Church  built. 

1S22— Rockingham  Register  founded  by  Lawrence  Wartmann. 
1824 — January  26 — Timothy  Funk  born  at  Mountain  Valley. 
1825— Mt.  Crawford  established  by  Act  of  Assembly. 
1826 — February  18 — Act  of  Assembly  passed  chartering  Rock- 
ingham Academy. 



1828— Lin ville  Creek  Church  (of  the  Brethren)  built. 

1831— March— Act  of  Assembly  passed  creating  Page  County. 

1832— Dunker  Annual  Meeting  held  in  Rockingham  County. 

1832— First    edition    of    Joseph  Funk's    "Genuine   Church 

1833— January  7— Great  Anti-Nullification  meeting  held  in 

1833— January  Court — Old  courthouse  sold. 

1833 — March — Dayton  established  by  Act  of  Assembly. 

1834— Valley  Turnpike  Company  authorized  to  construct  toll 
road  from  Winchester  to  Harrisonburg. 

1835 — February — Bridgewater  established  by  Act  of  Assem- 

1839-40— Extraordinary  snows  in  Rockingham  County. 

1840— December  19— Joseph  Salyards  advertises  the  resump- 
tion of  school  at  McGaheysville. 

1844— Sons  of  Temperance  organize  at  Harrisonburg. 

1844— Liberty  Springs  Company  buys  land. 

1847— Joseph  Funk  and  Sons  open  printing  office  at  Mountain 

1847— October  5 — Cyclone  near  Friedens  Church. 

1848— Mt.  Vernon  Furnace  in  Brown's  Gap  built. 

1850— Rockingham  Parish  reorganized  and  put  in  charge  of 
Rev.  James  B.  Goodwyn. 

1850— Death  of  Judge  Daniel  Smith. 

1858— Jed    Hotchkiss  publishes  description    of    Northwest 

1861— Dunker  Annual  meeting  held  in  Rockingham. 

1861— October— Girls'  school  at  Harrisonburg  turned  into  a 
Confederate  hospital. 

1862— May  8— Col.  S.  B.  Gibbons  killed  at  McDowell. 

1862 — June  6 — Gen.  Turner  Ashby  killed  near  Harrisonburg. 

1862— June  8- Battle  of  Cross  Keys. 

1862— June  9— Battle  of  Port  Republic. 

1862— December  24 — Joseph  Funk  dies  at  Singer's  Glen. 

1864— May  5— Col.  E.  T.  H.  Warren  and  Maj.  I.  G.  Coffman 
killed  in  the  Wilderness. 



1864 — June  15 — John  Kline  killed  in  Rockingham. 

1866 — John  W.  Taylor  begins  teaching  at  Lacey  Springs. 

1866 — School  for  colored  children  organized  in  Harrisonburg 
by  Misses  Martha  Smith  and  Phoeby  Libby,  of 
Augusta,  Maine. 

1868 — February — Lutheran  Church  in  Harrisonburg  rededi- 

1868 — July  13 — Old  Waterman  home  near  Harrisonburg  burns. 

1868 — Thurman  movement  in  Rockingham  culminates, 

1869 — Rockingham  Home  Mutual  Fire  Insurance  Company 

1869 — First  railroad  opened  to  Harrisonburg. 

1869 — New  stage  line  opened  from  Harrisonburg  to  Shenan- 
doah Iron  Works. 

1870 — January — Musical  Million  established  at  Singer's  Glen. 

1870 — January — Navigation  opened  on  Shenandoah  River  in 
Brock's  Gap. 

1870— October — Destructive  Floods. 

1870 — December  25 — Destructive  fire  in  Harrisonburg,  south 
side  of  Public  Square. 

1871— Harrisonburg  graded  school  organized  under  new  public 
school  system — J.  S.  Loose,  principal. 

1871 — U.  S.  District  Court  located  at  Harrisonburg. 

1872 — January  6 — West  Rockingham  Mutual  Fire  Insurance 
Company  organized. 

1872 — April — Redivision  of  Rockingham  County  into  5  town- 

1872 — John  Cover  builds  tannery  near  Conrad's  Store. 

1873 — September  29 — Valley  Normal  School  at  Bridgewater 

1874 — March — First  train  over  Valley  Railroad  from  Harrison- 
burg to  Staunton. 

1874 — November — Grading  on  Narrow  Gauge  completed  from 
Harrisonburg  to  Bridgewater. 

1874 — Third  Court  House  erected. 

1875 — Shenandoah  Collegiate  Institute  at  Dayton  founded. 



1876 — May — Catholic  church  in  Harrisonburg  consecrated. 

1876— Monument  to  soldiers  erected  in  Woodbine  Cemetery  by 
Ladies'  Memorial  Association. 

1877 — November — Destructive  floods. 

1878 — Ruebush-Kieffer  printing  house  moved  to  Dayton. 

1879 — June— Dunker  Annual  Meeting  at  Broadway. 

1879 — August-September — Sidney  Lanier  at  Rockingham 

1879 — New  Market  Endless  Caverns  discovered. 

1880 — Bridgewater  College  started  at  Spring  Creek. 

1880 — March — Broadway  established  by  Act  of  Assembly. 

1881 — April  18 — First  through  trains  from  Hagerstown  to 
Waynesboro  on  Norfolk  &  Western  Railway. 

1881 — September — A.  C.  Kimler  begins  teaching  at  McGah- 

1881— A.  S.  Kieffer  publishes  "Hours  of  Fancy." 

1885 — Lake's  Atlas  of  Rockingham  County  published. 

1885— G.  F.  Compton  begins  history  of  Rockingham  in  the 

1887 — Shenandoah  Normal  College  located  at  Harrisonburg. 

1889 — Dunker  Annual  Meeting  at  Harrisonburg. 

1892 — February — Shendun  established  by  Act  of  Assembly. 

1892— March  1— Old  Folks'  Home  at  Timberville  opened. 

1892 — Harrisonburg  synagogue  dedicated. 

1892 — Emma  Lyon  Bryan  publishes  "A  Romance  of  the 

1893 — Massanutta  Cave,  near  Keezletown,  discovered. 

1894 — February— Timberville  established  by  Act  of  Assembly. 

1895 — July  31 — Chesapeake  &  Western  Railway  completed  to 

1895 — September  13 — C.  &  W.  Railway  completed  to  Bridge- 

1897 — Fourth  Court  House  erected. 

1897 — Cross  Keys  Home  Mutual  Fire  Insurance  Company  or- 

1898 — New  water   system  for  Harrisonburg  put  in  operation. 

1898 — Harrisonburg  Daily  News  established. 



1899 — April  18 — Valley  Telephone  Company  absorbed  by  the 
Rockingham  Mutual  System. 

1899 — May  20 — President  McKinley  in  Harrisonburg-. 

1899 — July  1— Rockingham  County  Medical  Association  or- 

1903— Nettie  Gray  Daingerfield  publishes  "That  Dear  Old 

1905 — Harrisonburg  Daily  Times  established, 

1906 — April — Fravel  Sash  and  Door  Company  moved  to  Har- 

1906— J.  C.  Paxton  builds  lime  kiln  at  Linville. 

1907— J.  W.  Wayland  publishes  the  "German  Element  of  the 
Shenandoah  Valley  of  Virginia. ' ' 

1911 — Harrisonburg  and  Rockingham  County  adopted  com- 
pulsory education  law. 

1908— March— Elkton  incorporated, 

1909— June — Great  Dunker  Annual  Meeting  at  Harrisonburg. 

1909 — September — State  Normal  School  at  Harrisonburg 

1911 — Waterman  School  opened. 

1911 — Rockingham  Memorial  Hospital  built, 

1911 — L,  J,  Heatwole  publishes  his  perpetual  calendar. 

1911 — Rockingham  Daily  Record  established, 

1912 — Legislature  changes  the  name  of  Shendun  to  Grottoes. 

1912— State  Sunday-School  convention  held  in  Harrisonburg. 

1912— E.  U.  Hoenshel  publishes  the  "Crimson  Trail." 


Rockingham  County,  Virginia,  extends  from  the  Blue 
Ridge  on  the  southeast  entirely  across  the  great  valley  to  the 
first  Alleghany  ranges  on  the  northwest,  and  has  an  area  of  870 
square  miles.  Only  two  counties  in  the  State,  Augusta  and 
Pittsylvania,  are  larger.  Excepting  a  great  notch,  cut  out  of 
the  east  corner  in  1831  in  the  formation  of  Page  County, 
Rockingham  is  nearly  a  square,  and  lies  on  the  map  as  if  its 
corners  were  approaching  the  cardinal  points  of  the  compass 
in  a  right-hand  turn.  The  corner  farthest  north  extends 
nearly  up  to  the  39th  parallel  of  latitude,  the  south  corner  be- 
ing almost  as  near  to  the  [38th.  As  to  longitude,  the  79th 
meridian  cuts  it  almost  in  half. 

A  line  drawn  due  east  from  the  north  corner  of  Rock- 
ingham, and  measured  in  that  course  107  miles,  would  end  in 
sight  of  the  Washington  Monument,  on  the  south  side  to- 
wards Alexandria.  One  drawn  southeastward  from  the  south 
corner,  and  measured  87  miles,  would  end  at  a  point  near 
enough  to  Manchester  and  Richmond  to  be  in  sound  of  the 
chiming  bells  in  those  cities  beside  the  James. 

The  northeastern  half  of  the  great  valley  of  Virginia,  com- 
prising now  the  ten  counties  of  Augusta,  Rockingham,  Page, 
Shenandoah,  Warren,  Frederick,  Clark,  Jefferson,  Berkeley, 
and  Morgan  (the  last  three  being  in  West  Virginia),  may 
properly  be  termed  the  Shenandoah  Valley,  since  it  is  drained 
into  the  Potomac  by  the  Shenandoah  River  through  its  sev- 
eral branches.  Prior  to  the  year  1738  the  entire  Shenandoah 
Valley,  with  much  more  territory  west  and  southwest,  was  a 
part  of  Orange  County.  In  1738  it  was  cut  off  from  Orange, 
and  divided  into  two  counties,  Frederick  and  Augusta.  In 
1777  a  large  part  of  Augusta  was  cut  off  and  erected  into 


the  county  of  Rockingham.  These  successive  steps  are 
shown  in  detail  by  the  following  copies  of  the  respective  Acts 
of  Assembly  authorizing  them: 

An  act  (passed  November  1738),  for  erecting  two  neiv  Counties  and 
Parishes;  and  granting  certain  encouragements  to  the  Inhabitants  thereof. 

I.  Whereas,  great  numbers  of  people  have  settled  themselves  of 
late,  upon  the  rivers  of  Sherrando,  Cohongoruton,  and  Opeckon,  and  the 
branches  thereof,  on  the  north-west  side  of  the  Blue  Ridge  of  mountains, 
whereby  the  strength  of  this  colony,  and  it's  security  upon  the  frontiers, 
and  his  majesty's  revenue  of  quit-rents,  are  like  to  be  much  increased 
and  augmented;  For  giving  encouragement  to  such  as  shall  think  fit  to 
settle  there, 

II.  Be  it  enacted,  by  the  Lieutenant  Governor,  Council,  Burgesses, 
of  this  present  General  Assembly,  and  it  is  hereby  enacted,  by  the 
authority  of  the  same.  That  all  that  territory  and  tract  of  land, 
at  present  deemed  to  be  part  of  the  County  of  Orange,  lying 
on  the  north  west  side  of  the  top  of  the  said  mountains,  extend- 
ing from  thence  northerly,  westerly,  and  southerly,  beyond  the 
said  mountains,  to  the  utmost  limits  of  Virginia,  be  separated 
from  the  rest  of  the  said  county,  and  erected  into  two  distinct  counties  and 
parishes;  to  be  divided  by  a  line  to  be  run  from  the  head  spring  of  Hedg- 
man  river  i  to  the  head  spring  of  the  river  Potowmack:  And  that  all  that 
part  of  the  said  territory,  lying  to  the  northeast  of  the  said  line,  beyond 
the  top  of  the  said  Blue  Ridge,  shall  be  one  distinct  county,  and  parish;  to 
be  called  by  the  name  of  the  county  of  Frederick,  and  parish  of  Frederick : 
And  that  the  rest  of  the  said  territory,  lying  on  the  other  side  of  the  said 
line,  beyond  the  top  of  the  said  Blue  Ridge,  shall  be  one  other  distinct 
county,  and  parish;  to  be  called  by  the  name  of  the  county  of  Augusta, 
and  parish  of  Augusta.  3 

An  Act  (passed  October  1777)  for  forming  several  netv  counties,  and 
rejorming  the  boundaries  of  two  others. 

Whereas  it  is  represented  to  this  present  session  of  assembly,  by  the 
inhabitants  of  Augusta  and  Botetourt  counties,  that  they  labour  under 
many  inconveniences  by  reason  of  the  great  extent  of  the  said  counties  and 
parishes:  Be  it  therefore  enacted  by  the  General  Assembly,  That  from  and 
after  the  first  day  of  March  next  the  said  county  and  parish  of  Augusta 
shall  be  divided  by  a  line  beginning  at  the  north  side  of  the  North  Moun- 
tain, opposite  to  the  upper  end  of  Sweedland  Hill,  and  running  a  direct 
course  so  as  to  strike  the  mouth  of  Seneca  creek,  on  the  north  fork  of  the 

1-    Hedgman   River  must  be  what  is  now  called  Conway  River, 
forming  part  of  the  line  between  the  counties  of  Madison  and  Greene. 
2.    Hening's  Statutes,  Vol.  5,  pp.  78,  79. 




From  Actual  Survey.  for  D.  J.  LAKE  U  CO, 


Scaie  about  4  miles  to  an  inch. 

I        II       V     A-       W      A       I.       J, 



south  branch  of  Potowmack  river,  and  the  same  course  to  be  continued 
to  the  Alleghany  mountain,  thence  along  the  said  mountain  to  the  line  of 
Hampshire  county;  and  all  that  part  of  the  said  county  and  parish  of 
Augusta  which  lies  to  the  northward  of  the  said  line  shall  be  added  to 
and  made  part  of  the  said  county  and  p<irish  of  Hampshire.  And  that  the 
residue  of  the  county  and  parish  of  Augusta  be  divided  by  a  line  to  begin 
at  the  South  Mountain  (Blue  Ridge),  and  running  thence  by  Benjamin 
Yardley's  plantation  so  as  to  strike  the  north  river  below  James  Byrd's 
house,  thence  up  the  said  river  to  the  mouth  of  Naked  creek,  thence 
leaving  the  river  a  direct  course  so  as  to  cross  the  said  river  at  the  mouth 
of  Cunningham's  branch,  in  the  upper  end  of  Silas  Hart's  land,  to  the 
foot  of  the  North  Mountain,  thence  fifty-five  degrees  west  to  the  Alle- 
ghany Mountain,  and  with  the  same  to  the  line  of  Hampshire;  and  all 
that  part  which  lies  north  eastward  of  the  said  line  shall  be  one  distinct 
parish  (county  and  parish),  called  and  known  by  the  name  of  Rocking- 
ham. 3 

Other  parts  of  the  same  Act  establish  the  counties  of 
Green  Brier  and  Rockbridge;  fix  the  fourth  Monday  of  e very- 
month  as  court  day  for  Rockingham,  the  first  session  to  be 
held  at  the  house  of  Daniel  Smith;  establish  the  town  of  Lex- 
ington; change  the  name  of  Dunmore  County  to  Shanando,  etc. 

As  at  first  constituted  in  1777,  Rockingham  County  em- 
braced the  greater  part  of  what  is  now  Pendleton  County, 
W.  Va.,  and  about  a  third  part  of  what  is  now  Page  County, 
Va.  Pendleton  County  was  established  in  1787:  this  trans- 
ferred the  northwest  boundary  of  Rockingham  some  25  miles 
southeastward— that  is,  from  the  Alleghany  Mountain  to  its 
present  position  on  the  Shenandoah  Mountain.  Page  County 
was  established  in  1831:  this  cut  out  from  the  east  corner  of 
Rockingham  the  big  notch  already  mentioned. 

The  present  boundaries  of  Rockingham  may  be  indicated 
as  follows:  Beginning  at  the  south  corner,  at  a  point  on  top 
of  the  Blue  Ridge  above  Black  Rock  Springs,  draw  a  line, 
straight  throughout  the  greater  part  of  its  course,  N.  about 
55  degrees  W.,  some  32  miles  to  the  top  of  Shenandoah  Moun- 
tain; this  gives  the  southwest  boundary,  separating  from 
Augusta  County;   turn  north  about  30  degrees  east,  and  fol- 

3.     Hening's  Statutes,  volume  9,  pp.  420-424. 


low  the  top  ridge  of  the  Shenandoah  Mountain  some  30  miles, 
to  a  point  opposite  Peru,  in  Hardy  County,  W.  Va. ;  this  gives 
the  northwest  boundary,  separating  from  Pendleton  and 
Hardy;  turn  south  about  50  degrees  east,  and  measure  a 
straight  course  some  26  miles  to  the  top  of  Massanutten 
Mountain,  above  New  Market;  this  gives  the  northeast  bound- 
ary, separating  from  Hardy  and  Shenandoah.  This  is  part  of 
the  original  line  between  Frederick  and  Augusta,  and  is  fre- 
quently called  the  Fairfax  Line,  since  it  marks  the  southwest 
limit  of  the  famous  Northern  Neck,  as  claimed  by  Thomas 
Lord  Fairfax.  Turn  now  southwest  and  follow  the  crest  of 
the  Massanutten  Mountain  some  9  miles,  then  turn  south- 
east and  go  about  12  miles  to  the  top  of  the  Blue  Ridge,  be- 
tween Elkton  and  Shenandoah  City;  this  gives  the  boundary 
about  the  notch,  separating  from  Page  County;  finally,  turn 
southwestward  and  follow  the  crest  of  the  Blue  Ridge  about 
20  miles  to  the  beginning,  above  Black  Rock;  this  gives  the 
southeast  boundary,  separating  from  Greene  and  Albemarle. 
The  boundary  line  of  Rockingham  around  the  notch  is 
given  more  specifically  in  the  Act  of  1831,  creating  Page 
County,  as  follows: 

Beginning  at  a  point  in  the  line  of  the  counties  of  Rockingham  and 
Orange,  on  the  top  of  the  Blue  Ridge,  opposite  to  the  head  waters  of 
Naked  creek,  in  the  county  of  Rockingham;  thence,  a  straight  line  to  the 
head  waters  of  said  creek;  thence,  with  the  meanderings  of  said  creek,  to 
its  junction  with  the  South  river;  thence,  down  the  bed  of  said  river,  to 
the  upper  end  of  Michael  Shuler's  island;  thence,  a  straight  line  to  the 
mouth  of  Shuler's  run;  thence,  with  the  main  branch  of  said  run,  to  its 
source;  thence,  a  straight  line,  to  the  top  of  the  Massanutten  mountain; 
thence,  with  the  top  of  said  mountain,  .  .  . 

The  boundary  line  between  Rockingham  and  Augusta 
was  described  in  an  address  delivered  October  15,  1896,  by 
Judge  John  Paul,  as  follows: 

Beginning  at  the  South  Mountain  (Blue  Ridge),  thence  by  a  direct 
line  past  Benjamin  Yardley's  plantation  (now  Mohler's)  so  as  to  strike 
North  River  below  James  Byrd's  house  (James  Beard  is  the  way  it  is  now 
spelled).  The  point  is  at  Diehl's  ford,  about  one  mile  and  a  half  above 
the  junction  of  Middle  and  North  rivers.     Thence  up  North  River  to  the 



mouth  of  Naked  Creek;  thence  by  a  direct  line  so  as  to  cross  North  River 
at  the  mouth  of  Cunningham's  branch  (now  Thorn  Run).  This  point  is 
at  Mr.  Sanger's  house.  Thence,  same  course,  to  the  foot  of  North  Moun- 

It  will  be  observed  from  the  foregoing  statements  that 
two  streams  by  the  name  of  Naked  Creek  appear  in  the  geog- 
raphy of  Rockingham.  One  of  these  heads  in  Augusta 
County,  and  forms  a  small  part  of  the  boundary  line  between 
the  two  counties,  near  Mt.  Crawford;  the  other  heads  in 
Page  County,  and  forms  several  miles  of  the  boundary  be- 
tween that  county  and  Rockingham,  in  the  vicinity  of  Shen- 
andoah City.  Wholly  within  the  county  are  two  streams 
with  the  name  of  Dry  River.  Both  head  around  the  bases 
of  Tomahawk  Mountain,  near  the  Pendleton  line.  One  flows 
northeast  and  becomes  part  of  the  North  Fork  of  the  Shen- 
andoah River  at  Fulk's  Run;  the  other  flows  southeast  and 
unites  with  North  River  at  Bridgewater. 

The  most  conspicuous,  and  perhaps  the  most  wonderful, 
feature  in  the  physical  geography  of  Rockingham  is  the  south- 
west promontory  of  the  Massanutten,  known  as  Peaked 
Mountain,  or  the  Peak.  Rising  gradually  to  a  great  height, 
it  juts  out  into  the  wide  valley,  then  sinks  down  into  the 
plain  as  completely  and  almost  as  abruptly  as  the  rock  of 
Gibraltar  into  the  sea.  From  the  east  side  it  presents  an  ap- 
pearance that  strongly  reminds  one  of  Gibraltar. 

The  view  from  the  Peak  is  one  of  the  finest  in  the  world. 
Behind  one  is  the  great  hollow  in  the  Peak  itself,  know  as 
the  Kettle;  and  beyond  it  are  the  triple  ridges  of  the  range, 
flanked  on  the  west  by  the  towering  bulk  of  Laird's  Knob. 
To  the  east  is  the  billowy  outline  of  the  Blue  Ridge;  far  to  the 
west  are  the  first  ranges  of  the  Alleghanies;  halfway  between 
the  Peak  and  Harrisonburg  is  the  long,  wooded  range  of  hills 
known  as  Chestnut  Ridge;  and  farther  back,  thrown  around 
the  Peak  in  a  great  semicircle,  are  the  seven  huge,  wooded 
cones  that  rise  out  of  the  plain  to  a  height  varying  from  300 
to  500  feet:  Green  Hill,  beyond  Linville;  Round  Hill,  near 
Singer's  Glen;  Mole  Hill,  at  Dale  Enterprise;  Round  Hill,  at 



Bridgewater;  Wise's  Hill,  above  Mt  Crawford;  Shaver's  Hill, 
near  Friedens;  and  Long's  Hill,  toward  Port  Republic. 

Beyond  Green  Hill,  the  North  Fork  of  the  Shenandoah 
River  comes  out  of  the  Alleghanies,  through  Brock's  Gap; 
is  joined  by  Linville  Creek  at  Broadv/ay;  flows  on  past  Tim- 
berville;  and,  after  receiving  the  waters  of  Long  Glade  Run, 
Smith's  Creek,  and  other  Rockingham  streams,  continues  its 
meandering  course  down  the  Valley,  west  of  the  Massanutten 

Beyond  Round  Hill  at  Bridgewater,  North  River  comes 
out  of  the  Alleghanies,  through  Briery  Branch  Gap  and  other 
gaps;  is  joined  on  its  way  by  Dry  River,  Cook's  Creek,  Naked 
Creek,  and  many  other  streams;  combines  with  Middle  River 
near  Mt.  Meridian,  on  the  line  between  Rockingham  and 
Augusta;  then  receives  the  v/atersof  South  River  at  Port  Re- 
public. Here  it  surrenders  its  name,  the  big  stream  from 
Port  Republic  on  being  called  the  South  Fork  of  the  Shenan- 
doah River.  This,  having  swept  down  between  the  Blue 
Ridge  and  the  Massanutten  Peak,  and  having  been  aug- 
mented by  Cub  Run,  Madison  Run,  Elk  Run,  and  other  Rock- 
ingham streams,  continues  down  the  Valley,  east  of  the  Mas- 
sanutten Mountain,  uniting  with  the  North  Fork  of  the  Shen- 
andoah River  fifty  miles  below,  at  the  northeast  end  of  the 
Massanutten  range. 

Rockingham  County  is  divided  into  five  magisterial  dis- 
tricts, namely,  Ashby,  Central,  Linville,  Plains,  and  Stone- 
wall. The  first  is  named  for  the  great  cavalry  leader  who 
fell,  in  1862,  just  outside  of  Harrisonburg;  the  second  is 
named  from  its  position;  the  third  bears  the  name  of  the 
creek  that  drains  its  fertile  vales;  the  fourth  has  adopted  the 
distinguishing  term  that  has  long  been  applied  to  the  broad, 
level  bottoms  that  skirt  the  North  Fork  of  the  Shenandoah 
between  Timberville  and  New  Market;  and  the  fifth,  with 
much  appropriateness,  is  named  for  the  hero  of  First  Man- 
assas, of  Second  Manassas,  and  of  Port  Republic.  It  was  in 
Stonewall  District,  of  Rockingham  County,  that  Stonewall 
Jackson  began  and  ended  his  brilliant  Valley  Campaign. 



Of  these  five  districts,  Plains  is  the  largest.  Its  western 
half  is  the  famous  Brock's  Gap  country.  In  1858,  Jed  Hotch- 
kiss,  a  few  years  later  renowned  as  Stonewall  Jackson's  chief 
topographical  engineer,  wrote  of  this  country  as  follows: 

"The  region  of  Brock's  Gap,  inside,  is  large  enough  for  a 
county  by  itself.  I  was  not  prepared  to  find  as  large  a  stream 
of  water  there  as  we  did  find,  nor  so  much  romantic  scenery. 
All  'Germany'  is  inside,  and  it  is  some  ways  from  the  Gap." 

The  sturdy  German  race  prevails  all  over  Rockingham, 
particularly  so,  it  seems,  in  the  Brock's  Gap  country;  hence 
the  expression  just  quoted.  In  years  past  the  region  was 
frequently  styled  "Little  Germany";  and  one  of  the  streams 
that  drain  it  is  called  German  River. 

There  has  been  a  good  deal  of  interesting  speculation  as 
to  how  Brock's  Gap  got  its  name.  One  tradition  is  to  the 
effect  that  "General  Brock,"  while  on  his  way  to  relieve 
Fort  Seybert,  camped  in  the  Gap,  and  thus  gave  it  his  name. 
If  there  was  a  General  Brock  in  the  Gap  at  the  time  referred 
to,  it  evidently  was  not  the  "Hero  of  Upper  Canada."  Fort 
Seybert  was  destroyed  in  1758,  and  the  general  just  desig- 
nated was  not  born  till  1769.  It  is  most  likely  that  the  name 
was  received  from  some  resident  of  the  Gap.  In  1748,  as  the 
Augusta  County  records  show,  Daniel  Holman  and  Peter 
Gartner  became  guardians  for  Julia,  George,  and  Elsie  Brock, 
orphans  of  Rudolph  Brock,  deceased.  This  shows  that  there 
were  Brocks  in  this  part  of  the  Valley  at  a  very  early  date. 
In  1752,  as  shown  by  the  same  records,  Christian  Funkhousa 
and  Henry  Brock  sold  to  Jacob  Bare  400  acres  of  land  '  'on  ye 
south  fork  of  the  North  River  of  Shanando  above  the  gap  in 
ye  mountain."  The  property  was  warranted  specially 
against  John  P.  Brock  and  his  heirs.  The  witnesses  were 
Peter  Scholl,  Samuel  Newman,  and  John  Bare.  This  seems 
to  shov/  conclusively  that  the  Brock  name  was  familiar  in 
the  Gap  as  early  as  1752,  or  earlier. 

With  this  brief  outline  of  the  geography  of  Rockingham 
County,  let  us  proceed  to  the  following  chapters,  in  which, 
under  the  various  heads,  will  be  found  many  other  facts  that 
might  properly  be  included  here. 




JUSTUS  H.  CLINE,  M.  A., 

Assistant   Geologist,  Virginia  State  Geological  Survey. 

On  the  basis  of  both  geological  and  physiographic  features 
the  state  of  Virginia  is  divided  into  three  great  provinces: 
the  Coastal  Plain  on  the  east,  the  Piedmont  Plateau  in  the 
central  part,  and  the  Appalachian  Mountain  province  on  the 
w^est.  Rockingham  County  lies  entirely  within  the  latter 

The  Appalachian  Mountain  province  is  further  divided 
into  three  sub-provinces,  each  of  which  shows  more  or  less 
marked  differences  in  the  topographic  types  represented,  the 
Old  Appalachians,  or  Blue  Ridge,  on  the  east;  the  Great  Val- 
ley, in  the  centre;  and  the  New  Appalachians,  or  Alleghany 
Ridges,  on  the  west.  Each  of  the  three  subdivisions  is  well 
represented  within  the  borders  of  the  county. 

The  topography  of  the  county,  in  keeping  with  that  of 
the  Appalachian  Mountain  province  in  general,  is  varied  and 
picturesque;  and  with  the  exception  of  the  main  part  of  the 
Blue  Ridge  may  be  defined  as  the  parallel  ridge  and  valley 
type;  the  ridges  being  generally  parallel  with  each  other  and 
extending  in  a  northeast  and  southwest  direction,  in  keeping 
with  the  strike  of  the  underlying  rock-structure. 

The  Blue  Ridge,  which  forms  the  eastern  boundary  of 
the  county,  is  distinct  topographically  from  the  rest  of  the 
area  in  that  it  presents  an  uneven  and  knobby  crest,  and 
shows  an  absence  of  the  parallel  ridge  type  in  its  main  part, 
which  is  so  well  developed  both  in  the  valley  and  the  ridges 
to  the  west.  The  foothills,  or  lower  ridges,  which  flank  the 
Blue  Ridge  on  its  western  slope,  being  made  up  of  rocks  sim- 
ilar both  in  origin  and  structure  to  those  of  the  west,  partake 


more  nearly  of  their  topographic  characters  and  really  belong 
to  the  New  Appalachian  type.  The  highest  point  in  the  Blue 
Ridge  in  Rockingham  County  is  High  Knob,  which  attains  an 
elevation  of  over  3600  feet  above  sea  level. 

The  Shenandoah  Valley  province,  which  makes  up  the 
greater  part  of  Rockingham  County,  when  viewed  from  an 
elevation  appears  as  a  broad,  undulating  plain,  traversed  by 
a  series  of  low  ridges  which  barely  appear  above  it.  In  these 
ridges  the  cherty  beds  of  limestone,  which  are  more  resistant 
than  the  surrounding  rocks,  have  given  rise  to  a  series  of 
round,  conical  hills  which  dot  the  landscape  at  intervals  of  a 
few  miles,  and  have  an  elevation  of  from  two  hundred  to 
three  hundred  feet  above  the  plain.  Good  examples  of  these 
are  Round  Hill  near  Bridgewater  and  Mole  Hill  near  Dayton. 
The  Shenandoah  plain  slopes  gently  toward  the  southwest 
as  a  rule  and  attains  an  elevation  of  about  1500  feet  at  Har- 
risonburg. The  most  conspicuous  feature  of  the  Valley 
province  within  the  county  is  the  Massanutten  Mountain, 
which  divides  the  northern  part  into  two  unequal  divisions. 
This  peculiar  mountain,  while  only  within  a  few  miles  of  the 
Blue  Ridge  and  parallel  with  it,  shows  no  geological  kinship 
with  it,  for  it  is  in  reality  an  outlier  of  the  New  Appalachian 
ridges  about  eighteen  miles  to  the  west.  The  mountain  ends 
abruptly  in  a  fine  peak  which  is  locally  known  as  Peaked 
Mountain,  2900  feet  above  the  sea.  Laird's  Knob,  a  few 
miles  northward,  attains  an  elevation  of  more  than  3400  feet. 
The  topography  of  the  Massanutten  Mountain  is  identical 
with  that  of  the  Alleghany  ridges. 

The  Alleghany  ridges  and  valleys  embrace  the  western 
third  of  the  county.  These  ridges  show  a  more  or  less  even 
Crestline,  and  are  arranged  with  a  decided  parallelism.  The 
most  elevated  part  of  the  county  is  within  this  province. 
High  Knob  in  the  Shenandoah  Mountain  has  an  elevation 
slightly  more  than  4200  feet.  Practically  all  types  of  ridges 
found  in  an  eroded  region  of  folded  sedimentary  rocks  occur 
here:  the  monoclinal,  anticlinal,  and  synclinal.  These  ridges 
are  frequently  cut  by  gaps  through  which  streams  are  now 



flowing  or  have  flowed  in  a  former  period.     The  valleys  be- 
tween the  ridges  are  narrow. 

The  drainage  of  Rockingham  county  belongs  entirely  to  the 
Shenandoah  system.  The  two  master  streams  are  the  North 
Fork,  which  flows  west  of  the  Massanutten  Mountain,  and 
the  main  part  of  the  Shenandoah,  which  flows  through  the 
Page  valley  east  of  the  same  mountain.  These  streams  and 
their  tributaries  have  cut  the  Shenandoah  plain  into  a  deep 
intaglio,  and  they  now  flow  in  channels  from  100  to  300  feet 
below  it.  The  streams  of  the  county  have  for  the  most  part 
adjusted  themselves  to  the  underlying  structural  conditions, 
and  consequently  they  tend  to  flow  in  a  northeasterly  direction. 
The  chief  exception  to  this  is  the  North  River,  which  flows 
eastward  near  the  southern  border  of  the  county.  This 
stream,  instead  of  flowing  parallel  with  the  strike  of  the  rock 
formations,  takes  a  course  at  right  angles  to  the  strike  and 
maintains  it  till  its  influx  with  the  main  Shenandoah  near  the 
foot  of  the  Blue  Ridge.  This  is  explained  by  the  fact  that  its 
course  antedates  the  folding  of  the  rock  strata  which  has  oc- 
curred in  the  Appalachian  province.  The  county  is  exceed- 
ingly well  watered,  and  springs  of  large  size  are  frequent. 

The  rocks  of  the  county  fall  under  the  two  great  lithologic 
types,  igneous  and  sedimentary.  Both  types  occur  in  all 
three  of  the  sub-provinces.  It  is  understood  that  igneous 
rocks  are  those  which  have  solidified  from  a  molten  condition, 
while  the  sedimentaries  are  those  which  are  composed  of 
material  derived  from  the  waste  of  land  and  redeposited  in 
the  form  of  mud,  sand,  gravel,  chemical  precipitants,  etc. , 
chiefly  in  lakes  and  seas. 

The  only  dominantly  igneous  area  in  the  county  is  the 
main  part  of  the  Blue  Ridge.  The  formations  of  the  rest  of  the 
county  are  sedimentary,  with  very  minor  exceptions.  Cer- 
tainly less  than  one  per  cent,  of  the  rocks  of  the  county  which 
outcrop  at  the  surface  are  of  igneous  origin,  and  all  these 
with  the  few  noted  exceptions  are  entirely  in  the  Blue  Ridge. 

The  igneous  rocks  of  the  Blue  Ridge  in  Rockingham 
County  are  of  the  basaltic  type,  which  represent  material 





Mississippi  an      --'?^§"f*^^ 


»aKC<t1bne,  an  J 
t'rlin   beds  ft 

and  Si-scU 


Geological  Map  of  Rockingham  County 


thrown  out  on  the  surface  by  the  extrusive  action  of  ancient 
volcanoes.  The  material  in  its  original  form  was  dark  or  al- 
most black  in  color,  but  subsequent  alterations  and  metamor- 
phic  changes  have  usually  converted  it  into  rock  varying  in 
color  from  a  dark  bluish-green  to  a  light  green,  dependent  on 
the  secondary  mineralogical  constituents.  Where  these  min- 
erals are  secondary  amphibole  and  chlorite  the  rock  is  bluish 
green  in  color;  and  where  epidote  is  the  dominant  altera- 
tion product  the  color  is  light  green.  There  are  all  grada- 
tions between  these  different  colors  depending  on  the  propor- 
tions of  these  minerals.  Originally  the  essential  minerals 
which  made  up  the  basalt  was  plagioclase  feldspar,  magne- 
tite, and  pyroxene,  but  subsequent  alterations  have  almost  en- 
tirely broken  down  the  original  mineral  components  giving 
rise  chiefly  to  the  three  above  mentioned,  so  that  at 
present  the  rock  may  properly  be  termed  an  epidosite  where 
the  dominant  mineral  is  epidote,  an  amphibolite  where  the 
dominant  mineral  is  amphibole,  and  a  chlorite-schist  where  the 
dominant  mineral  is  chlorite.  For  all  practical  purposes  the 
tv/o  latter  types  may  rightly  be  thrown  together  and  termed 
amphibolite-chlorite  schists.  The  general  name  for  this  ba- 
saltic formation  wherever  it  occurs  in  the  Blue  Ridge  and  the 
Piedmont  plateau  is  Catoctin  Schist,  so  called  because  it 
usually  presents  a  slaty  or  schistose  structure,  induced  by  the 
folding  of  the  earth's  crust  and  the  development  of  the  sec- 
ondary minerals  contingent  upon  such  conditions.  The  rock 
frequently  shows  material  picked  up  by  the  liquid  lava  streams 
as  they  flowed  over  the  ancient  land  surface  covered  with  the 
material  of  older  flows;  and  gas  bubbles,  or  amugdules,  are 
common  in  the  upper  surfaces.  These  cavities  have  since 
been  filled  by  percolating  waters  carrying  mineral  matter  in 
solution,  the  resulting  minerals  being  usually  epidote,  calcite, 
and  quartz.  It  is  within  the  Catoctin  Schist  that  the  copper 
deposits  of  the  Blue  Ridge  occur.  The  rock  has  been  as- 
signed to  the  Algonkian  Period  and  is  therefore  one  of  the 
oldest  formations  occurring  in  the  state,  and  certainly  the 
oldest  in  the  county. 



^»reb  Cbanh 



Late  investigations  have  revealed 
that  igneous  rocks  also  occur  in  the 
county  within  the  Valley  province, 
in  limited  quantity,  in  the  form  of 
dikes.  These  rocks  outcrop  in  the 
vicinity  of  Cross  Keys  and  at  intervals 
entirely  across  the  county;  the  most 
westerly  outcrop  reported  being  in  the 
vicinity  of  Brock's  Gap.  A  character- 
istic exposure  of  these  rocks  is  found 
near  Harrisonburg,  where  the  road 
leading  from  Harrisonburg  to  Keezle- 
town  crosses  the  Chesapeake  -  Wes- 
tern Railway  tracks.  The  rock  is 
of  dark  color  and  medium  to  fine 
grained.  It  weathers  to  rounded  boul- 
ders, which  are  broken  only  with  great 
difficulty.  It  is  a  typical  diabase  and 
is  composed  of  the  minerals  magnetite, 
augite,  olivine,  and  plagioclase  feld- 
spar as  essential  ingredients.  The  rock 
is  comparatively  fresh,  and  is  prob- 
ably the  youngest  of  the  rock  forma- 
tions in  the  county,  having  been  forced 
while  in  a  molten  condition  into  the 
fissures  of  the  limestone  and  shale 
formations  of  the  mountains.  While 
the  exact  age  of  the  rock  cannot  be  de- 
termined, on  lithological  grounds  it 
may  be  assigned  to  the  Triassic.  ^  The 
rock,  owing  to  its  high  lime  and  iron 
content,  makes  road  material  of  the 
first  quality,  since  it  has  the  necessary 
ingredients  to  bind  and  is  far  superior 
to  limestone  in  lasting  qualities. 

The  sedimentary  rocks  of  the  county 
present  every  phase  of  sedimentary 

1-  Thos.  L.  Watson  and  Justus  H.  Cline, 
"Dikes  of  the  ShenandoahValley, "  in  prepa- 


possibilities,  and  rocks  of  every  age  occur  from  the  beginning' 
of  the  Cambrian  to  the  Lower  Coal  period.  Starting  with 
the  oldest  rocks  of  this  type  in  the  county  we  find  sandstones, 
which  are  frequently  conglomeritic,  and  shales  of  Cambrian 
age  making  up  the  foothills  or  lower  ridges  which  flank  the  Blue 
Ridge  on  its  western  slope.  This  formation  rests  on  the  Catoc- 
tin  Schist  as  a  base  and  the  material  of  which  they  are  com- 
posed was  probably  derived  from  it  and  from  other  igneous  and 
sedimentary  formations  to  the  east  of  the  Blue  Ridge.  The 
thickness  of  the  Cambrian  sandstone  and  shale  formation  may 
be  estimated  at  from  2000  to  3000  feet.  The  lower  part  of  the 
formation  is  dominantly  sandstone,  and  the  upper  part  shaley. 
The  age  of  the  formation  has  been  determined  by  the  remains 
of  animal  life  which  are  preserved  extensively  in  one  of  the 
sandstone  beds  in  the  form  of  worm  borings  by  the  species 
scolithus  linearis,  characteristic  of  the  Cambrian. 

The  Cambrian  shales  grade  into  Shenandoah  limestone, 
which  succeeds  them  without  break  in  the  sedimentary  record, 
the  lower  part  of  the  limestone  formation  also  being  Cam- 

The  thickness  of  the  Shenandoah  limestone  is  from  1500 
to  2500  feet.  The  upper  part  is  definitely  known  to  be  Or- 
dovician  in  age,  from  the  fossils  it  contains,  but  there  is  no 
definite  line  of  division  marked  between  the  known  Ordo- 
vician  and  the  known  Cambrian.  Five  distinct  divisions  of 
this  hmestone  in  central  western  Virginia  have  been  de- 
scribed by  Prof.  H.  D.  Campbell.  These  are,  in  ascending 
order,  (1)  Sherwood  Limestone  of  Lower  Cambrian  age,  (2) 
Buena  Vista  shales  of  Lower  or  Middle  Cambrian  age,  (3) 
Natural  Bridge  limestone  of  Middle  and  Upper  Cambrian  and 
Lower  Ordovician,  (4)  Murat  limestone,  and  (5)  Liberty  Hall 
limestone  of  Middle  Ordovician  age.  The  Murat  and  Liberty 
are  probably  absent  in  Rockingham  County,  and  their  places 
occupied  by  the  above  and  dolomitic  limestones  of  Stones 
River  age  and  the  pure  and  argillaceous  strata  designated  as 
the  Chambersburg  formation.  Fossils  found  near  Harrison- 
burg have  identified  both  these  formations  at  that  place. 



The  Shenandoah  Hmestone  varies  in  color  from  a  grey  to 
dove  color  and  blue.  It  contains  frequent  cherty  beds,  the 
weathering  of  which  gives  rise  to  the  ridges  and  gravelly  hills 
common  in  the  county.  Shaley  beds  also  occur  within  the 
hmestone  of  varying  thickness.  The  most  prominent  of  these 
are  the  Buena  Vista  shales  of  Cambrian  age,  which  are  easily 
recognized  by  their  reddish  color.  In  composition  the  rock 
varies  from  an  almost  pure  limestone  to  dolomite,  in  which 
the  lime  is  replaced  largely  by  magnesia.  The  rock  also 
shows  widely  varying  percentages  of  clayey  material  and 
siHca.  The  Chambersburg  and  Stones  River  formations  and 
the  associated  Trenton  shales  afford  splendid  material  for  the 
manufacture  of  Portland  cement. 

In  the  upper  part  of  the  Shenandoah  limestone  shaley 
beds  appear,  which  increase  in  frequency  and  thickness  till 
the  formation  entirely  gives  way  to  the  Martinsburg  shale. 
This  shale  formation  occupies  a  prominent  synclinal  trough 
extending  entirely  across  the  county.  This  syncline  is  known 
as  the  Massanutten  syncline,  since  its  position  is  partly  oc- 
cupied by  the  mountain  of  the  same  name.  The  syncline  is 
very  persistent,  and  extends  far  beyond  the  limits  of  the 
mountain  both  to  the  northeast  and  southwest.  There  are 
also  other  minor  areas  of  the  shale  formation  which  may  be 
seen  on  the  accompanying  map.  The  thickness  of  the  forma- 
tion is  about  2000  feet.  The  fine  blue  slate  lands  of  the  county 
are  underlain  by  the  lower  beds  of  this  formation.  The 
weathering  of  the  shale  gives  rise  to  the  characteristic  rounded 
hills  with  oval  crests,  often  very  similar  in  form  to  the  drum- 
lins  of  glacial  origin  in  the  northern  part  of  the  United 
States.  The  contact  between  the  shale  and  limestone  can 
readily  be  detected  by  the  abrupt  change  in  the  topography. 

The  Martinsburg  shale  is  succeeded  by  the  Massanutten 
sandstone,  so  called  from  its  occurrence  in  the  mountain  by 
that  name.  It  is  to  the  resistant  character  of  this  rock  that 
the  Massanutten  mountain  owes  its  existence.  The  thickness 
of  the  sandstone  is  about  500  feet.  It  varies  from  a  reddish 
sandy  shale  to  a  coarse  conglomerate  and  light  grey  massive 


bedded  quartzite.  A  typical  exposure  of  this  quartzite  is 
found  at  the  nose  of  Peaked  Mountain.  The  formation  also 
occurs  in  the  Alleghany  ridges.     Its  age  is  Silurian. 

The  rocks  of  the  Alleghany  ridges  are  as  follows,  given 
in  order  of  age:  (1)  the  Martinsburg  shale  and  (2)  Massa- 
nutten  sandstone,  which  have  been  described  above;  (3) 
Rockwood  formation  of  Silurian  age,  composed  of  reddish 
micaceous  sandstones,  which  grade  upward  into  reddish  and 
brown  shales  capped  with  a  bed  of  greyish  to  yellowish 
quartzite.  The  thickness  of  the  formation  is  about  200  feet. 
(4)  Lewistown  limestone  of  Silurian  age,  containing  numerous 
fossil  corals  and  braciopods  and  remains  of  sponges  and  micro- 
scopic organisms.  Its  thickness  is  about  100  feet.  (5)  Mon- 
terey sandstone  of  Silurian  and  Devonian  age,  in  part  cal- 
careous. The  thickness  is  about  300  feet.  (6)  The  dark 
colored  Romney  shales  of  Devonian  age,  which  were  deposited 
on  the  eroded  surface  of  the  Monterey  sandstone.  This  non- 
conformity represents  the  only  break  in  the  sedimentary  cycle 
within  the  bounds  of  Rockingham  County.  The  thickness  of 
the  formation  approaches  1000  feet.  (7)  Jennings  formation, 
also  of  Devonian  age,  which  is  made  up  of  olive  to  buff  col- 
ored shales  interstratified  with  massive  fine-grained  sand- 
stones. Its  thickness  is  about  3000  feet.  It  is  succeeded  by 
the  (8)  Hampshire  formation,  made  up  of  thinly  bedded  grey 
and  reddish  sandstone  and  thick  bedded  sandstone,  all  inter- 
bedded  with  thin  layers  of  shale.  The  formation  is  as  thick 
as  1400  feet,  and  it  is  of  Devonian  age.  (9)  The  Pocono 
sandstone  of  Mississippian  age,  v/hich  is  the  youngest  of  the 
sedimentaries  in  the  county.  It  is  composed  of  light  grey 
sandstones  of  a  rather  coarse  texture,  which  are  interbedded 
with  thin  layers  of  semi-anthracite  coal.  It  is  about  700  feet 
in  thickness. 

The  structure  of  the  rocks  of  Rockingham  County  can  best 
be  understood  by  reference  to  the  accompanying  structure 
section.  It  will  be  remembered  that  the  sedimentary  rocks 
of  the  county  were  originally  laid  down  by  water  in  the  order 
in  which  they  now  occur,  but  in  a  horizontal  position.     The 



beds  are  rarely  found  in  this  position,  but  have  been  folded 
into  anticlines  and  synclines  and  frequently  broken  by  great 
overthrust  faults  and  also  by  simple  gravity  faults. 

Since  the  folding  and  faulting  of  the  region,  erosion  has 
been  active,  so  that  now  the  mountain  ridges  frequently  oc- 
cupy the  position  of  the  synclines,  as  in  the  case  of  the  Mas- 
sanutten  mountain;  and  the  river  valleys  in  the  same  way  oc- 
cupy the  position  of  the  anticlines.  The  Valley  province  is 
not  a  structural  valley,  but  it  is  entirely  the  product  of  erosion. 
The  material  which  once  occupied  its  position,  being  less  re- 
sistant to  the  forces  of  degradation,  was  disintegrated  by 
chemical  and  mechanical  forces  and  carried  by  the  streams  to 
the  sea.  The  streams  which  have  been  responsible  for  this 
work  have  suffered  likewise  many  changes,  and  now  in  a 
small  measure  only  resemble  their  early  ancestors.  The 
drainage  of  the  county  at  the  beginning  of  the  long  cycle  of 
erosion  which  developed  its  present  land  forms  seems  to  have 
been  controlled  by  two  master  streams.  One  of  these  streams 
occupied  a  position  similar  to  North  River,  in  the  latitude  of 
Bridgewater,  and  the  other  a  position  similar  to  the  North 
Fork,  in  the  latitude  of  Brock's  Gap;  the  North  River  flowing 
across  the  Valley  and  Blue  Ridge,  possibly  through  Brown's 
Gap,  and  the  North  Fork  across  the  Valley  and  the  Massan- 
utten  Mountain  at  New  Market  and  the  Blue  Ridge  opposite 
Luray.  Since  the  limestones  of  the  Valley  were  more  easily 
eroded  than  the  harder  rocks  of  the  Blue  Ridge,  and  since  the 
Potomac  came  to  be  the  master  stream  because  of  its  size, 
tributaries  of  the  Potomac  flowing  northward  over  the  soft 
rocks  of  the  valley  were  finally  able  to  intercept  these  streams, 
first  the  North  Fork  at  Luray  and  later  the  North  River  at 
Port  Republic.  Subsequently  to  these  captures  the  Valley  has 
been  lowered  many  hundred  feet  below  its  level  at  the  time 
the  captures  took  place. 

The  limestones  of  the  Valley  province  are  responsible  for 
the  numerous  beautiful  limestone  caverns  and  bold  springs 
which  are  so  common,  as  well  as  for  the  remarkable  fertility 
of  the  soils  of  the  county,  v/hich  has  made  her  one  of  the 



most  desirable  agricultural  districts  in  the  entire  country. 
The  hand  of  Providence  working  through  long  ages  has  pre- 
pared a  habitation  for  men,  which  in  the  beauty  of  topography 
and"  landscape,  fertility  of  soil,  excellence  of  water,  delight- 
fulness  of  climate,  luxuriance  of  vegetation,  and  all  natural 
environment  that  makes  for  human  happiness,  can  hardly  be 
excelled  in  the  entire  world. 


By  Miss  Ruth  Conn. 

Where  the  peak  of  old  Massanutten 

Doth  bare  his  broad  dome  to  the  skies, 

And  clad  with  the  strength  of  Creation 
Unmindful  of  ages  doth  rise, 

He  guards  day  and  night  our  green  valley; 

For  Nature  who  made  it  so  fair, 
Grew  alarmed  for  her  beautiful  treasure, 

And  placed  him  as  sentinel  there. 

When  the  gray  morning  mists  of  the  Valley, 
That  are  wont  to  encircle  his  crest, 

Have  long  faded  into  the  sunlight. 
And  wandering  winds  are  at  rest. 

When  from  off  of  his  summit  has  faded 
The  glow  of  the  evening  bars, 

He  brings  from  the  worlds  shining  o'er  him 
Sweet  dreams  to  our  '  'Child  of  the  Stars. ' ' 

This  sacred  trust  of   Creation 

He  kept  since  the  world  began. 

Till  he  smiled  on  the  red  man's  wigwam 
And  the  hut  of  the  first  white  man. 

And  oft  in  the  struggles  that  followed, 
He  echoed  the  martial  tramp. 

And  sheltered  the  fires  where  our  fathers 
Lay  waiting  with  Stonewall  in  camp. 

He  has  stood  with  us  in  every  struggle. 

Though  burdened  methinks  v/ith  our  pain; 

He  has  pointed  to  courage  and  patience. 
And  helped  us  new  visions  to  gain. 

Oh,  fairer  than  Italy's  mountains. 

Or  Switzerland's  snow-crowned  towers. 

He  is  to  the  sons  of  the  Valley— 

This  rugged  old  mountain  of  ours  ! 

Dear  old  Peak,  thou  art  guarding  thy  treasure: 
May  men  to  their  trust  prove  as  true  ! 

Not  one  of  Virginia's  blue  mountains 
Is  so  dear  to  our  hearts  as  are  you. 

McGaheysville,  Rockingham  County, 
Virginia,  May,  1912. 

(Paeres  S4W.  :Ull) 



From  the  best  information  at  hand,  it  appears  that  the 
settlement  of  Rockingham  and  adjacent  sections  of  the  Valley 
of  Virginia  began  in  or  about  the  year  1727.  As  in  all  similar 
cases,  exploration  preceded  permanent  settlement.  First, 
therefore,  let  us  take  a  preliminary  survey  of  the  earliest 
known  explorations. 

In  1669,  the  same  year  that  La  Salle  came  down  to  the 
falls  of  the  Ohio,  John  Lederer,  a  German  of  education,  said 
to  have  been  once  a  Franciscan  monk,  came  up  from  James- 
town and  entered  the  Valley  at  or  near  Waynesboro;  in  1670 
he  crossed  the  Valley  at  or  near  Front  Royal  and  Strasburg. 
Once  above,  once  below  the  present  boundaries  of  Rocking- 
ham, this  German  thus  seemed  to  be  marking  out  the  district 
in  which  his  fellow-countrymen  should  in  the  years  to  come 
build  their  homes  and  till  their  fruitful  fields.  Lederer's 
journal,  giving  an  account  of  his  explorations,  with  accom- 
panying map,  was  printed  in  an  English  translation  at  London 
in  1672,  and  again  at  Rochester,  N.  Y.,  in  1902. 

In  1705  the  Governor,  Council,  and  Burgesses  of  Virginia 
offered  a  monopoly  of  trade  to  any  person  or  persons  who 
should  thereafter  '  'at  his  or  their  own  charge,  make  discovery 
of  any  town  or  nation  of  Indians,  situate  or  inhabiting  to  the 
westward  of,  or  between  the  Appalatian  mountains.  "^  This 
was  an  act  obviously  intended  to  encourage  pioneering  west  of 
the  Blue  Ridge.  What  response  it  elicited  we  do  not  know,  but 
it  may  well  be  imagined  that  not  many  years  passed  before 

1.  Hening's  Statutes,  Vol.  Ill,  page  468. 


some  adventurous  trader  fared  westward  upon  the  heels  of 
the  hope  it  engendered. 

In  1716  Governor  Spotswood  made  his  famous  expedition 
into  the  Valley,  coming  across  the  Blue  Ridge,  as  we  judge, 
at  Swift  Run  Gap,  and  finding  a  land  of  "seek-no-farther"  in 
the  broad  river  plains  about  or  above  Elkton.  We  generally 
look  upon  Spotswood  as  doing  for  the  Virginians,  in  respect 
to  the  Valley,  what  Caesar  did  for  the  Romans,  in  respect  to 
Britain:  as  discovering  it  for  them:  and  even  as  it  was  a  cen- 
tury before  the  Romans  followed  Caesar  westward,  so  it  was 
at  least  a  decade  before  the  Virginians  began  to  follow  Spots- 
wood.  In  the  meantime  Germans  occasionally  came  in  from 
the  northeast.  More  of  Spotswood  and  his  knights  at  another 

In  1722  Michael  Wohlfarth,  a  German  sectarian,  is  re- 
ported to  have  passed  down  through  the  Valley  of  Virginia 
going  from  Pennsylvania  to  North  Carolina ;2  Dr.  J.  A.  Wad- 
dell,  after  investigating  various  sources  of  information,  is 
satisfied  that  in  or  about  the  year  1726  John  Sailing  and  John 
Mackey  explored  the  Valley,  both  settling  therein  later ;3  and 
it  is  likely  that  other  white  men,  Germans,  Scotch-Irish,  and 
English,  at  other  times  before  as  well  as  after,  walked  in  this 
great  highway  of  nature  from  north  to  south. 

We  are  now  coming  to  the  time  of  permanent  settlement, 
which  v/e  are  able  to  fix  some  five  years  earlier  than  1732, 
the  date  so  long  accepted  as  marking  the  beginnings  in  the 
Valley.  In  1732  Jost  Hite,  with  a  number  of  other  Germans, 
settled  in  the  section  now  marked  by  Winchester;  and  in  the 
same  year  John  Lewis,  with  a  number  of  other  Scotch-Irish, 
located  at  or  near  the  place  where  Staunton  now  stands;  but 
it  appears  that  as  early  as  1727  Adam  Miller,  a  German,  per- 
haps with  a  few  others  of  his  own  nationality,  was  staking 
out  claims  on  the  south  fork  of  the  Shenandoah  River,  on  or 
near  the  line  that  now  divides  Rockingham  County  from  Page. 

2-  Sachse's  German  Sectarians,  Vol.  II,  page  332. 

3.  Waddell's  Annals  of  Augusta,  edition  1902,  page  24. 



On  March  13,  1741-2,  Adam  Miller  received  from  Gov- 
ernor William  Gooch  a  certificate  of  naturalization,  which  re- 
cites that  the  said  Miller  had  been  a  resident  on  the  Shenan- 
doah for  the  past  fifteen  years.  This  fixes  the  date  of  his 
first  settlement  in  1726-7."  In  1733,  eight  men,  Adam  Miller 
being  one,  addressed  Governor  Gooch  in  a  petition,  pray- 
ing him  to  confirm  their  title  to  5000  acres  of  land  in  Mas- 
sanutting,  purchased  about  four  years  past  for  more  than  400 
pounds  from  Jacob  Stover,  reciting  that  they  had  moved  upon 
the  said  land  from  Pennsylvania  immediately  after  the  pur- 
chase, and  that  they  had  located  thereon  at  the  time  of  the 
petition  nine  plantations  and  51  people.'^  This  would  fix  the 
date  of  settlement  of  the  Massanutting  colony  in  1729  or  1730. 

On  June  17,  1730,  Jacob  Stover,  a  native  of  Switzerland, 
was  granted  leave  by  the  colonial  council  to  take  up  10,000 
acres  of  land  on  the  south  fork  of  the  Shenandoah,  for  the 
settlement  of  himself  and  divers  Germans  and  Swiss  whom 
he  proposed  to  bring  thither  within  the  next  two  years,  the 
said  land  to  be  laid  off  in  such  tracts  as  he  should  judge 
fitting.  '^  Stover  selected  his  grant  in  two  tracts,  of  5000  acres 
each,  one  along  the  river  between  the  present  Luray  and 
Eikton,  the  other  along  the  same  river,  higher  up,   between 

4.  The  certificate  is  in  the  possession  of  Adam  Miller's  great-great- 
granddaughter,  Miss  Elizabeth  B.  Miller,  of  Eikton,  Va.  It  was  printed 
in  the  William  and  Mary  College  Quarterly,  October,  1900,  and  in  Way- 
land's  "German  Element,"  pages  37,  38,  in  1907. 

5.  The  full  text  of  this  petition  may  be  found  in  Palmer's  Calendar 
of  State  Papers,  Vol.  I,  pp.  219,  220,  and  in  Wayland's  "German  Ele- 
ment," pp.  35,  36.  It  bears  no  date,  but  the  date  has  been  conclusively 
determined,  by  various  circumstances,  to  be  1733. 

6.  From  records  of  the  proceedings  of  the  Council.  These  records, 
particularly  such  as  refer  to  the  settlement  of  the  Valley  of  Virginia, 
were  published  in  1905-6  in  the  Virginia  Magazine  of  History  and  Biog- 
raphy, Richmond,  with  valuable  supplementary  notes  by  Mr.  Chas.  E. 
Kemper,  of  Washington,  D.  C. 

Jacob    Stover  was  an    interesting   character— enterprising    to    a 
fault,  it  would  seem.     It  is  charged  that  some  of   his  representations  in 



Elkton  and  Port  Republic. '^  The  conditions  upon  which 
Stover  received  his  grant  were  that  he  should  actually  locate 
a  family  of  settlers  upon  each  thousand  acres  within  two 
years.  These  were  the  conditions  usually  imposed  upon  those 
receiving  large  grants  of  land  at  that  time.  Upon  satisfactory 
proof  that  these  conditions  had  been  discharged,  a  permanent 
title  was  given. 

The  names  of  the  eight  petitioners  of  1733,  who  had 
bought  land  in  Massanutten  of  Jacob  Stover  in  1729  or  1730, 
were  as  follows: 

Adam  Miller^       Philip  Long  Hans  Rood^^ 

Abram  Strickler  Paul  Lopg  Michael  Kaufman 

Mathias  Selzer^   Michael  Rhinehart 

The  family  names  of  all  these  men,  with  perhaps  one  or 
two  exceptions,  are  to-day  familiar  and  widely  distributed, 
not  only  in  the  counties  of  Rockingham,  Page,  and  Shenan- 
doah, but  also  in  many  quarters  beyond  the  limits  of  Virginia. 

It  is  quite  probable  that  Adam  Miller  at  first  pre-empted 
his  claim  on  the  Shenandoah  by  squatter  right,  later  meet- 
ing properly  the  requirements  of  advancing  governmental 
authority.  It  is  possible,  moreover,  that  the  enterprising 
Stover  sold  him  and  his  friends  the  Massanutten  tract  before 
the  said  Stover  himself  had  a  grant  for  it,  since,  as  we  have 
seen,  the  latter  did  not  receive  his  grant  until  June  17,  1730. 
The  alarm  of  the  eight  petitioners  of   1733  arose  from  fear 

securing  grants  of  land  were  worthy  of   Machiavelli.     See  Kercheval's 
History  of  the  Valley  of  Virginia,  reprint  of  1902,  page  46. 

7.  Mr.  Chas.  E.  Kemper  fixes  the  location  of  Stover's  lower  tract  of 
5000  acres,  likely  the  same  purchashed  by  Adam  Miller  and  others  in  1729. 
between  Bear  Lithia  Spring,  two  miles  below  Elkton,  in  Rockingham 
County,  and  Newport,  a  village  12  miles  further  down  the  river,  in  Page 
County.  See  Virginia  Magazine  of  History  and  Biography,  January, 
1906,  pp.  295-297.  It  should  be  stated,  however,  that  the  little  vale  and 
the  village  that  still  retain  the  name  of  Massanutten  are  a  few  miles  far- 
ther northeast,  beyond  Newport. 

8.  Adam  Miller,  who  appears  to  have  been  the  first  settler  of  Rock- 
ingham and  adjacent  sections  of  the  Valley,  was  born  probably  at  Schrei- 



that  William  Beverly  had  an  earlier  or  better  claim  than 
Stover.  They  had  learned  that  Beverly  w^as  bringing  suit 
against  Stover  for  the  land  in  question. 

On  May  5,  1732,  William  Beverly,  son  of  Robert  Beverly 
the  historian  of  Virginia,  had  received  a  grant  of  15,000 
acres  on  the  Shenandoah  River,  including  "a  place  called  the 
Massanutting  Town,"  provided  the  same  did  not  interfere 
with  any  previous  grants  made  in  that  section.      Obviously 

sheim,  Germany,  the  native  place  of  Alexander  Mack,  about  the  year 
1700.  He  came  early  in  life  to  Lancaster  County,  Pa.,  with  his  wife  and 
an  unmarried  sister.  Later,  going  to  Williamsburg,  Va. ,  he  heard  of  the 
beautiful  valley  between  the  mountains  from  some  Spotswood  knights, 
and  followed  their  path  westward,  crossing  the  Blue  Ridge  at  Swift  Run 
Gap.  Having  seen  and  desired  the  goodly  land  in  the  river  plain  below, 
he  brought  his  family  thither.  He  secured  first  the  "uppermost  of  the 
Massanutten  lots,"  near  the  present  Page  County  line,  but  probably  in 
Rockingham;  in  1741  he  purchased  820  acres,  including  the  great  lithia 
spring  near  Elkton,  and  was  living  thereon  in  1764  when  he  sold  280  acres 
thereof  to  his  son-in-law,  Jacob  Bear.  Here  Adam  Miller  lived  till  he 
died  about  1780,  and  here  the  Bear  family  still  resides,  the  spring  being 
known  as  Bear  Lithia  Spring.  He  was  a  soldier  in  the  French  and  Indian 
War,  as  shown  by  the  military  schedule  for  1758  in  Hening's  Statutes. 
In  religion  he  was  a  Lutheran,  and  was  probably  buried  at  St.  Peter's 
Church,  four  miles  north  of  Elkton.  Among  his  descendants  are  the  Mil- 
lers, Bears,  Kempers,  Yanceys,  Gibbons,  Hopkins,  Mauzys,  Harnsberg- 
ers,  and  other  prominent  families  of  East  Rockingham.  A  descendant, 
Hon.  Chas.  E.  Kemper  of  Washington  City,  deserves  special  mention  for 
his  valuable  publications  regarding  the  pioneer. 

9.  Mathias  Selzer  of  "Missinotty"  is  referred  to  by  Gottschalk,  a  Mo- 
ravian missionary,  in  his  journal  of  1748  as  "the  son-in-law  of  Jacob  Bey- 
erly,  of  Lancaster";  as  rich,  generous,  and  respected  in  the  whole  region, 
but  as  bitter  against  the  Moravians.  He  was  evidently  a  Lutheran.  In  1751 
he  was  one  of  the  justices  of  Augusta  County  (Summers'  History  of 
Southwestern  Virginia,  p.  821),  a  fact  which  shows  that  he  lived  south- 
west of  the  Fairfax  line. 

10-  Hans  Rood  (John  Rhodes)  was  doubtless  the  Mennonite  preacher 
visited  at  Massanutten  by  Gottschalk  in  1748,  and,  with  his  family,  mas- 
sacred by  Indians  in  1766.  See  Virginia  Magazine  of  History  and  Biog- 
raphy, July,  1904,  page  69,  and  Kercheval's  History  of  the  Valley  of  Vir- 
ginia, reprint  of  1902,  pp.  101, 102.  It  is  likely  that  Abram  Strickler  and 
Michael  Kaufman  were  also  Mennonites. 



there  was  an  interference  of  this  grant  with  the  one  made  to 
Stover  in  1730.  On  December  12,  1733,  Beverly  entered  a 
caveat  against  Stover,  but  the  latter  was  sustained  in  his 
title,  and  given  deeds  for  his  two  tracts  of  5000  acres  each 
on  the  15th  of  December,  1733."  The  fears  of  the  eight 
petitioners,  who  held  their  title  from  Stover,  were  thus  evi- 
dently set  at  rest. 

Recalling  now  the  fact  that  Stover's  upper  tract  of  5000 
acres,  Jas  well  as  the  lower  one,  was  granted  upon  the  condi- 
tion that  at  least  one  family  should  be  located  on  each  1000 
acres  within  tv/o  years,  and  observing  that  he  got  full  title 
for  both  tracts  in  December,  1733,  we  may  safely  conclude 
that  no  less  than  five  families  were  settled  by  that  date  along 
the  river  between  the  points  now  marked  by  Elkton  and  Port 
Republic.  Beginning,  therefore,  at  or  near  the  Fairfax  line, 
which  marked  the  northeast  boundary  of  Rockingham  till  1831, 
and  following  up  the  south  fork  of  the  Shenandoah  River 
past  the  places  now  known  as  Shenandoah  City,  Elkton,  and 
Island  Ford  to  Lynnwood  and  Port  Republic,  we  may  say  that 
at  least  fifteen  families,  all  probably  German  or  Swiss,  were 
settled  in  that  district  by  December,  1733.  Counting  five 
persons  to  a  family,  there  were  likely  no  less  than  75  individ- 
uals; and  among  these  we  know  the  names  of  nine:  Adam 
Miller,  Abram  Strickler,  Mathias  Selzer,  Philip  Long,  Paul 
Long,  Michael  Rhinehart,  Hans  Rood,  Michael  Kaufman,  and 
Jacob  Stover— all  doubtless  heads  of  families. 

On  April  23,  1734,  the  colonial  council  received  a  petition 
from  a  number  of  the  inhabitants  living  on  the  northwest 
side  of  "the  Blue  Ridge  of  Mountains,"  that  is  to  say  in  the 
Valley,  praying  that  some  persons  in  their  section  be  appointed 
magistrates  to  determine  differences  and  punish  offenders. 
These  petitioners  lived  so  far  away  from  Fredericksburg,  the 
county-seat  of  Spotsylvania,  and  consequently   so  far  from 

11-  See  records  of  the  colonial  council;  also  extracts  therefrom  printed 
in  the  Virginia  Magazine  of  History  and  Biography,  October,  1905,  and 
January,  1906. 



the  regular  administration  of  justice,  that  the  reasonableness 
of  their  request  was  obvious.  Accordingly,  Joost  Hyte, 
Morgan  Morgan,  John  Smith,  Benjamin  Bourden,  and  George 
Hobson  were  appointed  justices  within  the  limits  aforesaid— 
that  is,  in  the  Valley.  Hite  and  one  or  more  of  the  others 
lived  in  the  lower  Valley,  but  it  is  likely  that  one  or  two  of 
the  five  either  lived  in  the  upper  Valley,  or  were  frequently 
prospecting  in  that  section.  Burden  later  had  large  holdings 
of  land  in  what  is  now  Rockbridge  County  and  adjacent  sec- 

Moreover,  in  August,  1734,  just  a  few  months  after  the 
aforesaid  petition  was  presented,  the  county  of  Orange  was 
formed.  This  was  an  act  likely  intended  to  be  a  still  more 
satisfactory  response  to  the  request  and  desire  of  the  Valley 
settlers  for  the  efficient  administration  of  law  and  justice.  It 
shows  the  growth  of  political  organization  westward,  and  also 
indicates  that  the  settlement  of  the  Valley  had  reached  a 
somewhat  general  stage  by  1734.  The  rapid  development 
from  1734  to  1738  is  implied  in  the  fact  that  in  1738  an  Act 
was  passed  providing  for  the  organization  of  the  Valley  and 
the  country  westward  therefrom  into  the  counties  of  Freder- 
ick and  Augusta. 

Let  us  now  give  attention  to  a  number  of  items  that  show 
the  progress  of  settlement  from  1734  to  1738  in  more  detail. 

On  October  28,  1734,  John  Tayloe,  Thomas  Lee,  and 
William  Beverly  obtained  a  grant  of  60,000  acres  of  land  on 
the  Shenandoah  River,  beginning  on  Stover's  upper  tract. 
This  grant  accordingly  must  have  extended  southwest  from 
the  vicinity  of  Port  Republic,  up  the  river  past  Grottoes,  and 
a  considerable  distance  into  the  present  limits  of  Augusta 
County.  It  was  bestowed  upon  the  usual  conditions,  that  one 
family  be  located  upon  each  thousand  acres  within  two 
years.  ^2 

From  Deed  Book  No.  1,  Orange  County,  the  following 
items  have  been  selected: 

12-  See  Virginia  Magazine  of  History  and  Biography,  April,  1906, 
pp.  360-362. 



September  17,  1735,  Jacob  Stover  sold  550  acres  of  land 
to  Christian  Clemon,  the  said  land  being  on  a  small  run,  on 
the  south  side  of  the  Shenandoah  River,  adjoining  the 
"upper  corner  of  Stover's  lower  5000-acre  tract. "  Two  of 
the  three  witnesses  to  this  conveyance  were  Thomas  Hill 
and  W.  Russell;  the  name  of  the  third  witness  appears  to  be  G. 

November  11,  1735,  Jacob  Stover  sold  two  tracts  of  land 
to  George  Boone,  the  said  tracts  containing  500  and  1000  acres 
respectively,  and  being  situated  "near  the  end  of  North 
Mountain, '3  so  called,  on  a  small  branch  of  Sherando 
River":  part  of  5000  acres  laid  out  for  Stover  by  the  Virginia 
Council,  June  17,  1730."  Mordecai  Simon  and  S.  Hughes 
were  witnesses.  Boone  is  put  down  as  having  come  from 
Oley,  Pa. 

December  16,  1735,  Jacob  Stover  sold  1100  acres,  in  three 
tracts,  on  Gerundo  River,  ^^  to  Ludwick  Stone.  On  the  same 
date  he  sold  three  tracts,  aggregating  500  acres,  on  the  same 
river,  to  Mathias  Selser. 

At  least  three  more  men  bought  land  of  Stover  on  this 
date :  (1)  John  Prupecker,  two  tracts,  of  300  acres  and  200 
acres,  respectively;  both  on  Gerundo  River,  the  larger  adjoin- 
ing the  land  of  Selser;  witnesses,  John  Bramham,  Gideon  Marr, 

13.  The  Massanutten  at  this  time  was  commonly  referred  to  as  the 
North  Mountain,  and  the  Blue  Ridge  as  the  South  Mountain. 

14-  Boone's  Run  is  probably  the  small  branch  referred  to,  likely  bear- 
ing its  name  from  George  Boone.  It  flows  southeastward  outof  Runkle's 
Gap,  in  the  Massanutten,  directly  toward  Elkton,  then  turns  northeast- 
ward and  enters  the  river  two  miles  below  Elkton.  One  can  hardly  de- 
termine whether  Stover  sold  this  land  from  his  upper  or  lower  tract.  One 
would  at  once  say.  From  the  lower,  were  it  not  likely  that  he  had  sold 
the  lower  tract  entire  to  Adam  Miller  and  his  friends  in  1729  or  1730. 

15.  "Gerundo"  is  merely  another  form  of  Shenandoah.  This  name  has 
been  found  in  no  less  than  twenty  different  spellings.  See  Wayland's 
"German  Element, "  page  3.  No  attempt  is  made  herein  to  reduce  the 
spelling  of  proper  names,  of  either  places  or  persons,  to  uniformity.  The 
diverse  forms  in  which  they  appear  are  part  of  the  material  of  history, 
and  have  a  value. 



William  Ferrell;  (2)  Abraham  Strickler,  1000  acres,  at  "Mes- 
enutten  on  Gerundo";  (3)  Henry  Sowter,  300  acres,  on  the 
south  side  of  Gerundo,  near  the  mouth  of  Mesenutten  Creek. 

Some  of  these  tracts,  sold  by  Stover,  in  December,  1735, 
were  possibly  never  within  the  limits  of  Rockingham  County, 
but  all  were  evidently  near  the  Fairfax  line,  on  one  side  or 
the  other. 

We  may  place  the  following  land  sales,  made  in  1736,  in 
the  same  locality.  The  complete  records  may  be  found  in 
Orange  County  Deed  Book  No.  1. 

February  24,  1736,  Ludwig  Stein  sold  517  acres,  in  three 
tracts,  on  Gerundo  River,  to  Michael  Cryter  of  Pennsyl- 
vania; witnesses,  Gideon  Marr,  John  Newport.  On  the  same 
date  Ludowick  Stein  sold  217  acres,  on  Gerundo  River  (part 
of  land  formerly  granted  to  Jacob  Stover) ,  to  Michael  Coff- 

September  21,  1736,  Jacob  Stover  sold  400  acres,  on  the 
west  side  of  Sherundo  River,  to  Peter  Bowman;  witnesses, 
G.  Lightfoot,  Thomas  Nichols. 

September  26,  1736,  Henry  Sowter  sold  about  300  acres, 
on  Gerundo  River,  to  Ludwig  Stine. 

In  Orange  County  Deed  Books  1  and  2  are  to  be  found 
records  of  the  following  land  sales  on  the  South  Shenandoah 
in  1737 : 

February  24,  three  tracts;  Ludwig  Stein  to  Martin  Coff- 
man  of  Pennsylvania;  300  acres  on  the  south  side  of  the  river; 
217  on  the  north  side;  and  100  acres  on  the  north  side,  at  Elk 

October  22,  400  acres ;  Peter  Bowman  to  Christian  Red- 
licksberger.  This  was  probably  the  same  tract  that  Bowman 
had  purchased  of  Jacob  Stover  in  September  of  the  preceding 

Several  transactions  of  special  interest  appear  in  the 
year  1738.  On  March  21  Jacob  Stover  sold  to  Christopher 
Franciski  3000  acres,  with  the  mansion  house,  adjoining  Peter 
Bowman  on  the  river:  part  of  5000  acres  patented  to  the 
said  Stover,  December  15,  1733.     The  same  day  Jacob  Stover 



and  his  wife  Margaret  gave  a  bond  to  Franciski  for  £700.  At 
another  time  v^^ithin  the  year  they  gave  him  another  bond  for 
£1000.  To  securethe  payment  of  these  bonds,  Stover  and  his 
wife  mortgaged  5000  acres  on  both  sides  of  the  Shenandoah 

River,  i*^ 

How  Stover  could  keep  on  selling  his  5000-acre  tracts,  and 
still  have  them  seven  or  eight  years  after  the  first  sale,  is  a 
mystery.  Possibly  he  took  back  some  land  on  default  of  pay- 
ment;  or  he  may  have  obtained  more  than   two  5000-acre 


March  23,  1738,  Ludwig  Stein  sold  two  tracts  of  land  ag- 
gregating 1005  acres,  on  the  Shenandoah  River,  to  Philip 
Long;  witnesses,  John  Newport  and  Christian  Kleman.^'^ 

December  13,  1738,  Jacob  Stover  obtained  a  grant  of  800 
acres.  This  land  was  on  the  Shenandoah  River,  below  Port 
Republic,  and  was  at  least  in  part  on  the  south  side  of  the 
river,  opposite  the  * 'Great  Island. "  This  island,  containing 
about  60  acres,  was  purchased  of  the  Franciscos  on  August 
31,  1751,  by  Thomas  Lewis.  Two  days  earlier,  August  28, 
1751,  Lewis  had  bought  of  the  Franciscos  a  tract  of  470  acres, 
on  the  south  side  of  the  river,  part  of  the  800-acre  tract  granted 
to  Stover  in  1738.  IS 

Christopher  Franciscus— "the  old  Stop f el  Franciscus," 
as  he  was  termed  in  1749  by  one  of  the  Moravian  missionaries 
who  passed  through  the  Valley— ^^  had  large  holdings  of  land 
in  what  is  now  East  Rockingham.  He  appears  to  have  located 
in  Lancaster  County,  Pa.,  in  1709.20-  j^  jg  not  certain  that 
he  ever  located  permanently  in  Virginia  himself,  but  he  evi- 
dently was  in  the  Valley  frequently,  and  his  sons,  Christopher 
and  Ludwig,  were  permanent  residents.  ^^ 

16.  See  Orange  County  Deed  Book  No.  2,  pp.  229-234. 

17.  Idem,  page  260. 

IS.  Augusta  County  Deed  Book  No.  4,  pp.  58-65. 

19.  Virginia  Magazine  of  History  and  Biography,  October,  1903. 

20.  Rupp's  Thirty  Thousand  Names,  page  436. 

21.  For  more  particulars  concerning  Franciscus  and  his  sons,  see  Way- 
land's  "German  Element,"  pp.  54-56. 



It  is  evident,  from  the  foregoing  particulars,  that  a  con- 
siderable number  of  settlers  had  located  within  the  present 
boundaries  of  Rockingham  within  the  decade  following  the 
first  known  settlement  in  1727.  The  earliest  settlements 
were  in  the  eastern  side  of  the  county,  though  it  is  quite 
likely  that  the  tide  of  immigration  that  was  creeping  up  the 
north  fork  of  the  Shenandoah  had  also  reached  and  passed 
the  Fairfax  line,  west  of  the  Massanutten,  by  1734  or  1735. 
As  early  as  April  30,  1732,  William  Beverly  wrote  that  the 
"northern  men"  were  fond  of  buying  land  on  the  upper  Shen- 
andoah, because  they  could  get  it  there  six  or  seven  pounds 
cheaper  a  hundred  acres  than  in  Pennsylvania,  and  because 
they  did  not  care  to  go  as  far  as  Williamsburg.  2-  It  should  be 
remembered  also  that  John  Lewis  located  at  or  near  Staun- 
ton in  1732,  and  that  a  number  of  his  fellow-countrymen  came 
into  the  upper  Valley  with  him,  or  soon  after  he  came.  These 
facts  are  recalled  here  in  addition  to  what  is  definitely  known 
concerning  the  first  settlers  and  settlements,  to  show  that  a 
large  number  of  persons,  Germans,  Scotch-Irish,  and  others, 
had  located  in  and  about  the  present  limits  of  Rockingham 
by  the  year  1738.  The  majority  of  these  settlers  had  come 
up  the  Valley  from  Maryland  and  Pennsylvania,  but  a  few 
had  come  across  the  Blue  Ridge  from  East  Virginia. 

The  first  grants  of  land  were  sought  and  secured  along 
the  main  watercourses,  though  it  is  said  that  in  many  cases 
the  settlers  in  a  little  while  sought  dwelling  places  on  the 
higher  lands  toward  the  hills  and  mountains,  because  of  the 
malaria  that  infested  the  bottom-lands.  It  is  not  likely,  how- 
ever, that  such  conditions  caused  any  one  to  relinquish  per- 
manently his  fertile  holdings  along  the  rivers;  and  with  the 
development  of  civilization— the  clearing  of  lowland  thickets, 
the  draining  of  swamps  and  marshes,  the  erection  of  better 
dwellings— the  malaria  gradually  disappeared. 

22.  Waddell's  Annals  of  Augusta,  1902  edition,  page  21. 



When  the  first  white  settlers  located  in  what  is  now 
Rockingham  County,  the  whole  district  west  of  the  Blue 
Ridge  was  a  part  of  the  county  of  Spotsylvania.  It  was  thus 
until  1734,  when  Orange  was  formed  so  as  to  include  within 
its  limits  the  country  west  of  the  Ridge.  The  Valley  thus 
continued  a  part  of  Orange  till  1738,  when,  by  an  Act  of  the 
colonial  government,  that  part  of  Orange  west  of  the  said 
mountain  was  divided  into  the  two  new  counties  of  Freder- 
ick and  Augusta.  The  text  of  this  Act  has  already  been 
given  in  Chapter  I.  The  district  later  organized  as  Rocking- 
ham County  fell  within  the  limits  of  Augusta,  according  to 
the  division  of  the  Valley  made  in  1738.  The  complete  organ- 
ization of  Frederick  and  Augusta  was  delayed  for  several 
years,  the  first  courts  being  held  for  the  former  in  1743,  and 
for  the  latter  in  1745.  In  1739  the  inhabitants  of  the  lower 
Valley,  impatient  at  the  delay,  petitioned  Governor  Gooch, 
requesting  that  the  said  county  of  "Frederica"  might  im- 
mediately '  'take  place. ' '  About  fifty  men  signed  the  petition, 
but  none  apparently  from  the  upper  part  of  the  Valley.  ^  We 
have  already  seen,  however,  in  Chapter  III,  that  in  Augusta, 
particularly  in  that  part  later  to  become  Rockingham,  settle- 
ment was  going  rapidly  on.  From  various  sources  we  are 
enabled  to  get  occasional  glimpses  through  the  heavy  curtain 
of  years,  and  recognize  some  of  the  figures  moving  upon  that 
far-off,  pioneer  stage. 

1-  For  a  list  of  the  names  signed  to  this  petition,  see  Wayland's  "Ger- 
man Element,"  pp.  57,  58. 


A  few  years  years  ago,  Mr.  Charles  E.  Kemper,  a  native 
of  Rockingham,  and  Rev.  William  J.  Hinke,  a  native  of  Ger- 
many, discovered  in  the  archives  of  the  old  Moravian  church 
at  Bethlehem,  Pa. ,  a  series  of  diaries  that  had  been  kept  by 
Moravian  missionaries  who  traveled  through  the  Valley  and 
adjacent  parts  of  Virginia  during  the  years  from  1743  to  1753. 
Mr.  Hinke  translated  these  diaries  from  the  German,  Mr, 
Kemper  edited  them  by  supplying  historical  and  geographical 
notes,  and  then  the  annotated  translations  were  published 
in  the  Virginia  Magazine  of  History  and  Biography.  In  these 
matter-of-fact  records,  made  by  zealous  heralds  of  the  cross 
more  than  a  century  and  a  half  ago,  we  find  many  things  of 
interest  relating  to  persons  and  conditions  in  what  is  now 
the  county  of  Rockingham. 

On  July  21, 1747,  the  Moravian  brethren,  Leonard  Schnell 
and  Vitus  Handrup,  were  in  the  vicinity  of  Linville  and 
Broadway,  and  staid  over  night  with  an  Irishman  who  must 
have  lived  somewhere  below  Timberville.  They  had  come 
across  the  m.ountains  from  what  is  now  Pendleton  County, 
West  Virginia,  and  were  traveling  on  down  the  Valley  toward 
Winchester.  The  next  spring  Brother  Gottschalk,  who  ap- 
pears to  have  followed  thus  far  the  general  course  taken  by 
Schnell  and  Handrup,  likely  fell  in  with  the  same  son  of  Erin. 
He  writes: 

At  night  [about  April  1,  1748]  I  lodged  in  a  very  disorderly,  wicked 
and  godless  house  of  an  Irishman,  who  kept  an  inn.  The  Saviour  helped 
me  through. 

Who  this  Irish  innkeeper  was  cannot  now  be  determined; 
but  he  lived  near  the  site  of  Timberville. 

Under  date  of  April  2  Brother  Gottschalk  writes: 

I  continued  the  journey  on  foot  to  the  Germans.  I  crossed  the  Chan- 
ador,2  which  was  pretty  deep,  cold,  and  had  a  rapid  current.  If  the 
Lord  had  not  supported  me  in  the  water  by  his  angels,  the  rapid  stream 
would  have  carried  me  off,  for  I  was  hardly  twenty  feet  above  a  fall. 

Having  gone  down  the  Valley  to  Cedar  Creek,    Gottschalk 

2.  The  north  fork  of  the  Shenandoah. 



turned  southeastward,  crossed  the  Massanutten  Mountain 
through  the  picturesque  Powell's  Fort,  and  came  up  the  south 
fork  of  the  Shenandoah  to  the  Massanutten  settlements. 
One  night  he  lodged  with  John  Rhodes,  the  Mennonite 
preacher,  who  was  doubtless  one  of  the  pioneer  settlers. 
The  next  day  he  went  to  the  home  of  Matthias  Selzer,  of 
whom  he  speaks  as  follows: 

He  is  a  rude  and  hostile  man  towards  the  Brethren.  I  was  compelled 
to  stay  with  this  man  all  afternoon,  because  I  wanted  to  make  inquiries 
about  the  people  in  that  district  and  because  I  was  surrounded  by  water 
and  terribly  high  mountains  on  all  sides.  He  treated  me  very  rudely, 
called  me  a  Zinzendorfian,  threatened  me  with  imprisonment,  and  re- 
ferred to  the  travels  and  sermons  of  the  Brethren  in  a  very  sarcastic 
manner.  He  said  if  I  should  get  to  the  upper  Germans  they  would  soon 
take  me  by  the  neck,  for  he  did  not  know  what  business  I  had  among 
those  people.  In  the  first  place  we  had  been  forbidden  to  travel  around 
through  the  country,  and  then  again  they  had  such  an  excellent  minister, 
that  if  the  people  were  not  converted  by  his  sermons,  they  would  cer- 
tainly not  be  converted  by  my  teaching.  But  soon  afterwards  he  related 
of  the  excellent  Lutheran  minister  that  he  got  so  drunk  in  his  house  that 
on  his  way  home  he  lost  his  saddle,  coat,  and  everything  else  from  the 
back  of  his  horse.  I  was  silent  to  all  this,  but  prayed  for  the  poor  man 
that  the  Lord  might  open  his  eyes. 

Having  staid  over  night  with  Mr.  Seizor,  Brother  Gott- 
schalk  set  out  eastward  to  cross  the  Blue  Ridge.  His  host, 
with  no  mean  courtesy,  speeded  the  parting  guest,  the  latter 
being  witness: 

I  started  early.  Matthias  Selzer  saddled  two  horses  and  took  me  not 
only  across  the  South  Bx'anch  of  the  Chanador,  but  even  five  miles  far- 
ther so  that  I  could  not  go  astray.  3 

Having  crossed  the  Blue  Ridge,  Gottschalk  descended 
into  the  beautiful  valley  of  the  Robinson  River,  now  in  Madi- 
son County,  and  became  the  guest  of  Rev.  George  Samuel 
Klug,  pastor  of  Hebron  Lutheran  Church  from  1739  to  1764. 
Mr.  Klug  was  at  this  time  extending  his  ministerial  labors  to 
the  German  communities  in  Rockingham  and  adjacent  sec- 
tions of  the  Valley,  and  was  doubtless  the  '  'excellent  Lutheran 

3.  See  Virginia  Magazine  of  History  and  Biography,  July,  1904. 



minister"  of  whom  Matthias  Selzer  had  spoken.  After  a  day 
and  a  night  in  association  with  him,  Brother  Gottschalk  gave 
him  a  fair  report."* 

In  July,  1748,  Brethren  Spangenberg  and  Reutz  were  in 
the  vicinity  of  Brock's  Gap  and  Timberville.  On  the  26th  of 
the  month  they  were  at  the  home  of  Adam  Roeder,  for  whom 
it  is  probable  that  Rader's  Church,  just  v/est  of  Timberville, 
was  named.  The  Brethren  made  note  of  the  fact  that  Adam 
Rader's  mother  was  at  that  time  eighty-six  years  old,  and 
that  she  was  Hving  in  Lehigh  County,  Pa.,  a  member  of  the 
Macungie  [now  Emmaus]  congregation.  Crossing  the  Valley 
toward  the  east,  the  missionaries  came  to  the  Massanutten 
settlements,  where  they  reported  Germans  of  "all  kinds  of 
denominations — Mennonites,  Lutherans,  Separatists,  and  In- 
spirationists.  "5 

Early  in  December,  1749,  Brethren  Schnell  and  Brand- 
mueller  were  on  a  missionary  tour  in  Virginia.  They  came 
down  from  the  vicinity  of  Staunton,  into  what  is  now  East 
Rockingham,  and  made  record  of  their  goings  and  doings  in 
the  following  interesting  narrative: 

On  December  2nd  we  continued  our  journey  the  whole  day,  because 
we  wished  to  be  with  the  Germans  on  Sunday.  Once  we  lost  our  way. 
But  our  desire  to  preach  to-morrow  strengthened  us  in  our  journey.  In 
the  evening  we  attempted  to  hire  a  man  to  go  with  us  part  of  the  way, 
but  none  was  willing.  We  continued  for  a  time  down  the  Tschanator,  and 
arrived  rather  late  at  the  house  of  the  sons  of  the  old  Stopfel  Franciscus, 
who  kept  us  over  night. 

On  Sunday,  December  3rd,  the  young  Franciscus  went  very  early 
with  us  to  show  us  the  way  to  Matthias  Schaub's,6  who,  immediately  on 
my  offer  to  preach  for  them,  sent  messengers  through  the  neighborhood 
to  announce  my  sermon.  In  a  short  time  a  considerable  number  of  people 
assembled,  to  whom  I  preached.  After  the  sermon  I  baptized  the  child 
of  a  Hollander.  We  staid  over  night  with  Matthias  Schaub.  His  wife 
told  us  that  we  were  always  welcome  in  their  house.      We  should  always 

4.  For  an  extended  account  of  Mr.  Klug's  life  and  labors,  see  Huddle's 
History  of  Hebron  Lutheran  Church,  pp.  31-38.  See  also  Virginia  Maga- 
zine of  History  and  Biography,  January  and  July,  1904. 

5.  Virginia  Magazine,  January,  1904,  pp.  238-240. 



come  to  them  whenever  we  came  into  that  district. 

Towards  evening  a  man  from  another  district,  Adam  Mueller,^  passed. 
1  told  him  that  I  would  Hke  to  come  to  his  house  and  preach  there.  He 
asked  me  if  I  were  sent  by  God.  I  answered,  yes.  He  said,  if  I  were 
sent  by  God  I  would  be  welcome,  but  he  said,  there  are  at  present  so 
many  kinds  of  people,  that  often  one  does  not  know  where  they  come 
from.  I  requested  him  to  notify  his  neighbors  that  I  would  preach  on  the 
5th,  which  he  did. 

On  December  4th  we  left  Schaub's  house,  commending  the  whole 
family  to  God.  We  traveled  through  the  rain  across  the  South  Shenan- 
doah to  Adam  Mueller,  who  received  us  with  much  love.  We  staid 
over  night  with  him. 

On  December  5th  I  preached  at  Adam  Mueller's  house  on  John  7: 
''Whosoever  thirsteth  let  him  come  to  the  water  and  drink."  A  number 
of  thirsty  souls  were  present.  Especially  Adam  Mueller  took  in  every 
word,  and  after  the  sermon  declared  himself  well  pleased.  In  the  after- 
noon we  traveled  a  short  distance,  staying  over  night  with  a  Swiss.  8 
The  conversation  was  very  dry,  and  the  word  of  Christ's  sufferings  found 
no  hearing. 

On  December  6th  we  came  to  Mesanoton.  We  staid  with  Philip 
Lung,  9  who  had  his  own  religion.  I  intended  to  preach,  but  he  would  not 
let  us  have  his  house,  assuring  us  that  none  would  come,  since  Rev.  Mr. 
Klug  had  warned  the  people  to  be  on  their  guard  against  us.  We  had 
soon  an  opportunity  of  seeing  how  bitter  the  people  are  towards  us. 
Hence  we  concluded  to  leave,  which  we  did,  wishing  God's  blessing  upon 

<5.  Schaub  (Shoup)  died  a  month  or  two  after  Schnell's  visit.  On 
February  26th,  1750,  Jacob  Nicholas  and  Valentine  Pence  qualified  as  ex- 
ecutors of  his  will.  See  Augusta  County  Will  Book  No.  1,  pp.  312,  313. 
He  evidently  lived  on  the  west  side  of  the  river,  somewhere  between 
Port  Republic  and  Elkton. 

7.  Adam  Miller,  the  first  settler. 

8.  Mr.  Chas.  E.  Kemper  thinks  that  this  "Swiss"  was  likely  Jacob 
Baer,  Sr.,  a  native  of  Zurich,  and  at  this  time  a  resident  of  East  Rocking- 

9.  Philip  Long  was  one  of  the  first  Massanutten  settlers.  The  Long 
family  is  still  numerous  and  prominent  in  upper  Page  County.  A  mem- 
ber of  this  family  was  the  wife  of  Gen.  Sterling  Price,  of  Missouri. 
Philip  Long  was  born  in  Germany  in  1678,  and  died  in  Page  or  Rocking- 
ham County,  Va.,  May  4,  1755. 



3  « 


the  district.     An  unmarried  man,  H.  Reder,  took  us  through  the  river. 
He  told  us  that  eight  weeks  before  he  had  visited  Bethlehem,  lo 

On  their  tour  through  Virginia  in  the  fall  and  winter 
of  1749,  to  which  reference  has  just  been  made,  Breth- 
ren Schnell  and  Brandmueller  made  out  a  table  of  dis- 
tances over  which  they  travelled,  beginning  at  Bethlehem, 
Pa.,  crossing  Maryland  into  what  is  now  West  Virginia,  fol- 
lowing up  the  South  Branch  of  the  Potomac  through  what 
are  now  the  counties  of  Hardy  and  Pendleton,  and  going  be- 
yond, even  to  the  valleys  of  the  James  and  New  River,  then 
returning  to  Pennsylvania  through  the  Shenandoah  Valley. 
Beginning  about  Staunton,  the  following  distances  show  the 
route  taken  through  Rockingham  and  Shenandoah: 

[From  N.  Bell]  To  Franciscus  at  the  Soud  Schanathor,  30 
To  Matthias  Schaub,  4 

To  Adam  Mueller  and  back  again  across  the  river,  8 

To  Philip  Lung  and  Mesanothen,  16 

To  Captain  John  Funk,  20^^ 

In  the  autumn  of  1753  a  colony  of  the  Moravian  Brethren 
migrated  from  Pennsylvania  to  North  Carolina.  Their  way 
led  up  through  the  Valley.  In  their  record  they  mention  the 
Narrow  Passage  and  Stony  Creek  (in  Shenandoah  County), 
and  speak  of  camping  alongside  the  "Shanidore  Creek,"  at  a 
place  that  must  now  be  located  between  Hawkinstown  and 
Red  Banks.  Five  miles  further  on  they  crossed  the  "Shani- 
dore," and  camped  close  to  the  bank  to  observe  Sunday  (Oc- 
tober 21,  1753).  They  were  now  in  the  famous  Meem's  Bot- 
toms, between  Mt.  Jackson  and  New  Market.  Brethren 
Loesch  and  Kalberland  were  bled,  because  they  were  not  well, 
and  all  gave  themselves  a  treat  by  drinking  tea.  The  next 
day,  coming  on  up  the  Valley,  they  found,  in  the  vicinity  of 
New  Market  or  Tenth  Legion,  a  tavern-keeper  named  Severe. 
This  was  evidently  Valentine  Severe,  father  of  General  John 
Sevier,   and  a  relative  of  Francis  Xavier.     The  next  part 

10.  Virginia  Magazine  of  History  and  Biography,  October,  1903,  pp. 

11.  Idem,  July,  1904,  page  82. 



of  the  narrative  gives  so  many  realistic  touches  relating  to 
the  Rockingham  of  that  day,  that  it  is  quoted  herewith  ver- 

We  inquired  about  the  way,  but  could  not  get  good  information. 
After  traveling  three  and  a  half  miles,  we  found  two  passable  roads.  Bro. 
Gottlob  and  Nathanael  preceded  us  on  the  left  hand  road.  They  met  a 
woman,  who  informed  them  about  the  way.  Then  they  came  back  to  us 
again  and  we  took  the  road  to  the  right.  We  traveled  ten  miles  without 
finding  water.  It  was  late  already  and  we  were  compelled  to  travel  five 
miles  during  the  dark  night.  We  had  to  climb  two  mountains,  which 
compelled  us  to  push  the  wagon  along  or  we  could  not  have  proceeded, 
for  our  horses  were  completely  fagged  out.  Two  of  the  brethren  had  to 
go  ahead  to  show  us  the  road,  and  thus  we  arrived  late  at  Thom.  Harris's 
plantation.  Here  we  bought  feed  for  our  horses  and  pitched  our  tent  a 
short  distance  from  the  house.  The  people  were  very  friendly.  They 
lodge  strangers  very  willingly. 

The  "two  mountains"  above  mentioned  were  probably 
spurs  of  Chestnut  Ridge;  and  "Thom  Harris"  was  probably 
no  other  than  Thomas  Harrison,  founder  of  Harrisonburg.  It 
is  Hkely  that  Harrison  had  already  (1753)  erected  his  stone 
mansion  house,  now  occupied  by  Gen.  John  E.  Roller  as  a 
law  office,  and,  according  to  the  present  lay-out  of  the  town, 
situated  on  Bruce  Street,  just  west  of  Main;  and  that  the 
wayfaring  brethren  pitched  their  tent  beside  the  big  spring 
that  was  for  so  many  years  a  familiar  rendezvous  at  the  west 
side  of  Court  Square.  Harrisonburg  still  has  the  habit  of 
being  hospitable  to  strangers. 

We  follow  the  brethren  a  few  miles  further,  as  they  go 
on  toward  '  'Augusti  Court  House,  a  little  town  of  some 
twenty  houses,  surrounded  by  mountains  on  all  sides." 

On  October  23  we  started  at  daybreak  [from  Thomas  Harrison's]. 
We  had  bought  a  small  barrel  of  milk  to  use  for  dinner,  but  it  broke  and 
we  lost  all.  Two  miles  farther  we  bought  some  meat,  and  then  traveled 
six  miles  farther  to  North  River,  where  we  ate  our  dinner.  This  creek  is 
half  as  large  as  the  Lecha  [Lehigh],  but  it  is  impassable  at  high  water, 
nor  is  a  canoe  in  the  neighborhood.  13 

The  brethren  had  thus  come  in  their  journey  to  the 

12.  Virginia  Magazine  of  History  and  Biography,  October,    1904,   pp.. 



vicinity  of  Mt.  Crawford.  They  tell  of  their  dinner  there  of 
meat  and  dumplings,  and  of  their  experiences  farther  on,  at 
Middle  River,  at  Robert  Bohk's,  and  at  "Augusti  Court 
House";  but  having  followed  them  to  the  borders  of  Rock- 
ingham, we  bid  them  farewell. 

Samuel  Kercheval,  the  old  historian  of  the  Valley,  says: 

From  the  best  evidence  the  author  has  been  able  to  collect,  .  .  . 
the  settlement  of  our  Valley  progressed  without  interruption  from  the 
native  Indians  for  a  period  of  about  twenty-three  years.  In  the  year 
1754,  the  Indians  suddenly  disappeared,  and  crossed  the  Alleghany  Moun- 
tains. The  year  preceding,  emissaries  from  the  west  of  the  Alleghany 
Mountains  came  among  the  Valley  Indians  and  invited  them  to  move  off. 
This  occurrence  excited  suspicion  among  the  white  people  that  a  storm 
was  brewing  in  the  west,  which  it  was  essential  to  prepare  to  meet.  13 

Kercheval  dates  the  beginning  of  Valley  settlement  in 
1732.  Counting  thence  twenty-three  years  would  give  1755, 
the  year  of  Braddock's  defeat.  The  war  with  the  French 
and  Indians  began  in  1754,  and  continued  till  1763.  During 
this  time  Indian  raids  into  the  Valley  from  the  west  were 
frequent,  particularly  in  the  two  or  three  years  following  the 
defeat  of  Braddock.  Occasionally  the  bands  of  red  men  were 
led  by  French  officers.  It  was  in  April  of  1758  that  the  mas- 
sacres at  Upper  Tract  and  Fort  Seybert  took  place,  in  which 
more  than  forty  persons  were  killed,  some  twenty-odd  others 
being  carried  into  captivity.  The  Indians  at  Fort  Seybert 
were  led  by  the  famous  chief  Killbuck.  From  1777  to  1787 
both  Upper  Tract  and  Fort  Seybert  were  within  the  bounda- 
ries of  Rockingham  County,  the  site  of  the  latter  being  west 
of  Brock's  Gap,  only  a  few  miles  beyond  the  present  Rock- 
ingham line.'* 

13.    Kercehval's  History  of  the  Valley  of  Virginia,   reprint  of   1902, 
page  49. 

14.  For  detailed  accounts  of  the  massacres  at  Upper  Tract  and  Fort 
Seybert,  see  Kercheval,  pp.  89-91,  and  Morton's  History  of  Pendleton 
County,  West  Virginia,  pp.  42-50. 



Daniel  Smith  (Lt.)'^  Ury  Umble 

Mathias  Tice  (Dice?)  Peter  Vaneman 

Christian  Tuley  Jacob  Wiece 

Gunrod  Umble  Joseph  Wiece 

Martin  Umble  Filey  Yacome 

Among  the  persons  named  in  the  schedule  as  having  fur- 
nished supplies  to  the  the  troops,  the  following  were  all 
probably  from  Rockingham: 

James  Bruister  James  Fowler 

Wooley  Coonrod  Felix  Gilbert^^ 

George  Coplinger  Ruben  Harrison 

James  Cowan  Alexander  Hering 

Charles  Diver  Leonard  Hire 

Hugh  Diver  Nicholas  Huffman 

Roger  Dyer  Archibald  Huston 

William  Dyer  Gabriel  Jones^ 

Michael  Erhart  Joseph  Love 

Evan  Evans  Henry  Peninger 

Nathaniel  Evans  Matthew  Rolestone 

Rhoda  Evans  William  Rolestone 

Lodowick  Folk  Ephraim  Voss^^ 

18-  Daniel  Smith,  a  younger  brother  of  Abraham,  was  a  captain  of 
militia  in  1776,  and  in  1778  was  one  of  the  first  justices  of  Rockingham, 
being  presiding  justice  at  the  time  of  his  death  in  1781.  He  lived  at 
Smithland,  two  miles  below  Harrisonburg,  and  the  first  sessions  of  the 
county  court  were  held  at  his  house.  His  wife  was  Jane  Harrison.  He 
had  been  a  justice  in  Augusta  County,  and  had  held  the  office  of  sheriff 
in  that  county.  When  the  troops  returned  from  Yorktown,  in  the  fall  of 
1781,  he  was  colonel  of  militia,  and  was  thrown  from  his  horse  and  fatally 
injured  in  the  grand  review  held  in  Rockingham  to  celebrate  the  victory. 
See  Waddell's  Annals  of  Augusta,  pp.  150-152. 

19.  Felix  Gilbert  was  a  well  known  citizen  of  Rockingham,  wealthy, 
and  prominent  in  many  connections. 

20.  Gabriel  Jones,  "The  Lawyer,"  lived  on  the  river,  a  mile  or  two  be- 
low Port  Republic,  the  place  now  being  known  as  Bogota. 

21.  Voss  may  have  lived  in  Southwest  Virginia,  since  Fort  Voss  (Vause) 
is  said  to  have  been  at  the  head  of  Roanoke  River,  in  the  present  county 
of  Montgomery,  about  ten  miles  from  Christiansburg. 



By  the  favor  of  Mr.  John  T.  Harris  the  author  has  been 
enabled  to  go  over  an  old  day  book  used  from  1774  to  1777, 
etc.,  by  Felix  Gilbert,  who  lived  and  kept  a  store  at  or  near 
the  place  since  known  as  Peale's  Cross  Roads,  five  miles  or  so 
southeast  of  Harrisonburg.  A  number  of  items,  copied  from 
this  old  book,  are  given  below.  They  have  personal,  social, 
and  economic  interest,  as  well  as  some  pohtical  significance. 

Reed,  for  the  Bostonians 

Of   Patrick  Frazier        -        -  -        1  bus.  wheat 

Jos.  Dicktom        -        -  .            2    do. 

George  Boswell        -        -  -        5^  do.      (5  bus.  Retd.) 

James  Walker        -        -  -          1    do.          Return'd 

George  Clark          -          -  -       1    do. 

James  Beard         -          -  -         1    do. 

Robt.  Scott  &  son    -        -  -        2    do. 

It  is  evident  from  the  above  that  contributions  were  being 
made  in  this  part  of  Virginia,  as  well  as  elsewhere,  for  the  re- 
lief of  the  patriots  of  Boston,  whose  harbor  had  been  closed  by 
Act  of  Parliament  in  1774,  as  a  penalty  for  the  '  'Boston  Tea 

Monday,  Deer.  5th,  1774 
John  Alford  (weaver)  Dr. 

To  1  pr.  Shoe  Buckles         -        -        -         -         -         1  [s.]  3  [d.] 

To  1  qt.  whisky        -        - 1         0 

To  1  pr.  Compasses        ------  9 

To  3  doz.  Buttons        -----  -  20 

[Same  Date.] 
Robt.  Elliot  Pr.    Order  Dr. 

To  pd.  Schoolmaster        -----  60 

James  Wayt  Pr.  Order  Dr. 

To  pd.  Schoolmaster        -         -         _        .         .  6        0 

Dennis  MeSwyny  (Schoolmaster)  Cr. 

[By  above  two  items  and] 
Wm.  Ham        ----....  44 

Esther  Taylor      -        -         -         -----         10        0 

Wednesday,  Deer.  7th,  1774. 
Little  Jack         -         -         .....  Dr. 

To  1  pt  Tin        -        -  -  -        -  -  -  9  [d.] 

i    pt.  whisky        ------- 



It  is  possible  that  Little  Jack  was  an  Indian.  Whiskey 
was  a  common  commodity  in  the  Valley  in  Revolutionary  days, 
as  doth  abundantly  appear  not  only  from  Felix  Gilbert's  old 
ledger,  but  also  from  the  records  of  the  court,  a  number  of 
which  records  may  be  found  in  the  next  chapter. 

Deer.    13,  1774 
Col.  Thos.   Slaugh'r  Dr. 

To  a  handsaw        -------  5  g 

To  Drawg  Knife      -------  2  9 

a  hammer        --------  2  — 

1  augr        --------  13 

1  pr  shears -  1  — 

200  nails        ------,.  2  10 

2  Gimlets        --------  —  6 

1  Tin  Cup        --------  —  6 

li  yds.  flannl        -------  3  i 

Friday,  Deer.  23d,  1774. 
Capt.  Danl.  Love  Dr. 

To  1  Gal.  Rum        ------  50 

4  lbs.  Sugar        -------  34 

To  4  pr.  Garters        ------  30 

Colo.  John  Frogg  Dr. 

To  1  knife  &  fork 2         3 

To  1  saek  salt        -------         1        1  0 

Saturday,  Deer.  24th,  1774 
Little  Jaek  Dr. 

To  6  pipes        ------ 

Tuesday,   Deer.  27,  1774 
Jacob  Grubb  per  self  &  Frow 

To  lib.  Lead        -------  6 

To  1  stamp'd  Handhf        -----  36 

To  27^  lbs.  Iron  at  4  d.        -         -         -         -         -  9          2 

To  6  lbs.  Eng.  Steel        ------  6         0 

To  h  lb.  Blister'd  do.         -----        -  4i 

To  2  setts  knit'g  needles        -----  g 

Tuesday,  J  any.  10th,  1775 
Jacob  Lincoln 

To  24J  lbs.   Blistered  steel        -        .        -        -  18         4J 

To  Uh  lbs.    Eng.  do.         -         -        -        -         -  14  6 

To   1  hank  silk         ------  10 



Saturday,  J  any.  14th,  1775 
Jack  (bigg)  Dr. 

To  i  pt  whisky 4  [d.] 

Were  "Big  Jack"  and  "Little  Jack"  both  Indians?  It 
would  so  appear  from  the  nature  of  their  purchases.  Indians 
were  frequently  seen  in  this  part  of  the  Valley  at  a  much 
later  period. 

Saturday,    Feby.  11th,    '75 

Gawin  Hamilton  Dr. 

To  5000  E.  nails 17         6 

To  3  Chizels 3         0 

To  1  Rasp        -------  13 

To  1  pr.  saddle  strops        -----  10 

Friday,  Feb.  17th,  '75 

Capt.  Rowland  Thomas  Dr. 

To  85  lbs.  tallow   at  6d        -        -        -        -  17         6 

To  237  lbs.  Flower  at  12-lc        -        -        -        -      1        9  7i 

Monday,  Feby.  20th,  1775. 

Mr.  Thos.  Lewis  pr  Capt.  Smiths  Cesar 
To  makg  Ring&  Staple 
&  pin  for  Ox  Yoke        -..-.-  39 

Thursday,  March  2d,  1775. 

Mr.  Gabl.  Jones — per  Jimm —  Dr. 

To  6  Venison  Hams  at  1-9        -        -        -        -  10        6 

Thursday,  9th  March,  1775. 

Doctr.  Thos.  Walker22  pr  Mr.  Gilmer 
To  2  yds  Osnabrugs 2         2 

Mr.  Peachy  Gilmer  Dr. 

To  23  yd.  wt.   linin 3  3        3 

To  2  Oz.  wt.   thread        -----  30 

To  2  felt  Hats        - 4        0 

To  2  qr.  paper 36 

22.  This  was  probably  the  distinguished  Dr.  Thos.   Walker,  of  Albe- 
marle County,  Va. 



Friday,   March  17th,  1775. 

Isaac  Zane,23  pr  W.  Crow  Cr. 

By  20—0—12   Iron 20      2      2 

Tuesday,  May  30th,  1775. 

Mr.  John  Madison24  Senr.  pr  self 

To   18i  yds.  Velveret 1        14        0 

Saturday,  July  1st,  1775, 

Danl.  Love  Dr. 

To  2  Sickles 2       3 

Thursday,  July  6th,   '75 
Jacob  Purky  Cr. 

By    1   day  Reaping 2        6 

By  1  day  do.  yr.    negro        -----  26 

[No  date:    Probably  1777:] 

one  Davis  a  preacher  has  a  Hyde  of  Leather— John  wilson  owes  3 
Dollars — an  old  Quaker  on  Stephen  jays  place — Saml.  watts  owes  some- 

Feby.  16th — 1778  Boler  Lee  has  rented  ye  plantation  I  had  of  Thos. 
Dooley  on  ye  South  mountain  [Blue  Ridge],  he  is  to  have  it  for  one  year 
&  to  make  up  ye  Fences  &  pay  400  lbs.  of  good  merchantable  Tobo.  or  12 
Barrils  of  Corn,  if  he  Dos  not  keep  it  more  than  one  year  he  is  to  let  ye 
person  that  sukceeds  him  put  in  a  fall  Crop. 

List  of  Tithables  for  1775. 

Felix  Gilbert  was  probably  authorized  by  the  Augusta 
County  court  to  take  the  list  of  tithables  in  his  distirct.  At 
any  rate,  the  following  list,  dated  1775,  is  found  written  in 
his  book.  Most  of  the  names  herein  given  are  still  familiar 
in  Rockingham: 

John  Coutes  1  Heny.  Hunger  1 

Robt.  Heth  2  Jno.  Tack  1 

Jno.  Deneston  2  Henry  Tack  1 

33.  Gen.  Isaac  Zane  had  iron  works  on  Cedar  Creek,  the  present 
boundary  between  the  counties  of  Shenandoah  and  Frederick.  He  was 
perhaps  a  brother  of  Elizabeth  Zane. 

24.  John  Madison  was  the  first  clerk  of  Augusta  County,  and  was  the 
father  of  Bishop  Madison.     He  lived  at  Port  Republic. 



Jacob  Tack 

Adam  Siller 


Chas.  Foy 


Peter  Siller 


John  Foy 

Heny.  Siller 


John  Mungor 

Jacob  Arkinbright 


John  Miller 

John  Rush 


Paul  Lingle 

Henry  Deck 


John  Lingle 

John  Deck 


ID^anl.  Price 

Jacob  Deck 


John  Futch 

Lewis  Rinehart 


Fredk.  Haynes 

Geo.  Hoofman 


Heny.  Null 

Michl.  Hoofman 


Heny.  Tamwood 

Fredk.  Armontrout 


Jno.  Null 

Mathias  Shooler 


Jacob  Lingle,  Jur. 

Ullry  Hushman 


Mathi's  Kersh 

Ullry  Hushman,  Jr. 


Michl.  Siller 

Peter  Nasmus 


Avonas  Bowyer 

Geo.  Conrod 


John  Bowyer 

Conrod  Petorfish 


Jno.  Futch,  Jur. 

Jacob  Moyer 


Saml.  Magot 

Peter  Brunomer 


James  Madday 

Anthony  Brunomer 

John  Hardman 

Danl.  Sink 

John  Hadrick 

Heny.  Cook 

Stephen  Hansberger 

Heny.  Armentrout 

Adam  Hansberger 

Heny.  Price 

Geo.  Fridley 

Boler  Lee 

Jacob  Hammer 

Michl.  Dofflemire 

Wm.  Summersetts 

Windal  Leverts  [?] 

Geo.  Blose 

Adam  Blose 

Conrad  Taylor 

Conrod  Young 

Martin  DofFilmire 

Wm.  Smith,  Jr. 

Christian  Teter 

Mijah  Smith 

Heny.  Miller 

Brustor  Smith 

Boston  Noster 

Wm.  Smith 

Thos.  Barnet 

Jacob  Nicholas 

Matthew  Petmus 

Richd.  Welsh 

Wm.  Haney 

John  Lawn 

— 5&— 


Thos.  Doolin  1 

Wm.  Lee  1 

Zephaniah  Lee  1 

Zachariah  Lee  1 

Martin  Crawford  1 

Robert  Lynes  1 

James  Raynes  [?]  1 

Thos.  Berry  1 

Jas.  Raines  Jur.  1 

Jas.  Berry  1 

John  Siller  1 

Christian  Miller  1 

Philip  Lingle  1 

Jno.  Armontrout  1 

Augustian  Price  3 

Geo.  Mallow  3 

Wm.  Pence  1 

Jacob  Grace  1 

Geo.  Pence  [?] 

John  Pence  1 

Chas.  Rush  1 

John  Rush  1 

Anthoney  Aler  2 

William  Oler  1 

Henry  Oler  1 

John  Oler  1 

John  Fults  3 

Cutlip  Arie  1 

Robert  Hook,  Sr.  2 

Evan  Evins  1 

John  Hooper  1 

Jonathan  Evans  1 

Saml.  Twichet  1 

John  White,  Sr.  5 

John  White,  Jr.  1 

The  evidence  is  already  abundant  in  the  foregoing  par- 
ticulars to  show  that  the  settlement  of  Rockingham  was  go- 

Robert  Hill 


Willm.  Lee,  Jr. 


David  Koch 


Rubin  Roch 


Willm.  Boswell 


John  Frizor 


Ephraim  Wilson 


Wm.  Coile 


Thos.  Huet 


William  Campbell 


Jno.  Jackson 


James  Bruster 


Felix  Gilbert 


John  Craig 


William  Hook 

James  Hook 

Robt.  Hook  Irish 

James  Archer 

George  Shaver 

James  Scott 

Nat  Scott 

Robt.  Scott,  Jr. 

Jacob  Scott 

"Mii^v^ninc?  ivr 


IN  ICnUlcilS  iVi 

Michl.  Trout 

Margt.  Purkey 


Jacob  Purkey 


John  Pence,  Jur. 

Henry  Pence 

Adm.  Pence 

John  Purkey 

Henry  Purkey 

Jacob  Pence 

Elijah  Hook 



ing  on  steadily  and  rapidly  during  the  whole  period  now  under 
consideration,  that  is,  the  years  from  1738  to  1777.  The 
records  concerning  inn-keepers,  military  organizations,  and 
well  established  communities,  as  well  as  those  concerning 
numerous  individuals  widely  distributed,  indicate  conclusively 
that  even  as  early  as  the  first  courts  in  Augusta  (1745)  that 
part  of  the  county  now  included  in  Rockingham  was  dotted 
over  with  clearings  and  homesteads.  Additional  evidence,  if 
it  were  needed,  might  be  found  in  the  records  of  the  old 
churches,  some  of  which  can  easily  trace  their  organization 
back  mto  the  early  18th  century.  St.  Peter's,  below  Elkton, 
Peaked  Mountain  Church,  at  or  near  McGaheysville,  Rader's 
Church,  near  Timberville,  Friedens,  near  Cross  Keys,  St. 
Michael's,  above  Bridgewater,  and  Spader's  Church,  near 
Pleasant  Valley,  not  to  mention  others,  are  all  old  churches, 
and  in  a  few  of  them  are  well-preserved  chronicles  of  very 
early  days.  The  most  complete  and  best  preserved  records 
are  perhaps  those  found  in  the  Peaked  Mountain  Church. 
Parts  of  these  records  were  translated  and  published  in  1905, 
by  W.  J.  Hinke  and  C.  E.  Kemper,  in  the  William  and  Mary 
College  Quarterly.  A  complete  translation  should  be  given 
to  the  pubhc  in  convenient  form,  since  dozens  of  families, 
not  only  in  Rockingham  County,  but  also  in  many  other 
parts  of  the  United  States,  would  find  therein  matter  of 
great  interest. 

A  few  of  the  Peaked  Mountain  records  of  births  and  bap- 
tisms go  back  to  1750  and  before,  but  the  regular  organiza- 
tion of  the  congregation  must,  perhaps,  be  placed  a  few  years 
later.  The  following  extract  is  given  from  the  above-men- 
tioned translation  by  Mr.  Hinke,  as  containing  certain  facts 
of  historical  interest  relating  to  the  period  under  considera- 
tion, together  with  a  number  of  family  names  that  have  been 
familiar  in  Rockingham  for  more  than  a  century  and  a  half. 

Agreement  Between  the  Reformed  and  Lutheran  Congregations 
Worshipping  in  the  Peaked  Mountain  Church:  Rockingham  Co., 
Va.,  Oct.  31,  1769. 

In  the  name  of   the  Triune  God  and  with  the  consent  of   the  whole 



congregation,  we  have  commenced  to  build  a  new  house  of  God,  and  it  is 
by  the  help  of  God,  so  far  finished  that  the  world  may  see  it. 

We  have  established  it  as  a  union  church,  in  the  use  of  which  the 
Lutherans  and  their  descendants  as  well  as  the  Reformed  and  their  de- 
scendants, shall  have  equal  share.  But  since  it  is  necessary  to  keep  in  re- 
pair the  church  and  school  house  and  support  the  minister  and  school- 
master, therefore,  we  have  drawn  up  this  writing  that  each  member  sign 
his  name  to  the  same  and  thereby  certify  that  he  will  support  the  min- 
ister and  school-master  and  help  to  keep  in  repair  the  church  and  the 
school-house  as  far  as  lies  in  his  ability. 

Should,  however,  one  or  another  withdraw  himself  from  such  Chris- 
tian work,  (which  we  would  not  suppose  a  Christian  would  do),  we  have 
unitedly  concluded  that  such  a  one  shall  not  be  looked  upon  as  a  member 
of  our  congregation,  but  he  shall  pay  for  the  baptism  of  a  child  2s.  6d., 
which  shall  go  into  the  treasury  of  the  church,  for  the  confirmation  of  the 
child  5s.,  which  shall  be  paid  to  the  minister  as  his  fee;  and  further, 
should  such  a  one  come  to  the  table  of  the  Lord  and  partake  of  the  Holy 
Communion,  he  shall  pay  5s.,  which  shall  go  into  the  treasury  of  the 
church;  and  finally,  if  such  a  one  desires  burial  in  our  graveyard,  he  shall 
pay  5s. ,  which  shall  also  be  paid  into  the  treasury  of  the  church. 

In  confirmation  of  which  we  have  drawn  up  this  document,  and  signed 
it  with  our  several  signatures. 

Done  in  Augusta  County,  at  the  Peaked  Mountain  and  the  Stony 
Creek  churches,  on  October  31st,  Anno  Domini,  1769. 

The  present  elders: 

George  Mallo,  Sr.  Nicholas   Mildeberger 


John    X    Hetrick  Frederick    Ermentraut 


Philip    Ermentraut  Jacob  Bercke 

Henry  Ermentraut  his 

Daniel  Kropf  J^^o^   1.  E.  Ergebrecht 

Peter  Mueller,  Sr.  ^^^^  g^^^^^ 


Adam  0  Hetrich  Jacob  Ergebrecht 

T^^^^  John  Mildeberger 

Jacob  Traut  t  u     tt 

.  ^-      Ti     •    1-  John  Hausman 

Augustme  Preisch  ^  ,^  ,, 

George  Schillinger  George  Mallo,  Jr. 

Anthony  Oehler  Jacob  Lmgle 

John  Mann  P^ter  Niclas 

Alwinus  Boyer  Jacob  Kropf 

Charles  Risch  Jacob  Niclas 

Henry  Kohler  George  Zimmerman 

William  Long  Christian  Geiger 



Augustine  Preisch,  Jr.  Peter  Euler 

Conrad  Preisch  William  Mchel 

Jacob  Kissling  Jacob  Risch 

Jacob  Bens  J«hn  Ermentraut 

.J        TT  Corad  Loevenstein 

Adam  Herman  ^  ,      _,  ,       . 

John  Schaefer 

Michael  Mallo  Christopher  Ermentraut 

/-.I.  •  ^     t-     *^v  TT  Martin  Schneider 

Christopher  X  Hau  x  .      t. 

mark  John  Bens 

In  closing  this  chapter  it  will  be  of  interest  to  record  the 
fact  that  the  part  of  Augusta  County  now  known  as  Rock- 
ingham furnished  at  least  one  company  of  soldiers  in  Dun- 
more's  War,  and  that  this  company  took  part  in  the  famous 
battle  of  Point  Pleasant,  October  10,  1774.  This  company 
was  commanded  by  Captain,  later,  Colonel  William  Nalle,  who 
Hved  in  East  Rockingham,  and  was,  in  1778,  made  one  of 
the  first  justices  of  Rockingham  County.-^  It  is  also  a  fact  of 
special  interest  that  it  was  a  Rockingham  man,  Valentine 
Sevier,  who,  with  James  Robertson,  later  known  as  the  father 
of  Middle  Tennessee,  first  discovered  the  presence  of  the  In- 
dians early  on  that  fateful  morning  at  Point  Pleasant.  Seyier 
was  a  younger  brother  of  General  John  Sevier,  and  was  born 
in  Rockingham  in  1747.  In  1773  he  went  to  the  southwest, 
and  was  thus  a  member  of  Captain  Evan  Shelby's  company  in 
1774.  He  and  Robertson  went  out  before  day  at  Point  Pleas- 
ant to  hunt  turkeys,  and  thus  discovered  the  Indian  army. 
He  was  a  captain  in  the  Revolution,  and  took  part  in  the  battle 
of  King's  Mountain.  After  other  military  services,  in  which 
he  rose  to  the  rank  of  militia  colonel,  he  removed  to  Clarks- 
ville,  Tenn.,  where  he  died  in  1800. 

Among  the  other  captains  who  took  part  at  Point  Pleasant, 
as  given  by  Thwaites  and  Kellogg,  were  Benj.  Harrison,  John 
Skidmore,  Joseph  Haynes,  and  Daniel  Smith. 

Benjamin  Harrison  (1741-1819)  was  a  son  of  Daniel  Har- 

25.  For  a  list  of  the  men  in  Captain  Nalle's  company,  see  the  muster 
roll  in  the  Appendix.  This  muster  roll  is  copied  from  Thwaites  and  Kel- 
logg's  Documentary  History  of  Dunmore's  War,  page  405. 



rison  of  Rockingham;  father  of  Peachy  Harrison,  grandfather 
of  Gessner  Harrison.  He  was  a  colonel  in  Mcintosh's  cam- 
paign (1777),  and  led  troops  in  1781  to  aid  Lafayette  against 
Cornwallis.  John  Skidmore,  who  was  wounded  at  Point 
Pleasant,  was  a  soldier  in  the  French  and  Indian  War  and 
one  of  the  first  justices  of  Rockingham  County.  Daniel  Smith, 
though  living  at  this  time  in  Southwest  Virginia,  was  prob- 
ably a  son  of  Colonel  Daniel  Smith  of  Rockingham.  Joseph 
Haynes  was  a  resident  of  Rockingham  or  of  some  section  ad- 
jacent. In  Felix  Gilbert's  day  book  before  me,  covering  sev- 
eral years  from  December  5,  1774,  the  names  of  Capt.  Jos. 
Haynes,  Capt,  John  Skidmore,  and  Capt.  Benjamin  Harrison, 
as  well  as  the  name  of  Capt.  William  Nalle,  frequently  appear. 
Evidently  they  were  all  frequent  customers  at  Gilbert's  store, 
which,  as  shown  above,  was  not  far  from  Harrisonburg.  It 
is  reasonable  to  suppose,  therefore,  that  a  number  of  the  men 
in  the  companies  commanded  by  Harrison,  Skidmore,  and 
Haynes  were  also  from  Rockingham,  though  the  rolls  of  these 
companies  seem  not  to  be  preserved.  ^^^ 

26-  For  additional  particulars  regarding  Harrison  and  Smith,  the  reader 
is  referred  to  Waddell's  Annals  of  Augusta,  Boogher's  Gleanings  of  Vir- 
ginia History,  and  Thwaites  and  Kellogg's  Documentary  History  of  Dun- 
more  '  s  War.     In  the  last  may  also  be  found  a  sketch  of  Valentine  Sevier,  Jr. 

IJoikingliam  County  Court  House,  Erected  l><'.i;> 
Photo  by  Dean  i  Tasfe  K.-'j 

[Page  168J 

Views  of  Third  County  Court  House,  is;  l-lSSMi  Rear 

Photo  by  Mon-ison 

Second  County  Court  House.     1»^83-1K74 
Photo  loaned  by  Mrs.  C.  S.  Burkholder 



In  October,  1777,  the  Act  providing  for  the  creation  of 
the  County  of  Rockingham  from  Augusta  was  passed  by  the 
Virginia  legislature;  and  early  the  next  year,  to  wit,  in  April 
1778,  the  first  court  for  the  new  county  was  held.  The  board 
of  justices  w^as  in  session  two  days,  and  transacted  a  great 
deal  of  important  business,  not  only  in  process  of  civil  organ- 
ization, but  also  in  reference  to  various  personal  interests  ©f 
individual  citizens. 

The  following  paragraph,  copied  from  the  original  min- 
ute-book of  the  court,  will  get  the  situation  and  the  several 
actors  on  the  scene  clearly  before  us: 

Be  it  remembered  that  on  the  xxvii  Day  of  April  MDCCLXXviii  a 
Commission  of  the  peace  and  a  Commission  of  Oyer  &  Terminer  under  the 
Hand  of  his  Excellency  Patrick  Henry  Esq.  Governor  in  Chief,  dated  the 
xxiv  Day  of  March  MDCCLXXviii  directed  to  Silas  Hart,  Daniel  Smith, 
Abraham  Smith,  John  Gratten,  Josiah  Davison,  John  Skidmore,  George 
Boswell,  Thomas  Hewitt,  John  Thomas,  William  Nalle,  Robert  Davis, 
James  Dyer,  Henry  Ewing,  William  McDowell,  Anthony  Ryder,  John 
Fitzwater  &  Isaac  Hinckel  Gent.  Justices  for  the  County  of  Rockingham 
being  read,  Daniel  Smith  &  Abraham  Smith  having  administer'd  the 
Oath  of  a  Justice  of  Peace  as  prescribed  by  Act  of  Assembly  also  the 
Oath  of  a  Justice  of  Oyer  &  Terminer  to  Silas  Hart  Gent,  and  then  the 
said  Silas  Hart  administered  each  of  the  said  Oaths  to  Daniel  Smith, 
Abram  Smith,  John  Gratten,  Josiah  Davidson,  George  Bowell,  Thomas 
Hewitt,  John  Thomas,  James  Dyer,  Henry  Ewing,  William  McDowell, 
Anthony  Ryder,  John  Fitzwater  &  Isaac  Hinckle,  aforesaid,  who  were 
sworn  in  the  Commission  of  the  peace  &  Justices  of  Oyer  accordingly. 

Following  out  a  commission  issued  March  24,  1778,  by 
Governor  Patrick  Henry,  Silas  Hart  was  sworn  in  as  sheriff, 
with  Gabriel  Jones  and  Robert  Cravens  as  sureties.     Gaven 


Hamilton  qualified  as  deputy  sheriff.  Thomas  Lewis  pro- 
duced a  commission  as  county  surveyor,  from  the  president 
and  masters  of  "the  Colledge  of  Wm  &  Mary, "  and  was  sworn 
into  the  office,  having  Daniel  Smith  and  Abraham  Smith  as 
sureties.  Peter  Hog  was  unanimously  chosen  and  appointed 
clerk  of  the  peace. 

On  this  first  day  of  the  court,  April  27,  1778,  the  follow- 
ing justices  were  present: 

Daniel  Smith  James  Dyer 

Abraham  Smith  Henry  Ewing 

John  Gratten  William    McDowell 

Josiah  Davidson  Anthony  Ryder 

George  Boswell  John  Fitzwater 

Thomas  Hewitt  Isaac  Hinckle 

John  Thomas 

Various  matters  in  the  settlement  of  estates,  etc.,  were 
transacted.  The  minutes  are  signed  by  Abraham  Smith,  but 
apparently  written  by  someone  else. 

The  court  resumed  its  session  the  next  day,  April  28, 
1778.  At  the  opening  six  of  the  justices  were  present, 
namely:  Daniel  Smith,  Abraham  Smith,  John  Thomas,  John 
Gratten,  Isaac  Hinckle,  and  John  Fitzwater;  an  hour  or  two 
later  Thomas  Hewitt  and  James  Dyer  came  in,  and  later  still 
Josiah  Davidson.  A  great  deal  of  important  business  was 
transacted  this  day,  in  addition  to  the  formal  provisions  for 
the  settling  of  several  estates. 

The  sheriff  was  ordered  to  summon  24  freeholders  as  a 
grand  jury  for  the  county; 

William  Bush,  Jeremiah  Beasly,  Henry  Brewster,  George 
Huston,  William  Magill  son  of  John,  Elliot  Rutherford.  John 
Fulton,  Jr.,  John  Bryan,  Jr.,  Reuben  More,  Mathias  Leas, 
Jr.,  Joseph  Custard,  William  Dever,  Beerton  Blizard,  Samuel 
Skidmore,  and  Jacob  Ellsv/orth  were  appointed  constables  in 
their  respective  districts; 

Abraham  Smith  was  recommended  to  the  governor  and 
council  as  a  fit  man  for  the  office  of  county  lieutenant;  Daniel 
Smith  was  in  like  manner  recommended  for  colonel,  Benja- 



min  Harrison  for  lieutenant  colonel,  and  John  Skidmore  for 

John  Gratten,  John  Thomas,  and  Daniel  Smith  were  ap- 
pointed coroners  for  the  county; 

It  was  ordered  that  Gawen  Hamilton,  being  first  sworn, 
should  run  the  division  line  between  Rockingham  and  Au- 
gusta; also  the  "Length  of  the  County  from  the  said  Line  to 
Lord  Fairfax's  Line,  or  run  any  other  Line  by  the  Direction 
of  Mr.  Lewis  the  Surveyor  to  enable  him  to  make  out  a  plan 
of  the  County"; 

Gawen  Hamilton  was  recommended  as  a  proper  man  to 
serve  as  deputy  surveyor  under  Mr.  Lewis,  "if  he  is  pleased 
to  appoint  him  to  that  office"; 

Gawen  Hamilton  was  appointed  a  captain  of  the  militia  in 
the  county;  Joseph  Smith,  1st  lieutenant;  John  Rice,  2d  lieu- 
tenant; and  Wm.  Smith  (3d  lieutenant?) ;  Wm.  Herring  was 
appointed  2d  lieutenant,  and  Joseph  Dictam,  ensign,  in  Capt. 
Robert  Craven's  company;  Richard  Reagen  was  appointed 
2d  lieutenant,  and  Joseph  Smith  ensign,  in  Capt.  Daniel 
Smith's  company; 

It  was  ordered  that  Daniel  Smith  drav/  from  the  treas- 
urer of  the  Commonwealth  12  pounds,  and  "lay  it  out  for  the 
Support  of  Bridget  Fowler  the  distressed  Wife  of  John  Fow- 
ler a  Soldier  in  the  continental  Army  from  this  County." 

Although  Silas  Hart  had  been  sworn  in  as  sheriff,  under 
the  governor's  commission,  he  was  not  long  permitted  to 
enjoy  the  office;  for  in  the  record  of  the  second  day's  session 
of  the  court  we  find  a  minute  to  the  effect  that  Josiah  David- 
son, John  Skidmore,  and  George  Boswell  were  recommended 
to  the  governor  as  candidates  fit  for  appointment  to  the  posi- 
tion. This  procedure  is  explained  in  the  same  minute.  It 
appears  that  Silas  Hart  and  Daniel  Smith,  having  been  senior 
justices  in  Augusta,  and  having  thereby  held  the  office  of 
sheriff  before  the  division  of  the  county,  had  agreed  to  relin- 
quish their  claim  to  the  office  when  they  should  fall  vdthin 
the  new  county  of  Rockingham.  Accordingly,  they  now 
agreed,   or  were  required,  to  allow  the  office  to  be  handed 



down  the  line  of  seniority.  Josiah  Davidson,  one  of  the  three 
nominees,  was  commissioned  by  the  governor,  and  was  sworn 
in  as  sheriff  at  the  next  monthly  session  of  the  court. 

The  court,  on  the  second  day  of  the  first  session,  having 
taken  into  consideration  the  "properest  place"  for  the  holding 
of  courts  until  public  buildings  could  be  erected,  unanimously 
resolved  to  hold  court  at  the  house  of  Daniel  Smith,  Gent., 
until  the  said  public  buildings  were  completed.  The  court  at 
the  time  of  this  resolution  was  doubtless  sitting  at  the  home 
of  Mr.  Smith;  for  the  Act  estabhshing  the  county  had  desig- 
nated his  house  as  the  place  for  holding  the  first  court. 

'  'Smithland, "  now  the  residence  of  Geo.  W.  Liskey,  stands 
on  the  southeast  side  of  the  Valley  Pike,  just  a  mile  or  two 
below  Harrisonburg.  It  is  one  of  the  finest  old  country 
homesteads  in  many  a  mile.  Situated  near  the  brow  of  a 
lofty  eminence,  it  commands  a  splendid  view  of  vales,  hills, 
and  distant  mountains.  At  the  sharp  turn  of  the  pike  just 
below  the  house,  on  the  high  bank  at  the  left-hand  side,  the 
site  of  an  old  building  may  still  be  discerned:  there,  tradition 
says,  the  first  justices  of  the  county  sat  in  their  initial 

At  the  same  time  that  Smithland  was  selected  as  the 
temporary  seat  of  justice,  it  was  ordered  that  Daniel  Smith 
and  Josiah  Davidson  be  empowered  to  contract  with  some 
person  for  building  a  "square  Log  Jayl  or  prison  12  feet 
square,  laid  with  square  Logs  above  &  below,  8  inches  thick 
at  the  least,  with  one  Window  &  a  Door  made  of  Iron  barrs 
so  as  to  suit  the  public  Jayl  when  built,  with  a  good  Lock  &  a 
Cabin  rooff  over  the  upper  flour,  to  be  fixed  on  the  most  con- 
venient spott  of  the  sd.  Daniel  Smith's  plantation,  and  in  the 
meantime  that  the  Sheriff  be  empowered  to  hire  a  Guard  to 
watch  such  prisoners  as  are  taken  into  his  Custody." 

After  this  action  the  court  was  adjourned  to  the  next 
monthly  session. 

The  minutes  of  the  second  day  are  signed  by  Daniel 
Smith.     It  is  likely  that  he  or  Peter  Hog  made  the  entries  on 



the  pages  that  are  now  yellow  with  age  and  worn  with  much 

The  second  court  for  Rockingham  County  was  held  on 
Monday,  the  25th  of  May,  1778. 

Among  other  transactions,  Josiah  Davidson  was  sworn 
in  as  sheriff,  under  a  commission  from  the  governor  dated 
May  7,  1778;  GabrielJones  was  appointed  deputy  attorney  for 
the  commonwealth  for  Rockingham  County,  with  a  salary  of 
£40  a  year. 

Under  commissions  from  the  governor,  Abram  Smith 
took  an  oath  as  County  Lieutenant;  Daniel  Smith,  as  Colonel; 
Benjamin  Harrison,  as  Lieut. -Colonel;  William  Nalle,  as 

Anthony  Ryder,  Gawin  Hamilton,  Thomas  Hewitt, 
Thomas  Boggs  (?),  Reuben  Harrison,  and  Daniel  Smith,  Jr., 
were  appointed  captains  of  militia,  and  took  oath  according 
to  law. 

Felix  Gilbert  was  bound  to  the  governor  in  the  sum  of 
£1000,  with  two  sureties  in  the  sum  of  £500  each,  for  a  year 
and  a  day,  to  perform  his  good  behavior  towards  the  State 
and  all  the  good  people  thereof,  he  having  been  charged  by 
Andrew  Skidmore  with  having  uttered  "words  inimical  to 
the  State" — words  that  tended  to  "sow  sedition  among  the 
settlers  on  the  western  waters."  Gilbert  was  the  wealthy 
store  keeper,  east  of  Harrisonburg,  with  whom  we  became 
familiar  in  the  preceding  chapter. 

The  next  day  a  large  part  of  the  business  consisted  in 
the  appointing  of  road  masters  for  the  new  roads  that  were 
being  marked  out  in  various  courses.  A  more  particular  ac- 
count of  these  proceedings  is  given  in  Chapter  XH.  The 
sum  of  £20  was  voted  for  the  aid  of  Elizabeth  Pennirey,  wife 
of  Thomas  Pennirey,  a  soldier  in  the  army  of  the  United 

At  the  court  held  June  22,  1778,  it  was  ordered  that  Wil- 
liam Nalle,  Gent,  take  the  list  of  tithables^  in  the  companies 

1-  The  tithables  were  those  persons  upon  whom  the  poll  tax  was  levied. 



of  Capt.  Coger  and  Capt.  Frazier;  George  Boswell,  Gent,  in 
those  of  Capt.  Hewit  and  Capt.  Pence;  Henry  Ewing,  Gent, 
in  those  of  Capt.  Cravens,  Capt  Hamilton,  and  Capt  Hop- 
kins; John  Fitzwater,  Gent,  in  those  of  Capt  Lincoln  and 
Capt  Boggs;  Anthony  Rader,  Gent,  in  those  of  himself  and 
Capt  Harrison;  Daniel  Smith,  Gent,  in  that  of  Capt.  Smith; 
Isaac  Hinckle,  on  the  North  Fork  and  South  Branch;  and 
James  Dyer,  Gent,  on  the  South  Fork. 

In  following  thus  the  official  proceedings  in  the  organiza- 
tion of  the  new  county,  one  should  keep  in  mind  the  cotem- 
porary  events  that  were  marking  the  initial  steps  in  the  life 
of  the  new  nation.  It  was  a  great  and  stirring  time.  Just  a 
little  over  a  year  before  the  General  Assembly  of  Virginia 
passed  the  Act  creating  Rockingham  County,  Jefferson,  a  son 
of  Virginia,  had  written  the  Declaration  of  Independence, 
upon  which  thirteen  young  states  rose  up  before  the  world  in 
a  challenge  of  hope  that  was  as  daring  as  it  was  splendid  and 
courageous.  The  very  same  year  and  month  (October,  1777) 
that  the  said  Act  was  passed,  the  new  nation  scored  a  tri- 
umph at  a  crisis  in  the  surrender  of  Burgoyne  at  Saratoga. 
In  February  following,  just  two  months  before  the  first  court 
of  Rockingham  met  at  Smithland,  France  recognized  the  in- 
dependence of  the  United  States,  and  thus  made  a  telling 
contribution  to  their  success  in  the  long  struggle  for  freedom. 
Through  all  the  first  years  of  the  county's  history  this 
struggle  went  on,  with  Fortune  wavering  near  the  point  of 
balance,  until  finally  the  political  independence  of  the  young 
states  was  acknowledged  by  the  mother  country  in  1783.  At 
that  time  Rockingham  County  was  six  years  old;  the  new  na- 
tion, counting  from  1776,  was  just  two  years  older. 

From  the  records  of  the  county  court,  a  number  of  which 

The  lists  included  not  only  the  planters  and  householders,  but  also  their 
sons,  men-servants,  and  slaves  of  sixteen  years  and  upwards.  The  vari- 
ous Acts  of  the  Colonial  Assemblv  relating  to  tithables  may  be  found  in 
Hening's  Statutes.  An  authoritative  discussion  of  the  subject  is  presented 
in  Philip  A.  Brace's  Institutional  History  of  Virginia,  Vol.  1 1,  pp.  548- 



are  reproduced  either  in  form  or  in  substance  in  the  following 
pages,  it  will  clearly  and  repeatedly  appear  that  Rockingham 
contributed  in  generous  measure  to  the  cause  of  American 
independence.  Her  soldiers  fought  on  fields  at  home  and 
abroad.  Her  citizens  furnished  supplies  of  varied  kind  and 
enormous  quantity  for  military  use.  Her  magistrates  were 
liberal  in  providing  for  the  wives  and  children  of  patriot  sol- 
diers, and  alert  in  suppressing  tories.  In  these  records  the 
student  of  government  will  read  efficiency  and  equity;  the 
industrial  economist  will  observe  many  statistics  of  kind, 
measure,  and  value;  the  soldier  will  discern  military  organiza- 
tion and  activity;  the  sociologist  will  find  a  people  simple  and 
frugal;  and  the  genealogist  will  recognize  many  an  ancestor 
in  honorable  service. 

August  24,  1778,  George  Rootes,  Gent. ,  took  the  oath  of 
an  attorney  at  law,  which  was  ordered  certified  by  the  court. 
On  the  same  day  the  court  appointed  John  Hinton  to  draw 
£20  and  lay  it  out  for  Bridget  Fowler,  wife  of  John  Fowler,  a 
soldier  in  the  U.  S.  service,  and  her  children. 

September  28,  1778,  George  Boswell  and  John  Thomas 
were  appointed  to  examine  and  receive  the  Jayl  house  built  on 
Danl.  Smith's  plantation  agreeable  to  a  former  order  of  court; 
whereupon  the  said  gentlemen  reported  that  they  had  viewed 
the  said  Jayl  and  found  it  sufficient,  &c.,  except  the  iron  door 
and  window,  which  could  not  be  procured. 

November  23, 1778,  the  court  ordered  £25  to  be  paid  Mary 
Rupe,  wife  of  Nicolas  Rupe,  a  soldier  in  the  continental 
army,  to  relieve  the  distress  of  herself  and  seven  children. 

At  a  court  held  on  Monday,  March  22,  1779,  a  "Deed 
from  Robt,  Hill  to  the  presbyterian  Congregation  was  proved 
by  the  Witnesses  &  0  to  be  recorded  Tho.  Brewster  to  pay 

Mary  Sybert,  widow  of  Chas.  Fred.  Sybert,  a  soldier  who 
died  in  the  service  of  the  Commonwealth,  being  in  indigent 
circumstances,  with  one  helpless  child,  was  allowed  £30. 

Elizabeth  Shulenberger,  widow  of  Geo.  Shulenberger, 


deceased,  late  a  soldier  in  the  Continental  service  from  this 
State,  being  in  distressed  circumstances,  was  allowed  £30. 

George  Ruddle  and  George  Baxter,  having  produced  com- 
missions from  the  governor,  were  sworn  in  as  captains  of 

John  Herdman  was  sworn  in  as  1st  lieut.  and  Thos.  Gor- 
don as  2d  lieut. 

Upon  information  lodged  by  Jacob  Plumb,  Nicolas 
Weatherholt  was  bound  in  the  sum  of  £2000,  with  Martin 
Witsell  as  surety  in  the  sum  of  £1000,  for  the  said  Weather- 
holt  to  appear  before  the  grand  jury  in  May  to  answer  the 
charge  of  "conspiring  &  consulting  the  Destruction  of  the 
Commonwealth. ' ' 

At  the  court  continued  March  23,  1779: 

Rachel  Cash,  wife  of  Jno.  Cash,  a  soldier  in  the  service 
of  the  United  States  from  this  Commonwealth,  being  in  dis- 
tressed circumstances  with  two  small  children,  was  allowed 

Henry  Peninger  was  bound  in  the  sum  of  £5000,  with 
Sebastian  Hover  and  Henry  Stone  securities,  each  in  the  sum 
£2500,  to  appear  before  the  grand  jury  in  May  to  answer  to 
the  charge  of  throwing  disgraceful  reflections  upon  the  Con- 
gress, and  of  speaking  words  tending  to  depreciate  the  Con- 
tinental currency;  and  also  to  be  of  good  behavior  for  a  year 
and  a  day.  Thomas  Hicks  and  Nicholas  Sybert  were  at  the 
same  time  bound,  each  in  the  sum  of  £500,  to  appear  person- 
ally before  the  said  grand  jury,  to  give  evidence  against  the 
said  Peninger. 

Robt.  Davis,  Robt.  Cravens,  Andrew  Johnston,  and  John 
Rush,  having  produced  commissions  as  captains  of  mihtia, 
were  sworn  in. 

Joseph  Dictums  was  sworn  in  as  ensign. 

The  court  proceeded  to  lay  the  ordinary  [tavern]  rates  as 
follows,  to  wit : 

Rum  by  the  gallon  or  French  Brandy,  £10 

Whisky,  per  ditto,  4  —  16  0 

Wine,  per  ditto,  10 


1  - 

4  — 

1  — 

4  — 

0  - 

12  — 



0  — 

12  - 

0  - 

5  - 

0  - 

6  - 

0  — 

10  — 

0  — 

6  — 


Cyder  &,  Beer,  per  ditto, 

Rum  Toddy,  per  quart,  with  loaf  sugar, 

Whisky  ditto,  per  ditto, 

Warm  Breakfast, 

Ditto  Dinner,  with  Beer, 

A  Bed,  with  Clean  Sheets,  per  night, 

Oats  or  Corn,  per  gallon, 

Stableage,  with  Hay,  a  night, 

Pasturage,  a  night, 

Monday,  April  26,  1779. 

"On  the  complaint  of  Henry  Brewster  agt.  Gabl.  Jones 
Gent  for  threatening  to  shoot  him  for  taking  his  Horse  by 
Virtue  of  Authority  of  Capt.  Rush  without  showing  his  war- 
rant on  hearing  the  Complaint  &  the  answer  of  sd  Jones  the 
Court  are  of  Opinion  that  the  sd  Brewster  acted  illegaly  & 
therefore  dismiss  the  Complaint." 

April  27,  1779. 

"Francis  Stevins  produced  a  Certificate  of  his  Freedom 
from  his  master  James  Mcvey  who  acknowledged  the  same  it 
is  ordered  to  be  certified." 

May  24,  1779. 

Andrew  Bird  took  the  oath  "of  a  Captain  of  the  militia 
in  this  County." 

Michael  Bowyer  produced  a  license  from  the  governor, 
and  took  the  oath  of  an  attorney. 

May  25,  1779. 

Michl.  Coger  was  appointed  to  take  the  list  of  tithables 
in  his  own  company;  William  Nalle,  in  Capt.  Frazer's  com- 
pany; George  Boswell,  in  Capt.  Rush's  company;  Wm.  Her- 
ring, in  Capt.  Hewitt's  and  Capt.  Cravens'  companies;  Gawen 
Hamilton,  in  his  own  company;  Henry  Ewing,  in  Capt.  Bax- 
ter's company;  John  Thomas,  in  Lincoln's  company;  John 
Fitzwater,  in  Capt.  Boggs'  company;  Anto.  Reader,  in  Capt. 
Ruddle's  company;  W^illiam  McDowell,  in  Capt.  Bird's  com- 



pany;  Daniel  Smith,  in  Capt  Smith's  company;  James  Dyer, 
in  Capt.  Davis'  company;  and  Isaac  Hanckle,  in  Capt.  John- 
ston's company. 

"On  a  majority  of  the  Justices  being  present  &  conform- 
able to  a  resolution  of  the  Court  in  March  last,  for  fixing  a 
place  for  the  Court  house,  the  several  members  having  pro- 
posed three  different  places  a  majority  were  for  fixing  it  on 
the  plantation  of  Thomas  Harrison  near  the  head  of  the 
Spring. ' ' 

"John  Davis,  William  McDowell,  Jno.  Fitzwater  &  Benj. 
Harrison  Gent  are  appointed  Commissioners  to  let  out  the 
building  of  a  Court  house  of  Stone  36  feet  Long  by  26  in 
Breadth  one  Story  of  12  feet  in  higth  with  a  partition  at  one 
End  twelve  feet  wide  to  be  divided  into  two  Jury  rooms  with 
two  angle  fire  places  in  each  of  the  Jury  rooms  as  also  a  prison 
built  with  Square  Logs  12  Ins.  thick  in  inside,  18  feet  Square 
in  the  Clear  &  walled  with  stone  2  feet  thick  in  the  lower 
Story  &  the  wall  18  Inches  thick  in  the  upper  Story." 

June  28,  1779. 

Josiah  Davidson,  sheriff,  being  called  on  to  undertake  the 
collection  of  the  taxes  for  the  year,  and  having  refused,  was 
deprived  of  his  of^ce;  and  Abraham  Smith,  John  Gratten, 
and  George  Boswell  were  recommended  to  the  governor  for 
consideration  in  filling  the  office.  An  express  was  to  be  hired 
to  carry  the  recommendation  to  the  governor,  the  expense  to 
be  paid  by  the  sheriff  out  of  the  "Depositum"  in  his  hands. 

The  commissioners  appointed  to  arrange  for  the  building 
of  the  court  house  and  jail  were  empowered  to  choose  a  site 
of  not  less  than  two  acres  for  the  public  buildings,  and  take 
deeds  for  the  same  in  the  name  of  the  justices  and  their  suc- 
cessors from  Thomas  Harrison,  the  proprietor,  together  with 
the  liberty  of  stone  and  timber  from  the  said  Harrison's  plan- 
tation for  the  said  buildings. 

On  August  5, 1779,  Thomas  Harrison,  Sr. ,  and  Sarah  Har- 
son,  his  wife,  in  consideration  of  the  sum  of  Five  Shillings 



current  money  of  Virginia,  conveyed  to  Silas  Hart,  Gentle- 
man, first  justice  "in  the  Commission  of  the  peace"  for  Rock- 
ingham County,  his  associate  justices,  and  their  successors,  a 
tract  of  land  containing  Two  Acres  and  a  Half,  for  the  sole 
use  and  behoof  of  the  said  county  of  Rockingham,  upon  v/hich 
to  build  the  Court  House  and  other  public  buildings  necessary 
for  the  said  county.  The  tract  of  land  in  question  had  lately 
been  surveyed  by  Mr.  Gawin  Hamilton,  one  of  the  deputy 
surveyors  of  the  county,  and  was  set  and  bounded  as  follows: 

Beginning  at  a  Cedar  Stump  near  a  Small  Cedar  thence  North  ten 
Degrees  East  twenty  poles  to  a  Stake  thence  South  Eighty  degrees  East 
twenty  poles  to  two  Spanish  Oak  Saplins  thence  South  ten  degrees  West 
Twenty  poles  to  a  post  thence  North  Eighty  degrees  West  Twenty  Poles 
to  the  Beginning. 

At  a  court  held  for  Rockingham  the  23d  day  of  August, 
1779,  Thomas  Harrison  acknowledged  the  deed  of  bargain  and 
sale  for  the  lot  in  question,  and  the  deed  was  ordered  to  be 
recorded.  Teste  Peter  Hog,  C.  R.  C.  The  record  was  made 
in  Deed  Book  No.  0,  page  291 — one  of  the  volumes  that  were 
partly  burned  in  1864. ^ 

July  26,  1779. 

Abraham  Smith  was  sworn  in  as  sheriff  of  the  county, 
with  John  Gratten,  Henry  Ewing,  John  Henton,  David  Ral- 
stone,  George  Chrisman,  Francis  Kirtly,  and  Jesse  Harrison 
as  securities.  Gawen  Hamilton  and  William  Smith  were 
sworn  in  as  deputy  sheriffs. 

Francis  Mcbride  was  bound  in  the  sum  of  £1000,  with 
James  Colhoon  and  George  Chrisman,  securities,  each  in  the 
sum  of  £500,  to  appear  before  the  grand  jury  in  November  to 
answer  the  charge  of  speaking  "words  disrespectful  to  the 
Government  &  present  Constitution. "  John  Brown,  James 
Floyd,  and  John  Hinton  were  bound,  each  in  the  sum  of  £100, 
to  appear  in  person  to  testify  in  the  case  of  the  said   Mc- 

2.  For  a  copy  of  the  original  deed  made  by  Thomas  Harrison  to  Silas 
Hart  and  others  for  the  county  lot,  I  am  indebted  to  Capt.  Geo.  G.  Grat- 
tan,  formerly  judge  of  the  Rockingham  County  Court. 



Bride.    The  bond  of  John  Hinton  was  to  secure  the  evidence 
of  his  wife,  Estor  Hinton. 

The  sheriff  was  ordered  to  pay  the  sum  of  £90  to  James 
Butcher  for  going  to  Williamsburg  and  returning  therefrom 
as  express  for  the  sheriff's  commission — the  said  sum  to  be 
paid  from  the  "Depositum"  in  the  sheriff's  hands. 

August  23,  1779. 

Upon  information  of  Henry  Peninger,  Gerard  Erwine 
was  bound  in  the  sum  of  £1000,  with  John  Brown  and  Thomas 
Campbell,  securities,  each  in  the  sum  of  £500,  to  appear  be- 
fore the  grand  jury  in  November  to  answer  the  charge  of 
having  "propagated  some  news  tending  to  raise  Tumult  and 
Sedition  in  the  State."  The  said  Peninger  was  also  bound  in 
the  sum  of  £500  to  appear  as  a  witness  in  the  examination  of 

"Abraham  Smith  Gent  Sheriff  protested  against  the 
Sufficiency  of  the  Jayl." 

Thomas  Harrison  acknowledged  his  deed  of  bargain  and 
sale  to  Silas  Hart  and  others,  justices,  on  behalf  of  the 

The  sum  of  £50  was  placed  in  the  hands  of  David  Harnet 
for  the  relief  of  Bridget  Fowler,  wife  of  John  Fowler,  a  sol- 
dier from  this  county  "on  the  Continental  Establishment," 
the  said  Bridget  Fowler,  with  three  small  children,  being  in 
distressed  circumstances. 

The  sum  of  £20  was  appropriated  for  Barbara  Woolridge, 
and  a  like  sum  for  Mary  Rylie,  wives  respectively  of  George 
Woolridge  and  John  Rylie,  soldiers  in  the  continental  army. 

H.  Dever  and  John  Dever  were  fined  "according  to  law" 
for  breach  of  the  Sabbath. 

August  24,  1779. 

William  Nalle,  with  Gabriel  Jones  and  Daniel  Smith  as 
securities,  gave  bond  for  the  due  execution  of  the  office  of 
escheator  for  the  county. 



The  sum  of  £30  was  appropriated  for  Elizabeth  Spikeard, 
whose  husband,  Julius  Spikeard,  and  son,  George  Spykeard, 
were  soldiers  in  the  U.  S.  army. 

Vali.  Sevier^  acknowledged  deeds  of  lease  and  release  to 
Robt.  Rutherford. 

The  sheriff  was  ordered  to  pay  to  Wm.  McDowell  £93 
15s.  for  the  county  seal. 

The  sum  of  £40  was  appropriated  for  Ann  Gum,  the  wife 
of  Claypole  Gum,  a  soldier. 

The  court  proceeded  to  lay  the  levy: 

To  James  Dyer,  for  two  old  wolves'  heads, 
"  Sebastian  Hover,  one  ditto, 
"  James  Davis,  one  ditto, 
"  James  Dyer,  2  old  wolves, 
"  Charles  Wilson,  one  old  wolf, 
"  Joseph  Kester,  two  old  wolves, 
"  Gabriel  Jones,  deputy  atto.,  for  his  salary, 
"  the  Clerk  for  services,  1230  [lbs.  tobacco?] 
"  the  Sheriff,  for  ditto,  1230  [lbs.  tobacco?] 
"  Gawen  Hamilton,  surveyor,  per  acct.,  10 — 0 — 0 

"  Peter  Hog,  clerk,  per  acct,  270  [lbs.  tobacco?] 
"  Daniel  Smith,  per  acct.,  75—0—0 

"  Joseph  Smith,  William  Crow,  and  Benj. 
Smith,  as  guards,  9  days  each,  on  three  to- 
ries  in  the  county  jail,  54 — 0 — 0 

"  Daniel  Smith,  for  the  use  of  his  house,  in 
holding  5  courts  "since  laying  last  year's 
levy,"  100—0—0 

"  Daniel  Smith,  jailor,  for  committing  and  re- 
leasing of  the  tories,  2790  pounds  of  to- 
bacco, at  £5  a  100- wt,  139—10-0 

3    This  was  either  the  father  or  the  brother  of  Gen.  John  Sevier. 



— 5- 









— 5- 












a  depositum  for  building  the  court  house,  1783—18 — 0 
the  Sheriff,  commission  on  collecting  £2466, 

at  6%,  147-19—6 

Total,  £2466—0—0 
By  1379  tithables,  at  six  dollars,  or  36  shillings, 

per  tithable,  £2466—0—0 

Ordered  that  the  sheriff  collect  six  dollars,  or  thirty-six 
shillings,  from  each  tithable  in  the  county  as  the  levy  for  the 
ensuing  year. 

November  22,   1779. 

'  'The  Court  taking  into  Consideration  the  dangerous  & 
malignant  Fever  that  for  some  months  past  has  raged  in  the 
Family  of  Daniel  Smith  Gent.  &  the  Apprehension  of  the 
people  that  there  is  Danger  of  the  Disorder  being  contagious, 
to  remove  any  Obstruction  to  the  Administration  of  Justice 
&  to  quiet  the  minds  of  the  Suitors  &  others  who  may  have 
Business  at  Court,  are  of  Opinion  that  the  Court  should  be 
adjourned  to  the  plantation  of  Thomas  Harrison  &  it  is  hereby 
adjourned  accordingly. ' ' 

Signed  by  Daniel  Smith. 

The  sum  of  £30  was  allowed  to  Anne  McCoy,  mother  of 
William  McCoy,  a  soldier. 

November  23,  1779. 

The  sum  of  £20  was  allowed  Saml.  Thornhill,  father  of 
John  Thornhill,  a  soldier  in  the  service  of  the  States;  and  £30 
was  appropriated  for  Theodisia  Maiden,  wife  of  James  Maiden, 
a  soldier  in  the  same  service. 

It  was  ordered  that  the  sheriff  pay  Gawen  Hamilton  £55 
for  a  bookcase  for  the  clerk's  office. 

It  was  proved  in  court  that  Robert  Menzies  was  a  soldier 
in  Capt.  Hog's  company  of  rangers  in  1758,  and  that  he  had 
also  served  in  Capt.  Gist's''  company  in  the  campaign  of  1760. 

4.  Capt.  Gist  was  doubtless  the  famous  scout  and  ranger,  Christopher 



It  was  also  established  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  court 
that  John  Smith,  deceased,  had  been  a  lieutenant  in  Capt. 
John  Smith's  company  of  rangers  in  1756,  and  had  been  killed 
at  Fort  Vause.  Lieut.  Smith  was  a  brother  to  Abraham 
Smith.  Claims  for  land  were  made  upon  the  military  service 
of  Menzies  and  Smith. 

It  was  ordered  that  Benj.  Harrison,  William  Herron,  and 
John  Davis,  or  any  two  of  them,  "let  out  the  Building  of  a 
Courtho.  of  square  Logs  with  diamond  Corners  Thirty  feet 
Long  by  20  feet  wide  from  out  to  out  with  a  partition  twelve 
feet  in  the  Clear  across  the  house  divided  into  two  rooms  on 3 
12  feet  wide  &  the  other  8  feet  wide,  the  room  12  feet  wide  to 
have  a  neat  stone  Chimney  inside  at  the  Gavle  End  of  it  the 
whole  to  be  floored  with  Earth  as  far  as  the  Lawiers  Bar  & 
then  to  be  raised  with  a  plank  floor  to  the  Justices  Bench 
which  is  to  be  raised  three  feet  above  the  floor  &  the  Breast 
of  the  Bench  to  be  studed  with  a  railed  Top,  the  pitch  of  the 
house  to  be  10  feet  clear  Ceiling  &  lofted  with  Inch  plank 
with  two  window  on  each  side  of  the  ho.  facing  the  Clks. 
Table  &  one  in  Each  of  Jury  rooms  the  windows  18  Lights 
each  Glass  8  by  10  Inches,  with  a  Door  on  —  side  just  Clear 
of  the  Jury  rooms." 

This  order  was  evidently  to  take  the  place  of  the  one 
issued  May  25,  preceding,  as  shown  above.  Accordingly, 
it  appears  that  the  first  court  house  was  built  of  logs  instead 
of  stone,  and  that  in  size  it  was  20x30  feet  instead  of  26x36. 
Neither  the  court  house  nor  the  jail  seems  to  have  been  com- 
pleted before  the  end  of  1783  or  the  beginning  of  1784. 

March  27,  1780. 

The  following  were  sworn  in  as  captains  of  militia: 
Josiah  Harrison,  Richard  Reagan,  Jeremiah  Beasley. 
The  following  as  lieutenants: 
,    Joseph  Rutherford.  Stephen  Conrod,  Robt.  Smith. 

Gist,  who  accompanied  Washington  on  his  perilous  journey  to  the  French 
forts  in  1753. 



The  following  as  ensigns: 

Jacob  Havener  and  Elliot  Rutherford. 

An  allowance  of  £120  was  made  for  the  relief  of  Jemima 
Kelly,  wife  of  Emanuel  Kelly,  a  soldier  from  Virginia  in  the 
army  of  the  United  States.  This  allowance  was  made  in  ac- 
cordance with  a  recent  Act  of  the  State  Assembly,  and  was 
probably  to  be  reimbursed  from  State  funds. 

March  28,  1780. 
The  court  proceeded  to  rate  the  ordinary  prices,  for  the 
articles  named,  as  follows: 

West  India  rum  or  French  brandy,  per  gallon,    £48 —  0—0 
Rye  liquor  or  whisky,  "  24—  0—0 

Wine,  "         48—  0-0 

Strong  beer,  per  quart      1—10-0 

Cyder,  "  1-10-0 

Hot  dinner,  3—12—0 

Breakfast,  3—  0—0 

A  cold  ditto,  2—  2—0 

A  good  bed,  with  clean  sheets  12 — 0 

Oats,  by  the  gallon,  1—16—0 

Corn,  by  the  gallon,  2—  8-0 

Stableage,  with  hay,  per  night,  2—  8-0 

Pasturage,  pernight,^  1—10—0 

David  Laird  proved  that  he  had  served  as  a  corporal  in 
Capt.  Hog's  company  of  rangers,  from  the  time  the  said  com- 
pany was  raised  until  it  was  discharged  at  Bedford,  and  that 
he  had  not  received  any  warrant  for  land  under  the  provisions 
of  royal  proclamation  in  1763. 

George  Huston  and  John  Fitzwater  were  sworn  in  as 
captains  of  militia. 

5.  From  the  figures  in  the  above  schedule,  as  well  as  from  other  items 
preceding  and  following,  it  is  easy  to  see  how  the  purchasing  value  of  the 
continental  currency  was  decreasing.  It  thus  continued  to  decrease  until 
it  had  value  only  in  the  proverb:  "Not  worth  a  Continental."  And  yet, 
by  a  fateful  irony  of  circumstance,  men  were  being  arraigned,  even  in 
Rockingham,  for  speaking  words  tending  to  depreciate  it. 


Chesapeake- Western  Bridge  across  the  Shenandoah  River  near  Elkton 

By  per.  of  E.  G.  Furry 

The  Bridge  at  Bridgewater 

[Page  -200] 

Port  Republic:     Confluence  of  the  Rivers,  the  Bridge,  and  the  Heights  towanl  I'ro-s  Keys 


Jacob  Pence  proved  that  he  had  served  as  a  soldier  in 
Capt.  Hog's  company  of  rangers  from  the  beginning  of  the 
said  company  in  1757  until  it  v^as  discharged  at  Bedford, 
making  oath  that  he  had  never  received  any  warrailt  for 
land,  as  provided  in  1763. 

Robt,  Minnis  made  it  appear  that  he  had  served  as  a  sol- 
dier in  CoUo.  Byrd's  regiment,  &c. 

John  Stephenson  proved  that  he  had  been  a  soldier  in  the 
independent  company  under  Capt.  McClanahan,  and  also  had 
.served  in  Boqueter's  (?)  company,  &c. 

April  24,  1780. 

Geo.  Armentrout  proved  that  he  had  served  in  Capt. 
Hog's  company  of  rangers,  &c. 

Daniel  Grubb  proved  service  in  the  same  company. 

May  23,  1780. 

In  the  case  of  the  commonwealth  vs.  McBride,  the  latter 
'being  adjudged  guilty,  was  subjected  to  a  fine  of  £250  and 
four  days'  imprisonment. 

June  9,  1780. 
At  a  special  session  of  the  court,  called  for  the  examina- 
tion of  John  Davis,  suspected  of  being  guilty  of  treason 
against  the  State,  and  of  "other  misdemeanors,"  Daniel 
Smith,  Henry  Ewing,  Reuben  Harrison,  Thomas  Hewit,  and 
Benj,  Harrison,  justices,  being  present,  the  said  Davis  was 
upon  trial  adjudged  guilty  of  treason,  &c.,  and  was  ordered 
sent  to  the  general  court  to  be  tried  for  the  same.  Further- 
more, Seruiah  Stratton,  James  Rodgers,  and  William  Gregg 
were  bound,  each  in  the  sum  of  £10,000,  to  appear  in  the  case 
as  witnesses  on  the  6th  day  of  the  general  court  to  be  held  at 
Richmond  the  following  October. 

June  26,  1780. 

"Frederick  Price,  being  bound  over  on  Recognizance 
taken  before  Danl.  Smith  Gent  for  drinking  the  King  of  gt 




Britain's  health  &  Huzzas  for  sd  King,"  was  tried  and  bound 
over  to  the  grand  jury  court  to  be  indicted,  himself  in  the 
sum  of  £10,000,  with  Augustine  Price  and  George  Mallow,  se- 
curities,  each  in  the  sum  of  £5000. 

John  Nicolas,  Abraham  Hammond,  and  Jacob  Arken- 
bright  were  bound,  each  in  the  sum  of  £1000,  to  appear  in 
the  above  case  as  witnesses. 

"Ordered  that  Benja.  Harrison  &  William  Herring  Gent 
be  empowered  to  agree  with  the  Undertaker  of  Courtho  to 
omit  the  partion  of  the  East  End  of  the  house  for  the  Jury 
rooms  &  to  sink  the  Joyst  of  the  upper  room  from  Gavel  of  the 
sd  East  end  to  the  Joyst  over  the  front  Door  so  as  to  make 
a  Jury  room  above  wi  a  pair  of  Stairs  in  the  Corner,  or  two 
jury  rooms  if  the  space  will  admit  of  it."*^ 

August  29,  1780. 

Silas  Hart,  Henry  Ewing,  John  Davis,  and  William  Her- 
ring were  appointed  commissioners  to  let  the  building  of  a 
county  jail,  according  to  the  plan  agreed  on  by  the  court,  to 
the  lowest  bidder,  "between  this  &  the  Nov.  Court,  &  to  give 
publick  notice  thereof," 

October  23,  1780. 

"On  the  application  of  John  Magill  setting  forth  that  he 
has  kept  Ruth  McDonald  Daughter  of  Randall  McDonald  a 
soldier  from  this  County  in  the  Army  of  the  United  States  18 
months  by  agreement  of  the  sd.  Randall  which  being  expired, 
&  her  Father  still  in  the  Service  the  Court  are  of  opinion  that 
the  said  Magill  be  allowed  £35  for  a  barl  of  Corn  &  200 
Dolrs  for  50  w  of  pork  for  the  support  of  the  said  Ruth  Mc- 
Donald for  1  year." 

'  'The  Court  taking  into  Consideration  the  distressed  Sit- 
uation of  Anne  Gum  &  two  young  Babes  widow  &  orphans  of 

6.  Evidently,  as  the  process  of  building  continued,  the  temple  of  justice 
was  growing  smaller.  The  burden  of  war  was  bearing  heavily  upon  the 
young  county. 



Claypole  Gum  a  Soldier  from  this  County  who  died  in  the 
service  of  the  States  recommend  her  to  the  board  of  Auditors 
for  such  rehef  as  they  think  proper  for  her  distressed  circum- 

October  24,  1780. 

WilHam  Herring  was  sworn  in  as  captain  of  militia; 
Joseph  Dictam  and  Andrew  Shanklin,  as  first  lieutenants; 
Robt.  Harrison  as  ensign. 

George  Boswell,  upon  commission  from  the  governor 
[Thomas  Jefferson]  was  sworn  into  the  office  of  sheriff. 

November  27,  1780. 

Zeruiah  Stratton  was  sworn  in  as  a  captain  of  militia. 

"A  sufficient  number  of  the  grand  jury  not  appearing 
[24  had  been  summoned]  0  that  the  be  discharged  &  the 
following  persons  being  summoned  &  called  &  not  attending 
0  that  they  be  fined  according  to  Law  towit  Jas.  Beard  Jo. 
Rutherford  Zeb  Harrison  Adam  Reader  Peter  Conrod  James 
Dever  Francis  Stewart  Jacob  Lincoln  &  Nico.  Cairn." 
November  28,  1780. 

'  'Silas  Hart  John  Davis  Henry  Ewing  &  Wm.  Herring 
Gent  Commissioners  appointed  to  let  the  building  the  County 
Jayl  reported  that  they  had  let  out  the  building  of  the  same 
to  Cornelius  Cain  for  Eleven  Thousand  nine  hundred  &  Sev- 
enty three  pounds,  &  retd.  a  Bond  of  Said  Cornes.  Cain  wi 
security  for  the  Due  performance  of  said  building." 

Abraham  Smith,  having  resigned  the  office  of  county 
lieutenant,  on  account  of  "his  Disorder  &  Infirmities,"  the 
court  recommended  Danl.  Smith  for  appointment  in  his 

The  court  allowed  3  barrels  of  corn,  at  £40  a  barrel,  and 

150  pounds  of  pork,  at  30 ,  to  Frances  Clough,  wife  of 

John  Clough,  a  soldier  in  the  service  of  the  States. 

The  sheriff  was  ordered  to  pay  Thomas  Harrison  £100 
for  holding  3  courts  in  his  house. 



March  26,  1781. 

Daniel  Smith,  Gent,  was  sworn  in  as  county  lieutenant 
of  the  militia;  George  Chrisman  and  Reuben  More,  as  cap- 
tains; Jacob  Lincoln,  as  a  lieutenant 

'  'It  is  the  Opinion  of  the  Court  that  John  Huston  be  al- 
lowed 60  dollars  per  Day  from  the  8th  Jany  till  18th  Feby 
for  acting  as  Dep.  Comiss.  to  the  militia  sent  down  against 

March  27,  1781. 

"0  that  the  Clerk  purchase  a  new  Testament  for  the 
use  of  the  Court  &  that  the  Sheriff  pay  him  out  of  the 

"It  is  the  opinion  of  the  Court  that  James  Davis  a  Com- 
missary for  the  militia  of  this  County  ordered  to  the  Southard 
in  Sept  last  be  allowed  80  Dollars  per  Day  from  22  d  Sept  till 
the  3d  Novr.  being  51  Days." 

"Ordered  that  the  late  Sheriff  [Abram  Smith]  pay  Robt. 
Campbell  the  bailee  due  him  for  the  original  Contract  in 
building  the  Courtho,  being  £187." 

April  23,  1781. 

Stephen  Conrad  was  sworn  in  as  a  captain  of  militia, 
Capt  Jerema.  Beeslie's  company  being  divided. 

"Ordered  that  the  Sheriff  collect  Seven  Shillings  &  Six 
pence  in  the  pound  from  every  person  within  this  County  on 
each  pound  tax  that  the  said  person  is  now  taxed  at  in  the 
present  assessment  as  pay  for  the  Waggon  found  by  this 
County  for  the  State. ' ' 

"It  is  the  opinion  of  the  Court  that  Joseph  Haines  be 
allowed  twenty  pounds  per  day  for  acting  as  a  Commissary 
to  the  prisoners  Six  Days  when  marching  thro  this,  to  Shan- 
doah  County." 

May  28,  1781. 
'  'Anderson  Moffet  an  anabist  Minister  having  satisfied 


the  Court  by  a  certificate  from  the  Elders  of  his  Sect  that  he 
is  duely  qualified  to  administer  the  Sacraments  is  licensed  to 
perform  the  function  of  marrying  by  Banns  or  License  in 
this  County." 

*  'The  Court  proceeded  to  alter  the  Ordinary  rates  in  the 
following  particulars  towit 

a  hot  Dinner  for  one  person,  30  Dollars 

strong  Beer  or  Cyder,  per  Quart,  12  Dollars 

pasturage,  per  night,  12  Dollars 

Whiskey  or  Rye  Liquor,  per  Gallon,  £57-12-0." 

May  29,  1781. 

Silas  Hart  was  appointed  to  take  the  list  of  tithables  in 
the  districts  of  Huston  and  Young;  Josiah  Davidson,  in  the 
districts  of  Rice  and  Harrison;  An  to.  Reader,  in  the  districts 
of  Fitzwater  and  Ruddle;  William  McDowell,  in  the  districts 
of  Harrison  and  Dunlop;  John  Davis,  in  the  districts  of  Her- 
ring and  Magill;  Michl.  Coger,  of  his  own  company;  Thos. 
Hewit,  in  Capt.  Conrod  and  Capt.  Beeslie's  companies;  James 
Dyer,  in  Capt.  Johnson  and  Capt.  Stratton's  companies; 
Robt.  Davidson,  in  his  own  company. 

This  appears  to  be  the  first  instance  in  which  the  term 
"district"  is  used,  referring  to  a  subdivision  of  the  county. 
The  original  divisions,  recognized  for  the  purpose  of  listing 
the  tithables,  were  evidently  made  according  to  the  localities 
making  up  the  several  companies  of  militia. 

"The  Court  are  of  opinion  that  Henry  Ewing  be  allowed 
twenty  pounds  per  day  for  twenty-three  Days  that  he  acted 
as  Commissary,  of  the  provision  Law  &  100  Dollars  for  his 

August  27,  1781. 

Zeruiah  Stratton  produced  an  account  in  court  for  build- 
ing a  granary,  and  for  receiving  the  grain  tax,  which  was 
allowed  and  certified  by  the  court. 

"Thomas  Hewit  Gent  is  appointed  by  the  Court  to  the 



Office  of  Sheriff  for  the  ensuing  year.     0  to  be  certified  to 
his  Excellency  the  Govr." 

*  'It  appearing  to  the  Court  that  a  traveller  by  the  name 
of  Moses  Doughty  with  his  wife  &  child  was  burnt  up  in  the 
House  of  Adam  Nelson  &  no  relatives  or  other  Connexions  of 
the  sd.  Doughty  appearing  to  claim  administra.  of  his  Estate 
consisting  of  a  horse  &  a  mare  0  that  the  Sheriff  take  the 
same  into  his  possession  being  now  in  the  Custody  of  Jno. 
Thomas  Coroner  &  sell  them  at  publick  Vendue  &  make  a 
return  to  the  Court." 

William  Nalle  was  sworn  in  as  lieutenant-colonel  of  the 

September  24,  1781. 

Isaac  Hankie  was  sworn  in  as  a  captain  of  militia  to  suc- 
ceed Andrew  Johnston,  resigned.  Michael  Baker  was  also 
sworn  in  as  a  captain  of  militia. 

The  signature  of  Daniel  Smith,  presiding  justice,  appears 
under  this  date  for  the  last  time.  He  died  before  the  next 
court,  held  in  November.  The  next  records  are  signed  by 
John  Grattan. 

November  26,  1781. 

'  'Leave  is  granted  to  Samuel  Gay  to  keep  Ordinary  at  his 
house  in  Harrisons  burg  for  one  year  from  this  Date." 

A  bill  of  sale  of  Moses  Dougherty's  estate  was  returned 
by  the  sheriff  and  admitted  to  record. 

The  court  made  out  the  following  budget: 

To  Gabriel  Jones,  Deputy  Atty.,        4000  lbs.  tobacco 

To  Peter  Hog,    Clerk,    for  extra 

services,  1200     "^^" 

To        "        "  ,  account,  200     "^^," 

To  the  sheriff,  for  extra  services,     1200     "        " 

Total,  6600  lbs.  tob.  =  at  10s.  cwt,  £33 


To  Cornelius  Cain,  for  building  the 
Jayl,  for  the  balance  due  and  the  de- 
preciation of  the  currency  since  it  was 
undertaken,  in  specie,  or  in  paper 
money  at  the  depreciation  fixed  by 
the  Assembly, 

To  Samuel  Parrot,  2  wolves  heads. 

To  Robt.  Campbell,  as  a  gratuity  for 
building  the  courthouse. 

To  Robt.  Campbell,  for  the  additional 
work  on  the  courthouse. 

For  finishing  the  Jayl,  <&;c., 

A  depositum, 

To  the  sheriff  for  collecting,  6% 


£  1- 

-  5- 



-  3- 






-  0- 


£  152- 

-  7- 


—  — 

— — 



-  0- 





It  was  ordered  that  the  sheriff  collect  3s.  in  specie  on 
every  tithable  in  the  county,  as  a  levy  for  the  ensuing  year; 
or  the  equivalent  value  in  paper  currency,  as  fixed  by  the 

Income  from  1450  tithables,  £217—10—0 

November  27,  1781. 
"Ordered  that  the  late  Sheriff  [George  Boswell]  pay  to 
Cornelius  Cain  the  Money  levied  this  last  County  Levy  for 
building  the  County  Jayl  being  £11973,  the  Commissioners 
who  let  the  building  of  the  same  having  reported  that  the  it 
is  finished  according  to  the  plan." 

George  Boswell,  late  sheriff,  settled  with  the  court,  re- 
porting a  balance  on  hand  of  £580—7 — 0,  on  1459  tithables, 
8  supernumeraries,  and  51  delinquents. 

'  '0  that  Andrew  Shanklen  keep  the  Courtho  for  the  en- 
suing year  &  provide  a  Stock  Lock  for  the  fore  Door  &  an 
Iron  Bolt  for  the  other  Door  &  provide  the  Court  with  Fire  & 



'  'Ordered  that  Robt.  Campbell  undertaker  of  the  Courtho 
be  allowed  the  further  sum  of  £3.  8  in  Specie  on  the  Depre- 
ciation as  settled  by  the  Assembly." 

'  '0  that  Henry  Ewing  &  William  Herring  Gent  be  ap- 
pointed as  Commissioners  to  let  out  the  finishing  the  County 
Jayl  to  the  lov/est  Bidder  to  [be]  finished  by  the  May  Court." 

February  18,  1782. 

The  former  clerk  [Peter  Hog]  being  reported  dead, 
Thomas  Lewis  was  appointed  clerk  pro  tem. 

Benjamin  Harrison,  Bruer  Reeves,  and  John  Fitzwater 
were  chosen,  according  to  an  Act  of  Assembly  passed  the 
preceding  October,   as  commissioners  to  value  the  lands  be- 
longing to  the  sundry  landholders  of  the  county. 
February  25,  1782. 

Richard  Matthews  was  appointed  clerk  pro  tem.,  and 
Henry  Ewing  was  elected  to  hold  the  office  permanently. 

March  25,  1782. 
William  Smith  was  sworn  in  as  a  captain  of  militia. 

At  a  court  opened  March  26,  1782,  and  continued  several 
days  for  adjusting  claims,  agreeable  to  an  Act  of  Assembly 
passed  in  October,  1781,  the  following  claims  were  presented 
and  approved.  The  services  rendered  and  supplies  furnished 
were  for  the  United  States  in  the  War  for  Independence. 

Zebulon  Harrison  for  39  head  of  cattle,  24  hours  at  post, 
stableage  for  2  horses  12  hours,  corn  and  rations.  Claim 
dated  Dec.  4,  1781. 

Josiah  Harrison,  for  6  days  with  his  team  in  conducting 
British  prisoners  from  the  South  to  "Shanado  Courthouse." 
Claim  dated  March  1,  1781. 

Zebulon  Harrison,  for  700  lbs.  of  hay— clover  and  tim- 
othy-Feb.  24,  1781;  200  lbs.  of  beef  for  the  use  of  British 
prisoners  and  guards,  Aug.  20,  1781;  for  the  use  of  the  militia 
guard  with  British  prisoners  from  this  county  to  Shanado,  14 
bu.  of  oats,  at  1  s.  8  d.,  Dec.  4,  1781. 


Josiah  Harrison,  for  bullock  driving,  1  day,  Jan.  16,  1781. 

Gideon  Harrison,  for  bullock  driving,  1  day,  Jan.  18,  1781. 

Archibald  Hopkins,  for  2  bags  for  the  use  of  the  militia 
going  to  "Tyger  Valley,"  April  30,  1779,  18  s. ;  and  for  1060 
lbs.  of  flour,  at  15  s.  cwt. ,  for  the  use  of  the  militia  ordered 
on  duty,  May,  1779.  These  two  items  were  charged  against 
the  State;  all  others  herein  recorded  were  charged  against 
the  United  States,  unless  note  is  made  to  the  contrary. 

Archibald  Hopkins  for  22J  yds.  of  "Lining"  [linen  ?] 
for  a  tent  for  the  use  of  the  militia  ordered  to  Richmond  on 
duty,  at  2  s.  a  yard,  Jan.  16,  1781;  for  7  head  of  cattle,  3 
years  old,  "Each  Extraordinary  large  of  that  age  Estimated  at 
400  lbs.  Each,"  at  16  s.  8  d.  per  cwt,  for  use  of  the  mihtia 
ordered  on  duty  to  Carolina,  Oct.  3,  1780." 

George  Baxter,  for  24  yds.  of  "lining"  for  use  of  the 
militia,  ordered  on  duty  to  Richmond,  at  2  s.  a  yard,  Jan. 
16,  1781. 

John  Hopkins,  for  4  head  of  cattle,  estimated  at  1900 
gross,  at  16  s.  8  d.  per  cwt. ,  for  use  of  the  militia  ordered  on 
duty  to  Carolina,  Oct.  3,  1780. 

John  Hopkins,  for  245  lbs.  flour,  at  15  s.  per  cwt.,  for 
the  militia  ordered  on  duty  to  "Tygers  Valley,"  May  5,  1779. 
This  item  was  charged  against  the  State. 

John  Hopkins,  for  the  making  of  7  tents,  £2  10  s.,  for 
militia  ordered  on  duty  to  Richmond,  Jan.  6,  1781;  for  21  4-3 
yds.  of  "Lining,"  for  the  militia  ordered  on  duty  to  Rich- 
mond, Jan.  16,  1781;  fori  1-2  bus.  corn,  at  2  s.  a  bushel,  and 
pasturage  for  7  horses,  1  night,  at  6  d.  each,  Oct.  27,  1780. 

Marthew  Smith,  *  'for  one  Black  Horse  14  Hands  High  Well 
Made  five  years  Old  one  Halter  and  Bell  at  25£  for  the  use  of 
ye  Mai.  Ord.  on  Duty  to  tygers,"  April  29,  1782;  charged  to 
the  State. 

7.  A  marked  difference  in  the  size  of  cattle  has  been  registered  since 
the  18th  century.  In  1710  the  average  weight  of  beeves  sold  in  the  Smith- 
field  market  was  only  370  pounds.  As  late  as  1795  the  average  weight  of 
London  beeves  was  only  800  pounds.  See  Bogart's  Economic  History  of 
the  United  States,  page  72.  In  recent  years  Rockingham  cattle  have 
reached  a  maximum  weight  of  2000  pounds  or  more. 



William  Hook,  for  21|  yds.  "lining,"  for  the  militia  or- 
dered on  duty  to  Richmond,  Jan.  18,  1781;  for  3800  lbs.  of 
"good  timothy  Hay,"  at  Is.  6d.  per  cwt,  for  the  use  of  the 
guard  removing  prisoners  from  Albemarle  barracks  to  Mary- 
land, Jan.  20,  1781. — These  prisoners  were  probably  some  of 
those  taken  at  Burgoyne's  surrender  in  October,  1777,  and 
quartered  for  a  year  or  two  between  Charlottesville  and  Ivy, 
in  Albemarle  County.^ 

James  Bruster,  for  98  days'  service  with  a  team,  at  10s. 
a  day,  employed  for  the  use  of  the  militia  ordered  on  duty  to 
Richmond;  account  dated  April  25,  1781;  for  3  days'  service 
with  his  team,  at  15s.  a  day,  employed  in  removing  prisoners 
from  Albemarle  barracks,  Jan.  10,  1781. 

March  27,  1782. 

John  Hinton,  for  acting  as  forage  master  7  days,  at  5  s. 
a  day;  account  dated  Jan.  1,  1781;  for  a  balance  on  a  receipt 
for  bacon,  50  lbs.,  at  Is.  per  lb.,  and  for  wheat,  35i  bus.,  at 
6s.  per  bu.,  April  30,  1779.  The  last  two  items  were  charged 
to  the  State. 

John  Hinton  was  allowed  other  claims  for  cattle,  flour, 
rye,  flour  casks,  hay,  corn,  horse  pasture,  wagoner's  ra- 
tions, etc. 

Thomas  Moore,  for  1  bullock,  weight  440  lbs.  neat,  at  2i 
s.  a  pound,  Febr.  25,  1781;  for  18  "Diets"  at  6d.  each,  and  7 
horses,  1  night,  at  good  hay,  7|  d.  per  horse,  March  4,  1781. 

James  Bruster,  for  9  days  public  service  with  his  team, 
at  10  s.  a  day;  for  feeding  1  public  horse  3  days,  at  Is.  3d.  a 
day;  for  1  horse  in  public  service 38  days,  at  1  s.  6  d.  a  day; 
for  4  flour  casks,  at  2  s.  each ;  account  dated  Dec.  22,  1780. 

John  Davis,  for  12  yds.  of  "Course  lin'g,"  at  2  s.  6  d.  a 
yard,  Jan.  16,  1781. 

James  Dunn,  for  19  yds.  "Course  Hning, "  at  2s.  6d.  a 
yard,  Oct.  5,  1780. 

8.  For  a  detailed  account  of  the  sojourn  of  these  prisoners  in  Albemarle, 
see  Edgar  Wood's  History  of  Albemarle  County,  Virginia,  pp.  31-44. 



Elizabeth  Shipman,  for  making  1  tent,  6s.  3d.,  Oct.  15, 

John  Crafford,  for  16  yds.  ''lin'g"  at  2  s.  6  d.  a  yard,  Oct. 
15,  1780. 

William  Diver,  for  "1  Kittle  1  Do  10s.  per  kittle,"  Oct. 
5,  1780. 

Ban.  Wheton,  for  10  yds.  of  coarse  linen,  at  2s.  a  yard, 
Jan.  16,  1781. 

George  Gartner,  for  1  blanket,  "good  in  Quality,"  20s., 
Oct.  26,  1780. 

Balser  Counce,  for  1  day  public  service  with  his  team, 
Oct.  27,  1780. 

Ralph  Lofties,  for  1  iron  pot,  20s.,  Oct.  9,  1780. 

France  Ervin,  for  919  lbs.  flour,  at  12s.  6  d.  per  cwt., 
Nov.  7,  1780. 

Henry  Stolph,  for  8  yds.  of  "Wolling  not  full'd,"  at  5s. 
a  yard,  Nov.  9,  1780. 

John  Bowman,  for  9  yds.  of  "Do.,"  at  5s.  a  yard,  Nov. 
9,  1780. 

John  Cring,  for  13  yds.  of  "Do.,"  at  5s.  a  yard,  Nov.  9, 

Daniel  Love,  for  "4  Dozen  of  Oats,"  at  Is.  6d.  a  dozen, 
and  4  bushels  of  [oats?],  at  2s.  a  bushel,  Nov.  6,  1780  [?]. 

Margret  Devier,  for  making  1  tent,  6s.  3d.,  Oct.  7,  1780. 

George  Long,  for  IJ  bus.  wheat,  at  3s.  a  bushel,  Nov. 
14,  1780. 

Godferry  Hamileton,  for  6  yds.  cloth,  at  5s.  a  yard,  Nov. 
9,  1780. 

Richard  Mathews,  for  "halfe  a  bus  of  allum,"  £1  10s., 
Oct.  7,  1780. 

Thomas  Shanling,  for  3  days  public  service  with  his 
team,  at  10s.  a  day,  and  for  4i  bus.  oats,  at  Is.  8d.  a  bushel, 
Oct.  28,  1780. 

Jacob  Seth,  for  6  days  public  service  with  his  team, 
March  1,  1781. 

William  Devir,  for  1  bell  and  strap  and  buckle,  Oct.  13, 



Robt.  Williams,  for  6  days  public  service  with  his  team, 
March  1,  1781. 

Isiah  Shipman,  for  "1  Iron  or  Dutch  oven,  1£,"  Oct.  6, 

David  Harnet,  for  200  lbs.  hay,  at  Is.  3d.  per  cwt,  Nov. 
3,  1781;  for  300  lbs.  hay,  Jan.  14,  1781.  "To  the  Above  Ord. 
to  be  aded  31  Galls,  of  Corn  at  4D  per  gall.,  and  30  Diets  at 
6  per  Diet." 

'  'The  af oresd.  Receipts  Granted  to  Mr.  Harnet  the  Ar- 
tickles  Ware  as  appear  to  the  Court  for  the  use  of  the  Mai. 
Called  Out  By  Col.  Jno.  Smith  Lieut,  of  Frederick  County  In 
Order  to  Repulse  the  enemy  When  Makeing  their  Rout  as 
Was  Supposed  toward  the  Albamarle  Barricks  To  Retake  the 
Con-n  troops  Whence  the  Immergency  that  Cased  [?]  Oca- 
sion  Every  Man  to  ride  [?]  for  Which." 

David  Harnet,  for  1100  lbs.  hay,  Jan.  2,  1782;  for  7 
rations,  Is.  each,  Aug.  27,  1781;  etc. 

Michael  Couger,  for  1000  lbs.  beef,  Nov.  20,  1780;  for  24 
diets,  May  27,  1781;  etc. 

Michael  Roarick,  for  11  yds.  coarse  linen,  Jan.  19,  1781. 

William  Donafin,   for  1  gun,  "Which  Gun  sd.  Dunafin 

Lost  In  the  Battle  of  Hot  Water^  Being  badly  Wounded," 
£2  12s. 

John  Harrison,  for  26  diets,  6d.  each,  Nov.  13,  1781;  etc. 

John  Armentrout,  for  23  days  with  team,  Dec.  11,  1780. 

Peter  Sellers,  for  5  bus.  corn,  at  2  s.,  Nov.  14,  1780;  5  bus. 
rye,  at  2  s.  6d.,  Nov.  10,  1780. 

Robt.  Elliot,  for  5  bus.  corn,  Nov.  14,  1780;  etc. 

Frederick  Rob,  for  19  bus.  corn,  Febr.  23,  1781. 

Coonrod  Fudge,  for  96  lbs.  pork,  at  3d.,   Jan.   13,   1781. 

"The  Same  With  Mr.  Harnets  from  Shando." 

David  Fudge,  for  1  bu.  corn  and  3  suppers,  at  6d.  each, 
Jan.  13,  1781. 

9.  The  battle  of  "Hot  Water"  was  fought,  probably,  on  the  26th  of 
June,  1781,  not  far  from  Williamsburg.  If  the  engagement  at  the  time 
and  place  mentioned  was  the  "battle"  named,  Donafin  was  distinguished, 
since  the  Americans  who  took  part  therein  were  picked  men,  commanded 
by  a  Major  Willis.     See  Waddell's  Annals  of  Augusta,  pp.  300,  301. 



William  Young,  for  130  lbs.  hay,  for  10  sheaves  oats,  Is. , 
and  for  8  diets,  at  6d.  each,  Jan.  13,  1781. 

"Same  With  Harnets." 

Adam  Hansberger,  for  52  bus.  corn,  Nov.  15,  1780;  etc. 

David  Fudge,  for  1  bag,  6  s.,  Febr.  19.  1781. 

John  Fudge,  for  1  pair  "Stilards,"  12s.  6d.,  Sept.  16, 

Coonrod  Hansberger,  for  87  yds.  woolen  cloth,  colored 
blue,  at  7s.  6d.  a  yard,  Jan.  16.  1781. 

Adam  Hansberger,  for  1  "Waggoner  Cover  Very  Good," 
40  shillings,  Oct.  8,  1780. 

Reis  Thomas,  for  1  good  blanket,  £1,  Oct.  26,  1780. 

John  Thomas,  for  4  diets,  at  6d.  each,  and  2  quarts 
whisky,  2s.,  Febr.  26,  1781. 

"Ord.  that  ye  Sheriff  summon  Wm.  Herring  to  attend 
Court  tomorrow." 

March  28,  1782. 

Justices  present: 

John  Fitzwater  Reuben  Harrison 

William  Nawl  Wm.  Herring 

Michael  Couger 

Claims  allowed: 
Leonard  Herring,  for  30  bus.  corn,  July  3,  1781. 
Frederick  Armentrout,  for  1  bag,  and  2  bus.    "Spotts," 
Nov.  15,  1780;  for  1  bag,  April  24,  1779;  etc. 

Henry  Miller,  for  50  gals,  whiskey,  at  3s.  a  gallon,  and 
casks,  6s.,  Sept.  14,  1781;  39  horses  1  night  at  hay,  Jan.  14, 
1781;  and  1  bu.  "Spels,"^°  Is.  8d. ;  for  30  morning  snacks  and 
30  gills  whiskey,  Jan.  15,  1781. 

"This  under  the  same  Circumstances  wt.  harnets." 

10.  "Spels"  was  doubtless  spelt,  a  grain  related  to  wheat  and  barley, 
much  used  for  food  in  Germany  and  Switzerland.  It  is  also  called  "Ger- 
man wheat."  This  is  a  circumstantial  touch  reminding  us  that  most  of 
the  early  settlers  of  Rockingham  came  from  Germany  and  Switzerland. 
The  "Spotts"  sold  by  Fred.  Armentrout  were  likely  some  grain  or  vege- 
table, also. 



Henry  Miller,  for  1  ax,  5s.,  Jan.  19,  1781;  for  437  lbs. 
beef,  June  6,  1781. 

Jere  Besselly,   for  1  bu.  corn  and  hay  for  27  horses  1 

night,  Jan.  13,  1781. 

"Sam  at  harnet." 

Jere  Beazle,  for  pasturing  5  horses  4  days,  Sept.  22,. 
1781 1 

Jere  Beezly,  for  1  gal.  salt,  7s.  6d.,  Jan.  13,  1781. 
George  Kessle,  for  hay  and  oats,  Jan.  1,  1782. 
George  Kelsle,  for  6  days  with  team,  March  1,  1781. 

Gorge  Kessle,   for  8  days  rations  for  2  men,   Feb.   23^ 


Georg  Kezle,ii  for  2  days  with  team,  Feb.  12,  1781. 

James  Laird,  for  99  days  public  service  with  his  team^ 

acct.  dated  April  11,  1781. 

Alexander  Miller,  for  725  lbs.  beef,  Nov.  15,  1780. 

Frances  Stewart,  for  pasturing  10  cattle  7  days,  Nov.  2,. 
1781;  etc. 

. Jas.  Rutherford,  for  6  bus.  rye,  Nov.  17,  1780. 

Sam.  Hamphill,  for  22J  lbs.  bacon,  at  9d.,  and  97  lbs. 
pork,  at  3d.,  Feb.  4,  1781. 

Peter  Nicholas,  for  10  soldiers'  diets,  Febr.  25,  1781;  to 
the  same,  for  hay,  diets,  forage,  oats,  corn,  &c.,  at  various, 

Jacob  Nicholas,  for  200  lbs.  hay,  and  for  pasturing  14 
head  of  cattle,  Nov.  12,  1780. 

Reuben  Harrison,  for  99  days  public  service  with  his 
team,  acct.  dated  Dec.  12,  1781. 

Banabas  Carpenter,  for  1  beef  weighing  287  lbs.,  at  2d. 
a  pound,  Sept.  16,  1781;  and  for  1350  lbs.  hay,  at  Is.  6d.  per 
cwt,  Jan.  1,  1782. 

Barnabas  Simmerman,  for  public  service  with  his  team, 

Jan.  20,  1781;  to  the  same,  for  hay,  corn,  diets,  lodging,  etc., 

at  various  times;  and  "for  Damage  Done  by   Continental 

troops  to  the  possessions  of  sd.  Simmerm.,  8  shillings,"  Dec. 
4,  1780. 

11-  Kessle,  Kelsle,  and  Kezle  were  obviously  one  and  the  same  man^ 
to-wit,  George  Keezell,  for  whom  Keezletown  is  named. 



John  Brown,  for  2  bus.  rye,  at  2s.  6d.  a  bushel,  Nov. 
17,  1780. 

John  Frazor,  for  2  bus.  rye  and  10  bus.  corn,  Nov.  26, 

Nana  Simerman,  for  66  lbs.  mutton,  at  3d.  a  pound, 
Febr.  21,  1781. 

Pat.  Guin,  for  3  bus.  corn,  Dec.  7,  1781. 

Daniel  Smith,  for  pasturing  34  troop  horses  20  days,  for 
beef,  corn,  and  whiskey,  July  21,  1781;  for  pubHc  service 
with  his  team,  &c.,  Nov.  30,  1781. 

Michael  Couger,  for  making  2  tents,  at  6s.  3d.,  Jan.  18, 

March  29,  1782. 

Accounts  were  allowed  for  military  supplies  furnished, 

for  public  service  with  teams,  for  horses  lost  in  public  ser- 
vice, etc.,  to  the  following: 

Reuben  Harrison  Adam  Sellers 

John  Weir  Robt.  Slaughter 

Peter  Miller,  Sr.  John  Branum 

Ester  Stephenson  Jacob  Peters 

John  Burk  Woolry  Hershman 

Peter  Miller,  Jr.  Ben.  White 

Leonard  Miller  Henry  Long 

Robt.  Hook  Lawrence  Slaughter 

Jacob  Bear  Ann  Field 

Henry  Miller  Jacob  Kiblinger 

James  Bruster  And.  Hudlow 

Coonrod  Hulvah  Joseph  Hannah 

Gabriel  Jones  Paul  Lingal 

Peachy  Gilmore  Hans  Magart 

George  Mallow  George  Boswell 

March  30,  1782. 
Accounts  were  allowed  for  linen,  making  tents,  for  flour, 

beef,  pasturage,  rations,  etc.,  to  the  following: 
William  Snoding 
Henry  Stone 



Sebaston  Hoover 
Henry  Dove 
Henry  Harter 
Daniel  Smith 
William  Nail 
Edward  Williams 
Jacob  Baer 
Woolry   Hershman 
Jacob  Moyers 
Darby  Ragon 

Felex  Gilbert  (For  putting  in  a  new  axletree,  and  other- 
wise repairing  a  public  wagon,  5s. ) 
To  the  same,  for  corn,  horse  shoes,  &c. 
John  Perky 
George  Pence 

Henry  Pence  (For  8  flour  barrels. ) 

John  Smith  (For  7  days  wagoning,  in  assisting  with  the 
British  prisoners  from  the  south,  to  Shen- 
andoah, March,  1781.) 
William  Marshall 
Lewis  Circle 
Zeb  Harrison  (For  one  "Brown  Mare,   14^  hands  High 

Stout  made  15  years  Old  10£.") 
To  the  same,  "By  a  dutch  Clark,  ye  hand  not  known,  for 
40  head  of  Bullocks  at  Pasture  one  Night  at 
3  per  Head." 
Adam  Argabright 
Martin  Argabright 
Danl.  Guin  (For  "1  Bay  Mare  14  hands  &  1  Inch  High  5 

years  Old  Well  Made  Lost  in  Publick  Service 

twenty  Pounds."  ) 
Brewer  Reeves 
Isaac  Wood 
Alex.  Miller 
William  Fitzwater 
Sarah  Bags 
Jeremiah  Ragon 



John  Page 

John  Ewin 
Wm.  Stephenson 
Frances  Erwin 
Gawin  Hamilton 
Jacob  Fowland 

Johnston  Neilson  (For  '1  Riff  el  Gun  Powder  Horn  and 
Shot  bag  Lost  in  ye  Continental  Service 
In    ye  year  76   In   ye  Expedition  to 
Georgia  £5  10s.") 
Jeremiah  Harrison  (By  assignment  from  Conrad  Smith, 
for  1  roan  mare,  with  bell  and  pack 
saddle,  lost  in  the  State  service  in 
1774,  "In  the  Exp.  to  ye  point  Under 
Dunmore,"  £10  ) 
Daniel  Smith 

Handel  Vance 

Nicholas  Curry 

Michael  Baker 

John  Fitzwater 

Wm.  Marshal 

Danl.  Polser 

Wat.  Crow 

James  Elliot 

William  Magill 

John  Guin 

John  Hemphill 

James  Baird 

George  Carpenter  (For   '1  Gun  Lost  In  the  year  81  In 
the  Battle    at   Jas.   Town  gun    Shot 
poutch  and  powder  horn,"  £5  5s.) 
Wm.  Smith  (For  acting  as  packhorse  master  in  carrying 
provisions  to  "Tyger  Valey,"  40  days,  at  6s. 
per  day,  "Who  then  Acted  under  the  Direc- 
tion  of   Wm.    Boon  accordg  appt  By  Col 
Abram  Smith  C£.  sd  Boon  having  someTime 
ago  Retd  his  Papers  By  Col.  Nawl,"  etc.) 


Jonathan  Shipman 
Abijiah  Warrin 
Jno.  McGlahing 
Lind.  Wade 
Jno.  Armstrong 
Thomas  Collick 
Jacob  Glaspie 
William  Rice 
James  Bletcher 
John  Rice 
Jeremiah  Harrison 
Robt.  Craveors 
John  Deniston 
Abram  Smith 
George  Peirce 
William  Young 

April  1,  1782. 

Benjamin  Harrison  took  the  oath  prescribed  by  law  for 
County  Lieutenant  of  the  militia. 

April  22,  1782. 

Will  of  Peter  Hog,  first  clerk  of  the  court,  written  in  his 
own  hand,  proved  by  Richard  Madison,  one  of  the  subscrib- 
ing witnesses.  Gabriel  Jones  and  George  Matthews  gave 
bond  as  executors.  Elizabeth  Hog  is  mentioned  as  surviving 

April  23,  1782. 

Accounts  were  allowed  for  service  in  the  Revolution,  as 

Sept.  27,  1780. -"To  Jas.  Carrel  for  one  Waggon,  3 
Horses  and  Geers  for  four  horses  All  lost  in  Publick  Service 
Under  Comd.  of  Genl.  Stevans  In  Carolina  Being  first  52 
Days  in  ye  service  7  Day  Retg  home  at  5s.  6d.  Day  and  10s. 
6d.  Day  for  sd.  52  Days  in  service." 

Carrel  was  allowed  for  his  horses  £25,  £30,  and  £15,  re- 
spectively; for  the  wagon,  gears,  &c.,  £18. 



To  Wm.  Magill,  for  15  days  serving  as  quarter  master 
with  the  militia  from  this  county,  to  "Head  Qt.  Mopin  Hills," 
at  6s.  a  day.     No  date. 

To  Wm.  Hook,  for  1  horse,  lost  in  public  service  in  1779 

April  24,  1782. 

Accounts  were  allowed  for  service,  supplies  furnished, 
etc.,  during  the  Revolution,  to  the  following  persons: 

George  Spears 

Sol.  Mathews 

John  Henton 

John  Hopkins 

George  Baxter 

Jeremiah  Ragon 

Richard  Mathews 

Archibald  Hopkins 

Isiah  Shipman 

Jonathan  Shipman 

Archibald  Henderson 

Silas  Hart 

James  Devier 

Hugh  Devier 

Fred.  Armentrout 

Mathias  Kersh  (For  3  beeves  weighing  nett  1750  lbs., 

at  2id.  a  pound. ) 
George  Weaver 
John  Weaver 
Jacob  Perkey 
Thos.  Care 
Henry  Monger 
Adam  Sellers 
Col.  Wm.  Nawl 
Robt.  Elliot 
Henry  Armentrout 
Wm.  White 
Martin  Petro 



Wm.  Davis 

Wm.  Mills 

Jacob  Nicholas 

David  Laird 

George  Mallow 

Ann  Carpenter 

George  Carpenter 

Adam  Fought 

William  Hook 

Thomas  Harrison 

Frances  Stewart 

John  Miller 

George  Huston  ( '  'For  paying  for  Keeping  1  Horse  His 
Own  Property  But  Lost  In  the  Ctry 
Service  in  Mcintosh  Expd.  Taken  Up  and 
Again  Rd.  to  Him  For  Sixty  Days  4  Dol- 
lars And  pay  Is.  6d.  for  106  Days  Being 
ye  Time  of  sd.  Expt." 
Dated  Feb.  18,  1779.) 

The  sheriff  was  ordered  to  collect  the  window  glass  tax, 
agreeable  to  Act  of  Assembly  passed  in  May,  1780,  "Which 
Should  Have  Been  Collected  In  Augt.  81." 

May  27,  1782. 

Frances  Kees  [?]  took  the  oath  of  an  attorney  "in  this 

May  28,  1782. 

It  was  ordered  that  James  Montgomery,  son  of  Sam. 
Montgomery,  deceased,  be  bound  according  to  law,  by  the 
church  wardens,  "To  Mr.  Jno.  Hicks  To  Learn  ye  silver 
smith  Trade  untill  he  Comes  of  ye  Age  of  21  years  he  Being 
14  year  Spt  Ensuing  and  the  sd.  Hicks  Learn  him  read 
Wright  and  Cypher." 

Accounts  for  services  rendered,  supplies  furnished,  etc., 
during  the  Revolution,  were  allowed  to  the  following  persons: 



James  Grace  Handel  Vance 

John  Davis  Mary  Cravens 

Henry  Stone  Margaret  Cravens 

Frances  Beaverly  John  Craig 

Henry  Whisler  Wm.  Hook 

Fred.  Keiler  Abram  Peters 

George  Ruddle  Nehemiah  Harrison 
James  Magill 

May  29,  1782. 

Accounts  for  services  rendered,  supplies  furnished,  etc., 
during  the  Revolution,  were  allowed  to  the  following  persons: 

John  Shipman  Jacob  Coofman 

Reuben  Harrison  John  Pence 

Thomas  Harrison  John  Robison 

Robt.  Harrison  David  Robison 

Robt.  Hook  John  Thomas 

Walter  Crow  George  Mallow 

Mathew  Patton  Augustine  Price 

Robt.  Davis  Jacob  Harmon 

James  Dyer  Jno.  Bear 
Frederick  Kester 

May  30,  1782. 
Revolutionary  claims  were  allowed  to 

Bethuell  Herring  Michael  Stump 

France  Irvine  John  Bullet 

David  Ralston  Charles  Rush 

Robt,  Slaughter  Pasley  Hover 

Jacob  Moyer  John  Sellers 

Lewis  Runckle  Stephen    Coonrod 

Henry  Price  Pet.  Kize 

John  Sword  George  Coonrod 

Hugh  Dunahoe  Pet.  Coonrod 

Michael  Cams  Philip  Long 

Thomas  Hewitt  William  Pence 

Alex.  Herring  Lewis  Rhinehart 

Frances  Stewart  John  Fye 



Pet.  Runckle  Joseph  Smith 

David  Laird  Thomas  Harrison 

John  Eddy 

June  7,  1782. 
Revolutionary  claims  were  allowed  to 

John  Herdman  Jacob  Bear 

John  Hinton  Robt.  Elliot 

John  McWilliams  James  Dier 

John  Ewins  Easther  Stephenson 

Chrisly  Painter  John  Blain 

John  Hopkins  Jacob  Warick 

Archibald  Hopkins  Joseph  Strickler 

Robt.  Dunlap  Alex.  Samples 

Ephraim  Love  John  McDugal 

Brewer  Reeves  Henry  Ewins 

Godfrey  Bowman  Wm.  Hook 

Wm.  Pettejohn  Ezekiel  Harrison 

August  28,  1782. 

"Came  into  Court  Benj  Crow  &  made  oath  that  there 
was  a  Rifel  gun  powder  horn  shot  pouch  and  knife  taken 
from  Him  When  a  continental  soldier  In  the  year  1777  and 
put  Into  the  Magn.  for  which  he  Reed  a  certificate  Which  he 
Lodged  with  Walter  Crow  who  also  came  into  Court  and  Made 
oath  that  He  Has  Lost  the  sd.  Cera,  and  never  Reed  any  val- 
ue for  ye  same  the  Court  Is  therefore  of  the  oppinion  that  ye 
sd.  Benj  Crow  Be  allowed  £7  10s  for  sd  gun  powder  horn 
shot  Pouch  and  knife  and  the  Same  Is  ord.  to  Be  Cert." 

*  'Came  into  Court  Walter  Crow  And  Made  oath  that  He 
Delivered  280  lbs.  of  Bacon  To  Mr.  Tate  Comg.  at  Albamarle 
Barricks  In  April  1779  for  Which  he  has  Never  Rd.  any  Valy 
or  Satisfan.  the  Court  Is  therefore  of  ye  oppinion  that  He 
Be  allowed  7i  per  lb.  and  ye  same  Is  ord.  To  Be  Cerd." 

"Came  into  Court  Robt.  Davis  Gent,  and  Made  oath  the 
Hemshire  Cty  Mai  When  in  this  Cty  supressing  The  Tories 
Red.  of  Him  30  Diets  for  Which  he  Red.  no the  Court  Is 



therefore  of  ye  oppn.  that  he  Be  allowed  6  d.  per  Diet  &  S 
ord.  To  Cert." 

September  24,  1782. 

"To  John  Donaphan  1  Gun  Lost  in  Hot  water  Battle  a 
smooth  Rhifle  about  3  feet  7  Inches  Long  Brass  mounted  with 
Amidling  Lock  Vallued  To  £3  0  &  C. 

"The  Sd.  Donaphan  was  wounded  in  the  Action." — Ac- 
count dated  July  26,  1781. 

October  29.  1782. 

"To  James  Reeves  for  One  Rifle  Gun  Lost  in  Crossing 
James  River  at  Sandy  Point  upon  the  March  Against  Genl. 
Arnold  Valued  at  £5.0.0  Specie." 

November  27,  1782. 

James  Devier  was  appointed  to  procure  weights  and 
measures  for  a  standard  in  the  county,  according  to  law, 
*  'upon  the  best  Terms  he  can  as  far  as  40£  Will  Extend  Hav- 
ing Regard  To  ye  Purchassing  of  the  sd.  Measures  In  ye  first 

March  25,  1783. 

"Gawin  Hamilton  Gent,  having  advertised  the  Court  of 
his  intentions  of  removing  from  this  State  to  the  State  of 
Georgia  and  as  he  is  informed  it  is  necessary  for  Strangers  to 
carry  with  them  a  Certificate  of  their  Character  and  Conduct 
from  the  place  where  they  remove  from  prayed  the  Court 
would  Certifie  their  Knowledge  of  him,  The  Court  therefore 
taking  the  same  under  consideration  and  willing  to  do  Justice 
as  well  to  the  said  Mr.  Hamilton  as  to  their  Fellow  Citizens 
in  the  State  where  he  is  about  to  remove  to,  Ordered  that  the 
Clerk  of  this  Court  do  Certifie  that  the  said  Gawin  Hamilton 
hath  been  for  many  years  past  an  Inhabitant  of  this  County 
that  he  hath  Acted  therein  in  the  public  Character  of  an 
Assistant  Surveyor  of  the  aforesaid  County,  A  Magistrate 
and  a  Lieutenant  Colonel  of  the  Militia,  in  all  which  said 
Capacities  he  hath  demeaned  himself  with  uprightness,  in- 
tegrity Spirit  and  Resolution,  and   Show'd   by  his  Actions 



through  the  long  Contest  with  Great  Brittain  that  he  pos- 
sessed true  Whiggish  principles  and  upon  all  occasions  exerted 
them  for  the  Advantage  of  the  United  States." 

On  April  29,  1783,  certificates  were  granted  to  Ezekiel 
Harrison,  Reuben  Harrison,  and  Josiah  Harrison,  stating  that 
they  had  been  born  and  brought  up  in  the  county,  and  had 
behaved  themselves  as  good,  faithful  citizens  and  soldiers  in 
the  contest  with  Great  Britain,  etc.  They  also  were  remov- 
ing to  Georgia. 

April  29,  1783. 

William  Dunaphans^^  was  allowed  £2  for  a  smooth  bore 
gun  lost  '  'in  Serving  a  Tour  of  Militia  Duty  under  Colo.  Naul, 
sd.  gun  was  lost  at  Stomen  [?]  Mill  Near  Portsmouth  in  the 
Year  1781." 

May  27,  1783. 

''On  Application  of  John  Brown  Senr.  on  behalf  of  James 
Brown  that  he  is  Eldest  Brother  and  heir  at  Law  of  John 
Brown  deceased  a  Soldier  in  the  8th Virginia  Regiment^-  was 
in  the  Continental  Service  at  the  time  of  his  Death— which 
is  Ordered  to  be  Certified." 

13-  The  Dunaphan  family  seems  to  have  had  a  persistent  misfortune 
with  guns.  This  makes  three  lost  by  William  and  John.  It  is  possible, 
however,  that  the  above  item  refers  to  the  same  gun  mentioned  in  the 
record  of  March  27,  1782. 

13.  The  8th  Virginia  was  the  famous  "German  Regiment,"  commanded 
first  by  Muhlenberg,  later  by  Abram  Bowman.  See  Wayland's  "German 
Element,"  pp.  143,  144. 

June  23,  1783. 

'  'Capt.  Stephen  Coonrod  came  into  Court  and  proved  that 
he  lost  or  mislaid  a  Certain  Certificate  granted  by  Col.  Wm. 
Nail  to  John  Fie  so  that  it  cannot  be  found  for  one  old  Wolfs 
Scalp  and  that  the  same  is  Ordered  to  be  Certified." 

June  24,  1783. 
Agreeable  to  an  order  of  the  court  in  March  preceding, 



for  the  sheriff  to  let  the  paving  "of  that  part  of  the  Court 
House  from  the  Lawyers  Barr  to  the  Chimney  Ordered  that 
Andrew  Shanklin  Let  the  said  work  with  an  Addition  of  two 
Windows  one  of  each  side  of  the  Chair  containing  Twelve 
lights  each  Eight  by  Ten  to  be  finished  in  a  workmanlike 
manner  with  Suitable  Shutters  &c.  by  August  Court  next." 
On  September  23  this  w^ork  was  reported  satisfactorily  com- 

'  '0  That  William  Herring  and  Andrew  Shanklin  Gent,  do 
lay  off  the  Prison  bounds." 

Pursuant  to  the  above,  Herring  and  Shanklin  made  re- 
port that  the  said  prison  bounds  *  'do  begin  at  a  Walnut  tree 
In  the  Corner  of  Reeves  Lott,  from  thence  to  a  Stone  set  up 
below  the  South  East  end  of  Deviers  House,  from  thence  to 
two  black  Oak  saplins  growing  from  one  Root,  in  the  North 
Side  of  Lanahans  Lott,  from  thence  to  a  Stone  Set  up  at  the 
West  side  of  Rutherfords  Kitchen  and  from  thence  to  the 

September  22,  1783. 

Daniel  McKenley  was  granted  a  certificate,  stating  that 
he  had  been  a  resident  of  the  county  for  "some  years  past," 
had  been  a  person  of  sober  conduct,  had  manifested  true 
Whiggish  principles  in  the  long  contest  with  Great  Britain, 
and  had  been  a  good  soldier,  in  the  capacity  of  sergeant,  in  a 
long  and  tedious  campaign.  Mr.  McKenley,  like  others  al- 
ready mentioned,  was  going  to  Georgia. 

October  28,  1783. 

Henry  Ewin,  William  Herring,  and  Benj.  Harrison,  ap- 
pointed by  a  former  court,  reported  that  they  had  viewed  the 
work  done  by  James  Henton  on  the  "Jayl,  Pillory  and  Stocks, " 
and  had  found  it  done  according  to  contract.  An  order  was 
entered  directing  the  sheriff  to  pay  the  said  Henton  £35  15s. 
for  the  said  work.  Henton  was  allowed  20s.  for  a  stock  lock 
"now  on  the  inside  Door  of  Jail  upon  his  furnishing  a  Lock 
for  the  Iron  Door  agreeable  to  Article." 



September  27,  1784. 

Gawin  Hamilton  and  Ralph  Loftus,  having  been  appointed 
by  a  former  court  to  examine  Mr.  John  Lincoln  in  regard  to 
his  abilities  as  deputy  surveyor  of  the  county,  reported  that 
they  had  found  nothing  to  hinder  his  being  admitted  to  the 

After  the  successful  close  of  the  Revolution  in  1783,  Vir- 
ginia bestowed  a  northwestern  empire  upon  the  new  nation 
in  1784.  In  1787  the  famous  ordinance  for  the  government  of 
the  northwest  and  the  new  constitution  for  the  nation  were 
both  drawn  up.  Two  years  later  Washington  was  inaugurated 
first  President,  and  the  "tall  young  Adam  of  the  West" 
began  to  stand  erect.  In  1793  Whitney  invented  the  cotton 
gin;  in  1798  Virginia  and  Kentucky  passed  their  fateful  reso- 
lutions in  protest  against  the  Alien  and  Sedition  Acts;  in  1803 
Jefferson  purchased  Louisiana;  and  in  1807  came  a  trilogy  of 
great  events:  The  passage  of  the  Embargo,  the  proof  of 
Fulton's  steamboat,  and  the  birth  of  Robert  E.  Lee.  During 
all  this  time  progress  was  rapid  in  Rockingham,  notwith- 
standing the  fact  that  she  surrendered  a  large  part  of  her 
territory  in  1787  in  the  formation  of  Pendleton  County.  The 
people  were  subduing  the  earth  and  replenishing  it;  they 
were  clearing  forests,  building  houses,  laying  out  roads,  and 
establishing  schools,  churches,  and  towns:  they  were  marry- 
ing and  giving  in  marriage.  If  any  one  doubts  the  last,  he 
may  abundantly  satisfy  himself  by  referring  to  the  list  of 
marriages  in  the  Appendix.  At  the  end  of  the  century  Rev. 
John  Walsh,  of  the  Methodist  Church,  seems  to  have  been 
best  man  to  Hymen.  For  the  year  ending  in  April,  1798, 
he  reported  30  marriages  to  the  county  clerk,  and  for  the 
next  year,  ending  May  13,  1799,  he  reported  45. 

In  1781  there  were  about  1500  tithables  in  the  county. 
Accordingly,  the  total  population  was  probably  about  5000. 
In  1790  there  were  about  2100  tithables,  and  a  total  popu- 
lation of  nearly  7500.     By  1810  the  figures  were  about  3000 



and  12,500,  respectively.  There  was  a  variety  of  race  ele- 
ments: German,  Scotch,  Irish,  English,  Dutch,  and  Negro: 
but  the  negroes  were  remarkably  few,  compared  with  the 
number  to  be  found  in  the  adjacent  counties  east  of  the  Blue 
Ridge.  The  number  of  negro  slaves  reported  for  1790  was 
only  about  10  per  cent,  of  the  total  population;  the  number  in 
1810  being  about  11  per  cent,  of  the  total.  Most  of  the  tax- 
payers had  horses,  while  but  a  few  of  them  had  slaves.  In 
1775  Felix  Gilbert  reported  12  tithables,  and  John  Craig 
nine, — more  than  any  one  else  in  their  district.  The  largest 
slave-holders  in  the  county  in  1788  were  Peachey  Ridgeway, 
John  Mackalls,  Thomas  Lewis,  and  William  Nail,  with  12,  10, 
8,  and  7  slaves,  respectively.  At  the  same  time  James  Dyer 
had  19  horses  and  one  slave;  George  Crisman,  17  horses  and 
4  slaves;  Gawin  Hamilton,  16  horses  and  3  slaves;  and  Jacob 
Coonrod,  16  horses  and  no  slaves.  Usually,  however,  those 
who  had  a  large  number  of  horses  also  had  a  considerable 
number  of  slaves,  and  vice  versa.  Another  fact  of  special 
significance  presents  itself  in  this  connection.  In  1790  all  the 
negroes  in  the  county  were  reported  as  slaves:  there  were 
apparently  no  free  negroes;  but  in  1810  there  were  200  or 
more  free  negroes.  This  change  was  probably  the  result,  in 
large  measure  at  least,  of  the  work  done  within  this  period 
by  the  Methodists  and  other  religious  bodies  in  behalf  of 

Particular  instances  of  emigration,  about  the  close  of  the 
Revolution,  have  been  recorded.  Many  other  instances  might 
be  found.  Through  the  kindness  of  Mr.  H.  M.  Strickler  I 
am  enabled  to  present  the  following  paragraphs  in  point 
from  two  letters  written  by  Mrs.  Ryland  Todhunter  of  Lex- 
ington, Mo.     Under  date  of  August  26,  1911,  she  says: 

Almost  the  entire  settlement  of  Madison  County,  Kentucky,  was 
made  up  by  a  concourse  of  people  who  left  Augusta,  Albemarle,  and 
Rockingham  County  in  a  body  for  that  new  country  about  1785-91. 

Again,  under  date  of  September  12,  1911,  she  writes: 

In  1810  there  were  100  families  who  came  at  one  time  from  Madison 
County,  Ky. ,  to  settle  in  the  new  Missouri  Territory.    They  were  almost 



without  exception  the  same  names  and  children  of  the  men  who  left 
Augusta  and  Rockingham  County,  Va.  With  them  came  my  Elliott  fam- 
ily and  the  allied  families  of  Glasgow,  Wallace,  Estill,  Trigg,  Rodes, 
Lewis,  Turner,  Kavanaugh,  Oldham,  and  others.  It  is  possible  that 
Elliott's  Knob  was  named  for  my  family. 

August  11,  1911,  Maj.  W.  P.  Pence,  of  Fort  Monroe,  Va., 
who  has  spent  much  time  searching  records  in  the  effort  to 
get  a  complete  history  of  the  Pence  family,  told  me  that 
about  1805-1815  there  was  a  notable  exodus  from  Rocking- 
ham westward,  specially  into  the  northwest  territories. 

In  1780  Harrisonburg  was  established  as  a  town;  in  1791, 
Keezletown ;  from  1801  to  1804  McGaheysville,  Port  Republic, 
and  New  Haven  were  laid  out  and  named.  The  first  Circuit 
Superior  Court  of  Law  and  Chancery  for  Rockingham  County 
was  held  in  April,  1809,  Judge  Hugh  Holmes  presiding.  In 
April,  1811,  this  court  was  put  in  charge  of  Judge  Daniel 
Smith,  to  continue  under  his  able  direction  till  his  death  in 
1850.  Much  of  the  work  done  in  the  magistrates'  court  dur- 
ing the  latter  part  of  the  18th  and  the  early  part  of  the  19th 
century  had  for  its  purpose  the  improvement  of  facilities  for 
travel  and  transportation:  the  laying  out  of  roads,  the  clear- 
ing of  fords,  etc.  Many  details  concerning  this  work  may  be 
found  in  Chapter  XII.  Educational  and  religious  work  was 
not  by  any  means  neglected.  The  Lutherans,  the  Reformed, 
the  Mennonites,  and  the  Episcopalians  had  been  in  the  field 
from  the  beginning;  the  Bunkers,  the  Presbyterians,  the 
Methodists,  and  the  United  Brethren  were  becoming  well  es- 
tablished. There  were  perhaps  a  few  Catholics,  Quakers, 
and  Moravians  in  the  county.  Particulars  regarding  these 
various  churches  are  given  in  Chapter  XIV,  while  the  subject 
of  education  receives  special  attention  in  Chapter  XV. 

About  1809  George  Rockingham  Gilmer,  later  Governor 
of  Georgia,  visited  Virginia,  the  home  of  his  ancestors,  and 
in  particular  the  birthplace  of  his  father  in  Rockingham 
County.  He  came  up  through  East  Virginia,  stopping  in 
Amelia,  Cumberland,  Albemarle,  and  other  counties.  He 
was  in  Charlottesville  on  the  day  of  the  election  of  members 
of  the  State  legislature  and  Congress. 



Crossing  the  Blue  Ridge,  probably  by  Brown's  Gap,  he 
came  into  the  beautiful  Valley.  Here  I  quote  from  his  own 

I  passed  that  evening  the  birthplace  of  my  mother— then  the  resi- 
dence of  my  uncle,  Charles  Lewis— and  arrived  at  Lethe,  the  birthplace  of 
my  father — the  residence  of  my  uncle,  George  Gilmer. 

I  remained  two  months  at  this  beautiful  place,  with  the  best  and 
kindest  people  whom  I  have  ever  known.  The  house  was  of  brick,  situ- 
ated upon  the  descent  of  a  hill,  about  three  hundred  yards  from  the 
Shenandoah  River,  which  was  seen  over  a  beautiful  meadow,  and  through 
thinly  scattered  sycamore  trees,  flowing  away  with  a  strong  current. 
From  the  top  of  the  hill,  back  of  the  house,  might  be  seen  exceedingly 
fertile  fields,  enclosed  in  a  semicircle,  formed  by  the  river,  and  mountains 
extending  in  every  direction. 

In  the  middle  of  the  valley,  between  the  North  Mountain  and  the 
Blue  Ridge,  rose  up  almost  perpendicularly,  and  to  a  great  height,  the 
Peaked  Mountain.  In  a  clear  day,  many  excavations  were  visible  on  its 
side.  Upon  inquiring  about  them,  I  was  informed  that  they  had  been 
made  by  the  neighboring  Dutch  people  in  search  of  hidden  treasure.  A 
young  fellow  of  the  neighborhood,  whose  father  was  a  man  of  some  wealth 
and  consequence,  had  a  club-foot  and  was  made  a  tailor  of,  as  fit  for 
nothing  else.  In  following  his  trade,  he  went  to  many  places,  and  became 
wise  in  the  ways  and  some  of  the  tricks  of  the  world.  After  a  while  he 
returned  to  the  neighborhood  of  the  Peaked  Mountain.  The  Dutch  had 
heard,  and  were  credulous  enough  to  believe,  that  a  wealthy  lord  was 
one  of  the  first  settlers  of  the  Shenandoah  Valley,  had  quitted  the  coun- 
try a  long  time  before,  and  returned  to  Germany,  leaving  his  money 
behind,  hid  in  the  Peaked  Mountain.  There  had  been  some  effort  to 
discover  the  treasure  by  digging  several  places  in  the  mountain  side. 
The  tailor  told  them  that,  in  his  travels  through  Ohio,  he  had  been  in  a 
factory  of  spyglasses,  which  so  added  to  the  power  of  sight,  that  he 
could  see  several  feet  into  the  earth  with  one  of  them.  Having  excited 
great  interest  about  these  glasses  and  the  hidden  treasure  by  his  tales, 
he  proposed  to  the  money-hunters  that,  if  they  would  make  up  a  suffi- 
cient sum,  he  would  go  with  it  to  this  factory,  and  buy  them  a  glass, 
by  which  they  could  find  the  concealed  gold. 

The  required  sum  was  collected,  and  the  tailor  went  to  Ohio.  Upon 
his  return,  he  informed  his  employers  that  he  had  purchased  a  glass  bet- 
ter than  he  had  ever  seen  before;  that  he  had  no  doubt  but  that  they 
could  have  seen  through  the  Peaked  Mountain,  if  he  could  have  got  it  to 
them;  but  unfortunately,  as  he  was  traveling  home  with  it,  he  was 
obliged  to  cross  a  rapid  run,  which  proved  more  swollen  than  he  supposed. 
He  was  washed  down  by  the  strong  current,  lost  his  saddlebags,    with 



the  glass  in  it,  and  came  very  near  losing  his  life.  Another  sum  of  money- 
was  made  up  with  which  the  Irish  club-footed  tailor  left  the  heighborhood 
of  the  Peaked  Mountain,  never  again  to  be  seen  there.  He  laid  out  the 
money  in  the  purchase  of  a  tract  of  land,  whilst  some  had  theirs  sold  to 
repay  the  money  which  they  had  borrowed  to  supply  the  tailor  with  the 
means  to  buy  the  wonderful  glass. 

Whilst  at  Lethe,  I  witnessed  an  electioneering  scene,  equally  inter- 
esting with  the  one  I  had  been  present  at  in  Charlottesville.  David 
Holmes,  who  had  for  twenty  years  immediately  preceding,  represented  in 
Congress  the  district  of  which  Rockingham  County  made  a  part,  had  been 
appointed  Governor  of  the  Mississippi  Territory  by  Mr.  Jefferson.  A  new 
member  had  to  be  elected.  The  republicans  and  federalists  were  very 
equally  divided  in  the  district.  Mr.  Smith  (now  Judge  Smith)  became 
the  candidate  of  the  republicans,  and  Jacob  Swope  the  candidate  of  the 
federalists.  The  Virginians  vote  viva  voce.  The  candidates  seat  them- 
selves during  the  day  of  the  election  on  the  judge's  bench,  in  the  court- 
house, and  as  each  voter  names  the  person  for  whom  he  votes,  he  is  bowed 
to,  and  thanked  by  the  candidate  voted  for.  I  was  in  Harrisonburg,  the 
court-house  town  of  Rockingham,  on  the  day  of  this  election,  and  saw  Mr. 
Smith  and  Swope,  thus  seated  and  occupied.  Smith  was  of  an  old  Vir- 
ginia family;  Swope  was  German,  and  could  speak  the  German  language. 
The  farmers  of  the  county  were  mostly  Germans;  the  lawyers,  doctors, 
merchants,  sheriffs,  clerks,  &c.,were  Virginians.  Mr.  Smith  and  Swope 
addressed  the  people  on  the  party  topics  of  the  day,  British  orders  in 
council.  Napoleon's  edict  restricting  commerce,  the  embargo,  and  anti- 
commercial  system  of  Mr.  Jefferson. 

After  both  candidates  had  spoken,  Mr.  Swope  commenced  addressing 
the  people  in  German,  in  reply  to  Mr.  Smith.  A  huge  old  German  rose, 
and  in  broken  English,  said  Mr.  Swope  should  not  talk  German,  because 
Mr.  Smith  could  not  talk  German,  and  stopped  Swope.  Mr.  Swope  was 
a  merchant,  a  handsome  man,  and  usually  well  dressed.  He  resided  in 
Staunton,  Augusta  County.  He  came  to  Rockingham  dressed  in  German 
fashion.  The  German  succeeded,  though  the  Smith  party  had  the  ma- 
jority in  the  district;  and  Mr.  Smith  was  equal,  if  not  superior  to  Mr. 
Swope  in  qualifications  for  Congressional  service.  14 

The  new  nation  won  political  independence  in  the  war 
from  1775  to  1783,  but  another  hard  struggle  was  necessary 
to  secure  commercial  independence.  The  conspicuous  part 
taken  in  the  Revolution  by  the  new  county  of  Rockingham 
has  already  been  indicated,  and  it  may  be  shown  that  in  the 

14.  From  Gov.  George  Rockingham  Gilmer's  book  on  Georgians  and 
Virginians,  pp.  243-246. 



war  from  1812  to  1815  it  was  not  found  wanting.  In  1813 
and  1814  no  less  than  five  companies,  aggregating  nearly  400 
men,  went  into  the  military  service  of  the  nation  from  Rock- 
ingham County.  The  captains  of  these  companies  were 
Robert  Magill,  Thomas  Hopkins,  William  Harrison,  Robert 
Hooke,  and  Daniel  Matthews;  the  names  of  their  men  may  be 
found  in  the  muster  rolls  in  the  Appendix.  It  is  quite  proba- 
ble that  other  soldiers  from  Rockingham,  not  listed  in  these 
rolls,  also  took  part  in  the  second  war  for  independence. 
For  example.  Col.  Joseph  Mauzy  (1779-1863),  who  was  for 
many  years  a  prominent  citizen  of  the  county,  was  in  com- 
mand of  a  company  at  Norfolk;  and  under  date  of  January 
11,  1861,  the  editor  of  the  Rockingham  Register  made  this 

In  1812  we  furnished  more  than  enough  men  to  form  a  regiment,  yet 
our  men  served  under  strangers. 

But  peace  marks  progress  while  war  wins  victory.  Dur- 
ing the  war  of  1812-15,  as  well  as  in  the  years  preceding  and 
following,  progress  in  the  new  county  was  steady  and  sub- 
stantial. Things  intellectual  and  spiritual  were  not  lost  sight 
of  in  the  growth  of  things  material.  As  early  as  1813  David- 
son &  Bourne  had  a  printing  establishment  in  Harrisonburg; 
two  or  three  years  later  Lawrence  Wartmann,  whose  publi- 
cations were  to  become  famous,  had  opened  his  press  in  the 
same  town.  Daniel  Bryan  was  writing  poetry;  Joseph  Funk 
was  publishing  music;  John  Brown  was  advocating  missions; 
the  Methodists  and  others  were  trying  to  get  rid  of  slavery; 
the  palaces  underground  were  being  explored,  and  the  foun- 
tains among  the  hills  were  being  sought  for  health  and  pleas- 
ure: the  day  was  at  the  morn  in  Rockingham. 



The  period  from  1820  to  1860  was  one  of  varied  and  far- 
reaching  activities.  The  new  nation  had  won  its  political 
independence  by  the  Revolution,  and  its  commercial  inde- 
pendence by  the  war  of  1812:  it  was  now  achieving  its  indus- 
trial independence  through  the  development  of  manufac- 
tures, the  invention  of  agricultural  machinery,  and  the  im- 
provement of  transportation  facilities;  and  was  preparing  to 
realize  its  intellectual  independence,  as  well,  by  thinking  for 
itself  and  writing  books  that  were  no  longer  fashioned 
upon  European  models.  Within  this  period  fall  the  Missouri 
Compromise,  the  enunciation  of  the  Monroe  Doctrine,  South 
Carolina  nullification,  the  abolition  movement,  the  economic 
crisis  of  1837,  the  Mexican  War,  the  Compromise  of  1850, 
John  Brown's  Raid,  and  the  beginning  of  secession. 

In  Rockingham  County  the  main  currents  of  national 
movements  were  being  felt  and  registered,  and  at  the  same 
tim.e  affairs  of  State  and  local  interest  were  riding  upon  high 
tides.  Population  was  increasing  and  being  widely  dis- 
tributed by  emigration;  social  institutions  were  being  devel- 
oped, law  systems  were  being  perfected,  military  organiza- 
tions were  being  maintained,  and  natural  resources  were  be- 
ing exploited.  It  was  a  time  frequently  marked  by  sharp 
political  agitation,  the  constitution  of  the  State  being  re- 
written twice  within  the  period,  once  in  1829-30,  again  in 
1850-51.  Churches  were  being  extended,  and  not  a  little  at- 
tention was  being  directed  toward  general  education,  but  the 
chief  local  movements  of  the  time  appear  to  have  been  poli- 
tical, social,  and  economic,  rather  than  religious  or  literary. 
It  was  a  time  of  "internal  improvements" — some  railroads 

j:    do 


being  projected,  some  towns,  perhaps,  being  "boomed," 
several  banks  being  established,  many  roads  being  con- 
structed, and  a  large  number  of  bridges  being  erected.  In  the 
decade  preceding  the  crisis  of  1837  the  building  of  turnpikes 
was  especially  in  vogue,  the  Valley  Turnpike  and  the  one 
leading  from  Harrisonburg  to  Warm  Springs  both  being  con- 
structed within  that  time.  The  Rockingham  Turnpike,  lead- 
ing from  Harrisonburg  eastward  toward  SvWft  Run  Gap,  was 
not  built  until  some  years  later,  but  still  within  the  period 
under  consideration.  The  roads,  good  and  bad,  were  being 
utilized,  not  only  for  neighborhood  communication  and  trans- 
portation, but  also  for  a  great  wagon  trade  with  Scottsville, 
Fredericksburg,  Winchester,  and  other  markets;  and  the 
Shenandoah  River  at  the  same  time  was  a  throbbing  channel 
of  navigation  between  the  eastern  sections  of  the  county  and 
the  cities  on  the  Potomac. 

Chapters  XII  and  XXVI  are  devoted  specially  to  roads 
and  the  river  trade,  respectively;  further  particulars  regard- 
ing banks  may  be  found  in  Chapter  XXII;  and  a  number  of 
items  concerning  the  bridges  of  the  county  will  be  found 
here  and  there— some  further  on  in  this  chapter. 

Rockingham  County  has  always  been  notable  as  a  distri- 
buting center  for  people.  In  this  respect  it  resembles  those 
counties  of  Eastern  Pennsplvania,  whence  most  of  its  early 
settlers  came.  Far  and  wide,  over  the  south,  west,  and  north- 
west, in  Georgia,  Alabama,  Tennessee,  Kentucky,  Missouri, 
Illinois,  Indiana,  Ohio,  and  many  other  States,  not  only  indi- 
viduals but  also  communities  may  be  found  that  trace  their 
ancestry  or  former  places  of  residence  to  Rockingham  County, 
Virginia.  As  already  indicated,  emigration  was  common 
from  the  first,  but  so  great  was  the  exodus  in  the  period  under 
review  that  the  number  of  Rockinghamers  actually  in  Rock- 
ingham in  1850  was  about  300  less  than  in  1830;  and  emigra- 
tion was  so  rapid  in  the  decade  following  1830  that  the  popu- 
lation (only  the  white  population  is  included  in  these  figures) 
was  nearly  3000  less  in  1840  than  in  1830.  To  cite  a  single 
instance,  there  were  nine  children  in  one  of  the  Kaylor  fami- 



lies,  but  only  one  remained  in  Rockingham;  from  1828  to  1833 
the  other  eight  moved  to  Logan  County,  Ohio,  where  their 
descendants  are  numerous  to-day;  and  with  the  last  of  the 
eight  went  the  mother  of  them  all. 

Another  reason  for  the  decrease  of  population  in  Rock- 
ingham between  1830  and  1840  is  to  be  found  in  the  forma- 
tion of  Page  County,  in  1831,  from  Rockingham  and  Shenan- 
doah; but  the  part  taken  from  Rockingham  was  small,  as 
may  be  seen  by  a  glance  at  the  map,  not  large  enough  to  re- 
quire of  itself  the  growth  of  twenty  years  in  compensation. 
We  must  reckon  still  with  the  steady  stream  going  westward. 

The  main  reason  for  this  movement  towards  the  west  is 
doubtless  to  be  found  in  the  liberal  policy  adopted  by  the 
Federal  Government  in  1820  for  disposing  of  the  public 
lands.  Immediately  the  movement  westward  was  acceler- 
ated, and  for  a  number  of  years  preceding  1837  the  land 
fever  was  widespread  and  at  high  temperature.  The  popu- 
lation of  Ohio,  Indiana,  Illinois,  Michigan,  Wisconsin,  and 
Iowa  increased  from  792,719  in  1820  to  2,967,840  in  1840. 
Much  of  the  growth  of  Rockingham  in  this  period  must  be 
registered  in  these  States,  rather  than  within  her  own  defi- 
nite boundaries. 

But  temporary  loss  of  population  did  not  diminish  the 
fertility  of  Rockingham  fields,  or  the  vigor  of  her  sons  and 
daughters  who  abode  at  home.  About  1845  Henry  Howe 
traveled  all  over  Virginia,  then  including  West  Virginia,  and 
wrote  an  account  of  each  county  in  order.  Of  Harrisonburg 
he  wrote,  '  'The  village  is  handsomely  built,  flourishing,  and 
is  surrounded  by  a  beautiful  and  fertile  country. "^ 

Among  other  towns  and  villages  he  mentions  specially 
Mt.  Crawford,  Port  Republic,  Deaton  (Dayton),  and  Edom 

One  of  the  features — we  might  almost  say,  one  of  the  in- 
stitutions—of Rockingham  life  in  the  early  part  of  the  19th 
century  was  the  annual  Methodist  campmeeting  at  Taylor 
Springs    (now  Massanetta).     An  intimate  glimpse  into  the 

1.  Howe's  Historical  Collections  of  Virginia,  1852  Edition,  page  460. 



conditions  frequently  prevalent  at  that  time  is  afforded  by  a 
notice  that  appeared  in  the  Rockingham  Register  of  August 
11,  1825,  in  which  a  committee  of  the  brethren  (probably  the 
committee  of  arrangements)  assured  the  order-loving  public 
that  they  would  spare  no  vigilance  in  protecting  the  meeting 
of  that  year  against  disorder,  and  that  they  intended  to  en- 
force the  law  against  any  who  might  interrupt  the  worship- 
ers with  liquor-selling,  swearing,  drinking,  or  sabbath- break- 
ing. The  committee  consisted  of  Peachy  Harrison,  Stephen 
Harnsberger,  and  Edward  Stevens. 

In  the  same  issue  of  the  Register  appeared  an  article, 
copied  with  evident  approval  from  the  Alexandria  Herald, 
which  shows  that  the  Methodists  and  other  religious  bodies 
of  Rockingham  were  not  alone  in  their  desire  to  get  rid  of 
slavery.     The  article  is  as  follows: 


In  addition  to  the  fact  of  the  emancipation  of  70  slaves  by  Mr. 
Minge,  of  Virginia,  the  Richmond  Whig  of  Friday  says  that  two  in- 
stances of  the  triumph  (of)  philanthropy  and  patriotism,  over  the  sordid 
selfishness  of  our  nature,  can  be  recited,  equally  as  meritorious  and  splen- 
did as  that  act  of  distinguished  munificence.  The  Rev.  Fletcher  Andrew, 
an  ordained  minister  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  had  received 
from  the  bounty  of  a  dying  relative,  twenty  slaves,  at  that  time  valued 
at  $10,000;  shortly  after  he  attained  the  age  of  twenty-one  years,  al- 
though they  constituted  nearly  the  whole  of  his  worldly  property,  this 
amiable  and  pious  man,  generously  emancipated  every  one  of  them.  And 
Mr.  Charles  Crenshaw,  a  farmer  residing  in  the  neighborhood  of  Rich- 
mond, has  recently  manumitted  all  the  slaves  he  owned,  amounting  alto- 
gether to  sixty. 

An  able  writer  in  the  Register  of  October  5, 1822,  reviews 
the  political  condition  of  the  country  at  large,  and  deplores 
the  rivalries  and  dissensions  so  much  in  evidence  among  the 
different  States  and  sections.     He  says: 

The  preservation  of  our  union  is  unfortunately  too  deeply  connected 
with  this  interesting  subject — an  epoch  has  appeared  in  our  History,  that 
every  federative  government  must  sooner  or  later  experience,  an  im- 
portant crisis  has  arrived;  our  future  prosperity  and  happiness  is  wrap- 
ped within  the  events  of  the  next  five  years,  and  it  rests  with  us,  whether 
we  shall  continue  to  enjoy  the  blessings  of  our  present  happy  constitution, 



or  be  subjected  to  all  the  vicissitudes,  and  destructions,  of  a  state  of  an- 
archy and  confusion.  Should  one  pillar  of  the  Union  be  removed,  the 
whole  Edifice  would  soon  tumble  into  ruins;  and  all  hopes  of  a  reestab- 
iishment  will  be  preposterous.  Every  state  will  assume  to  itself  individ- 
ual sovereignty,  the  smaller  states  will  feel  the  encroachment  of  the 
greater,  and  be  a  prey  to  every  dangerous  passion. 

There  was  evidently  a  strong  sentiment  in  Rockingham 
and  adjacent  counties  favoring  a  revision  of  the  State  con- 
stitution in  1829-30.  In  Rockingham  the  vote  was  630  for  a 
convention,  125  against  a  convention;  in  Augusta,  560  for, 
109  against;  in  Shenandoah,  968  for,  13  against.  All  the 
counties  of  the  Valley— perhaps  all  in  the  western  part  of  the 
State — gave  large  majorities  for  a  convention,  while  many 
of  those  east  of  the  Blue  Ridge  gave  majorities  against  it. 
After  the  convention  had  done  its  work,  Rockingham  gave 
457  votes  in  favor  of  adopting  the  new  constitution,  and  only 
49  against  adoption;  in  Augusta  the  vote  was  285  and  270, 
pro  and  con;  in  Shenandoah,  671  and  61. 

In  this  connection  it  will  be  of  interest  to  see  how  the 
famous  Nullification  Ordinance,  passed  by  South  Carolina  in 
November  1832,  was  received  in  Rockingham  County.  The 
writer  has  been  exceedingly  fortunate  in  securing,  through 
the  kindness  of  Mr.  James  B.  Stephenson  of  Harrisonburg, 
a  copy  of  the  Rockingham  Register  of  January  12,  1833,  in 
which  is  a  full  and  detailed  account  of  the  great  mass  meeting 
that  was  held  on  Monday,  January  7,  1833,  to  consider  the 
burning  questions  of  the  time. 

The  following  editorial  note,  in  the  Register  referred  to, 
will  introduce  us  to  the  situation: 

"In  this  day's  paper  we  give  the  proceedings  of  the 
meeting  held  in  the  Court  House  on  Monday  last,  pursuant  to 
notice.  It  will  be  seen  from  the  preamble  and  resolutions 
adopted,  that  Nullification  finds  but  little  favor  in  this 
county,  and  that  the  President's  decided  and  patriotic  course 
meets  with  general  approbation  from  all  parties. ' ' 

The  meeting  referred  to  in  this  note  was  held,  as  already 
stated,  on  January  7,  1833,  a  large  number  of  citizens  of  all 
parties  being  present.     Dr.  Peachy  Harrison  was  made  chair- 



man,  and  Allan  C.  Bryan  secretary.  On  motion  of  Au^stus 
Waterman  a  committee  of  seven  was  appointed  to  report  a 
preamble  and  resolutions  to  the  meeting.  The  following  gen- 
tlemen composed  the  committee :  Augustus  Waterman,  David 
Steele,  Henry  J.  Gambill,  Samuel  Cootes,  Dr.  Michael  H. 
Harris,  Major  Edward  H.  Smith,  and  James  M.  Huston. 

A  lengthy  preamble  and  extended  resolutions  under  seven 
heads  were  reported.  The  preamble  referred  to  the  recent 
nullification  ordinance  of  South  Carolina  and  acknowledged 
the  crisis  thereby  impending.  Resolution  1  asserted  the  su- 
premacy of  the  national  government,  and  denied  that  it  was 
a  compact  or  league  of  independent  States;  Resolution  2  ac- 
knowledged the  right  of  revolution  as  a  last  resort,  but  denied 
the  right  of  any  State  of  nullification  or  peaceable  secession; 
Resolution  3  deplored  the  "precipitate,  rash,  misguided  vio- 
lence of  our  Sister  State  of  South  Carolina,"  and  denounced 
her  conduct  as  "plainly,  palpably,  dangerously  unconstitu- 
tional"; Resolution  4  approved  the  proclamation  of  the  Presi- 
dent; Resolution  5  reprobated  the  action  of  the  governor  of 
Virginia  (John  Floyd)  in  transmitting  the  ordinance  of  South 
Carolina  to  the  Virginia  legislature,  and  declared  that  the 
Virginia  Resolutions  of  1799  could  not  properly  be  held  as 
justifying  the  recent  action  of  South  Carolina;  Resolution  6 
cheered  on  the  Union  party  in  South  Carolina;  and  Resolution 
7  ordered  that  the  secretary  transmit  a  copy  of  the  proceed- 
ings to  the  President  of  the  United  States,  to  each  of  the 
Rockingham  delegates  in  the  General  Assembly,  and  to  the 
following  papers:  Richmond  Enquirer,  Constitutional  Whig, 
Staunton  Spectator,  Rockingham  Register,  and  The  Globe. 

The  resolutions  adopted,  particularly  Resolutions  1  and  2, 
followed  the  constitutional  sophistries  of  Daniel  Webster; 
and  on  the  same  page  of  the  Register  with  them  is  printed 
Webster's  speech  in  Faneuil  Hall,  delivered  December  17, 

Resolutions  3  and  6  were  carried  unanimously;  the  others 
"with  a  very  few  dissenting  votes."  We  may  infer  that 
Peachy  Grattan,  I.  S.  Pennybacker,  and  Dr.   Moomau  were 



among  the  dissenting  voters;  for  it  is  reported  that  these 
gentlemen  offered  substitute  resolutions,  and  supported  them 
in  speeches.  The  defenders  of  the  prevailing  resolutions 
were  chiefly  Mr.  Waterman,  Thomas  Clark,  and  Mr.  Cootes. 

The  above-mentioned  meeting  was  perhaps  the  last 
notable  gathering  ever  held  in  the  Old  Courthouse;  for  in  the 
same  issue  of  the  Register  that  contains  the  account  of  the 
said  meeting  is  to  be  found  a  notice,  signed  by  Jacob  Rush, 
David  Henton,  John  Kenney,  and  Peachy  Harrison,  commis- 
sioners, that  on  the  third  Monday  of  January,  1833,  the  old 
building  would  be  sold.  It  was  to  be  remeved  by  March  15, 
in  order  to  clear  the  ground  for  the  new  courthouse. 

The  attitude  of  Virginia  and  Rockingham  County  toward 
the  political  issues  of  the  time  may  be  further  illustrated  by 
the  following  verses,  which  are  the  first  two  stanzas  of  a 
song  reprinted  from  the  New  York  Courier  &  Enquirer  in 
the  Rockingham  Register  of  November  9,  1833. 

Save  De  Union. 

A  mighty  angry  quarrel   rose 
Among  de  Tariff's   friens'  an'  foes, 
An'  Souf  Calina  in  a  fit, 
De  Union  vows  to  curse  an'  quit. 
But  save  de  Union,  ole  folks,  young  folks, 
Ole  Virginny  nevah  tire. 

Virginny  loves  her  Sistah  State, 
An'  most  as  much  de  Tariff  hate, 
But  while  de  Tariff  she  despise, 
De  Union  berry  much  she  prize, 

So  save  de  Union,  ole  folks,  young  folks, 
Ole  Virginny  nevah  tire. 

In  1838  there  were  six  voting  places  in  the  county, 
namely:  Court  House;  Riddle's,  in  Brock's  Gap;  Zigler's 
School  House,  at  Timberville;  Richard  Pickering's,  at  Sparta; 
Conrad's  Old  Store;  Solomon  Pirkey's,  in  McGaheysville.  In 
1842  there  were  seven:  Harrisonburg;  Addison  Harper's, 
Brock's  Gap;  Schoolhouse  of  John  Zigler,  Timberville;  Rich- 
ard Pickering's;  Conrad's  Old  Store;  McGaheysville;  Bright- 



well's  old  store,  on  Beaver  Creek.  In  1858  a  precinct  was 
established  at  the  house  of  Samuel  Cootes. 

The  Rockingham  Register,  in  1840,  was  ardent  in  its  sup- 
port of  Van  Buren.  In  the  issue  of  August  15  a  two-column 
campaign  article  appears,  aimed,  of  course,  at  Harrison  and 
the  Whigs,  and  containing  a  long  list  of  those  gentlemen 
who  constituted  the  Democratic  Vigilance  Committee  for 
Central  (or  Harrisonburg)  Precinct.  Peachy  Harrison  was 
chairman  of  the  committee. 

In  1841  the  following  persons  were  agents  for  the  Regis- 
ter, at  the  places  designated: 

Naason  Bare— Timberville 

Jacob  Deck— Brock's  Gap 

R.  Pickering — Spartapolis 

Geo.  E.  Deneale — Smith's  Creek 

P.  A.  Clark -Mt.  Crawford 

John  Dinkle — Bridgewater 

Joseph  Conrad— Conrad's  Store 

D.  Irick— McGaheysville 

Reuben  Emick— Linvill's  Creek 

Wesley  Bare— Parnassus 

Young  J.  Hiner — Doe-Hill 

Wm.  McCoy — Franklin 

S.  Sterling,  of  Rockh.,  Gen.  Agt. 

In  1844  the  Harrisonburg  Republican  was  in  the  Presi- 
dential campaign,  for  Clay  and  FYelinghuysen,  and  against 
the  Register— wot  to  mention  Polk  and  Dallas.  The  follow- 
ing paragraph  is  copied  from  the  Republican  of  July  23,  1844. 

Our  brother  of  the  Fairmount  (Va. )  Pioneer  is  correct.  "The  enter- 
prising Whigs  of  Rockingham  have  caused  a  Whig  paper  to  be  estab- 
lished in  that  strong  hold  of  Locofocoism,"  and  what  is  more  to  the  point, 
they  intend  keeping  it  up. 

A  few  notes  relating  to  military  affairs  within  the  period 
before  us  are  herewith  presented.  On  April  19  (a  notable 
anniversary!),  1822,  John  Kenny  was  commissioned  colonel 
(field  officer  of  cavalry)  in  Rockingham.  In  1828  the  num- 
ber of    Virginia  militia  totaled  100,707,    Frederick   County 



standing  first  with  2569,  Shenandoah  second,  with  2556,  and 
Rockingham  fourth,  with  2296.  In  1835  the  General  As- 
sembly passed  an  Act  establivshing  in  Rockingham  a  new  and 
distinct  regiment,  to  be  known  as  the  145th  Regiment  of  Vir- 
ginia Militia.  The  commissioners  named  in  the  Act  were 
John  Cowen,  Samuel  Cootes,  John  Allabough,  Anderson 
Moffitt,  George  Piper,  David  Lincoln,  Samuel  Miller,  Abram 
Burd,  and  David  Hen  ton.  The  next  year  an  Act  to  apportion 
more  equally  the  enrolled  militia  of  the  three  Rockingham 
Regiments  was  passed.  In  the  Register  of  April  7,  1838,  is 
found  a  notice  from  Wm.  Burnside,  0.  S.,  ordering  the  rifle 
company,  commanded  by  Capt.  Speck  and  attached  to  the 
145th  Regiment,  to  parade  on  the  2d  Saturday  of  April  at 
Paul's  Mill,  Beaver  Creek.  In  another  copy  of  the  same 
paper,  dated  April  8,  1842,  are  three  similar  notices:  One 
from  J.  Billhimer,  0.  S.,  to  Capt.  0.  St.  C.  Sprinkle's  com- 
pany, ordering  it  to  parade  in  Harrisonburg  on  the  2d  Satur- 
day of  April;  another,  from  John  A.  Hopkins,  captain, 
ordering  the  artillery  to  parade  at  Mt.  Clinton  on  the  2d 
Saturday;  another,  from  Wm.  Burnsides,  0.  S.,  ordering  the 
light  infantry  company,  formerly  under  command  of  Capt. 
J.  S.  Carlile,  to  parade  in  Dayton  on  the  3d  Saturday.  In 
the  last-named  company  an  election  was  to  be  held  for  cap- 
tain. The  hour  appointed  for  the  parade  in  each  of  the  three 
notices  was  11  o'clock. 

Twenty  years  ago  a  lady^  who  was  born  in  Harrisonburg 
in  1812,  and  who  spent  her  early  life  there,  wrote  out  her 
recollections  of  the  olden  time.  Her  account  of  the  "big 
musters"  is  given  in  the  following  graphic  words: 

The  annual  or  general  muster  was  the  greatest  thing,  and  was  looked 
forward  to  for  months  with  the  greatest  pleasure  by  all  the  negroes  and 
children.  Training  of  officers  began  several  days  before  muster  day. 
It  was  the  most  motley  crowd  that  filled  the  square  around  the  court 
house.  Men  of  all  sorts  and  sizes,  dressed  in  tow-linen  pants  and  shirts; 
few  had  coats  and  vests;  some  with  old  wool  hats,  and  others  with  straw 

2.  Maria  Graham  Carr,  mother  of  Gen.  C.  C.  C.  Carr  of  Chicago.  For 
access  to  copies  of  her  manuscript  I  am  indebted  to  Mr.  R.  A.  VanPelt 
and  Mrs.  Hattie  Newman. 



hats.  I  saw  one  man  in  this  crowd  when  I  was  about  ten  years  old;  he 
had  on  tow-linen  pants  and  shirt,  coarse  shoes,  no  stockings;  around 
his  waist  was  a  bright  red  woolen  sash:  he  had  a  rusty  slouch  hat  on, 
without  band,  and  torn  at  the  edge.  On  the  front  of  the  hat  was  a  long 
white  feather  with  a  scarlet  top — he  felt  as  proud  as  a  general.  I  saw 
several  soldiers  there  at  one  time  with  bright  yellow  coats  trimmed  with 
black,  and  green  flannel  ones  trimmed  with  white  or  silver.  I  suppose 
these  uniforms  were  some  of  the  remains  of  the  War  of  1812.  My  aunt 
told  me  that  my  father  had  raised  a  company  which  he  had  uniformed  at 
his  own  expense. 

Some  men  on  muster  day  carried  old  umbrellas,  cornstalks  and  sticks 
of  wood  instead  of  guns  and  swords.  I  suppose  the  officers  were  tired  of 
trying  to  beat  sense  into  these  men,  and  gave  up  in  despair,  marching 
them  out  to  a  field  in  the  N.  end  of  town  to  try  to  drill  them. 

After  marching  the  militia  out  to  the  field,  the  Light  Horse  Company, 
of  about  fif cy  men,  under  Col.  McMahon,  went  out  also.  After  all  the 
men  were  on  the  field  the  staff  officers  went  out  to  the  Colonel's  house  to 
escort  him  to  the  field.  Not  one  of  them  was  uniformed.  The  Colonel 
had  on  a  blue  uniform  with  metal  buttons,  a  red  sash  around  his  waist, 
and  a  helmet  with  a  cow's  tail  on  it,  hanging  down  behind.  The  whisky, 
beer,  and  ginger-bread  sellers  were  in  their  glory,  as  this  was  their  har- 
vest, many  persons  taking  home  a  jug  full  of  something  and  a  handker- 
chief filled  with  ginger-bread. 

I  always  loved  dearly  to  hear  the  fife  and  drum,  and  got  as  near  to 
them  as  I  could,  listening  to  them  until  the  tears  ran  down  my  cheeks. 
I  was  never  so  affected  by  any  other  music. 

All  the  gentlemen  of  that  day  ordinarily  wore  knee 
breeches  with  silver  buckles,  some  of  these  buckles  being  set 
with  paste;  they  had  shoe  buckles  to  match;  silk  hose  in 
summer,  and  black  lamb's  wool  hose  in  winter. 

According  to  a  letter  written  January  16,  1911,  by  Mr. 
D.  M.  Kaylor  of  Bellefontaine,  Ohio,  a  famous  ginger  cake 
baker  of  the  time  was  Mrs.  Christopher  Warvel,  who  lived 
near  McGaheysville.  Mrs.  Carr  mentions  a  Mrs.  Nye  of  Har- 
risonburg who  was  also  noted  for  her  ginger  cake,  as  well  as 
for  her  molasses-beer  and  taffy. 

Through  the  favor  of  Mr.  J.  L.  Argubright,  of  Dayton, 
I  am  able  to  reproduce  the  following  interesting  roll,  from 
the  original  manuscript.  It  is  a  valuable  piece  of  source 
material  in  Rockingham  military  history. 



Muster  Rool  of  A  Troop  of  Cavalry  Commanded  by  Capt. 
John  Nicholas  for  the  year  1828 

John  Nicholas  Capt 

John  Miller  1st  Lt 

Henry  Oungst  2nd  Lt 

John  Albright  Cornet 

Charles  Yancey  1st  Sert 

(Jacob  Frederick  2nd  Sert) 

Samuel  Royer  3th  Sert 

Joseph  Moyer  4th  Sert 

Jacob  Kiblinger 

John  Royer 

Joseph  Mahoy 

Jonathan  Peal 

Jonathan  Rush 

Jacob  Armentrout 

James  Dovel 

John  Fisher 

John  Alfred 

(Frederick  Krahn) 

Charles  Nicholas  miller 

David  Irick 

Tyree  R.  Brown 

Samuel  Moor 

Michael  Rowtz 

William  Fisher 

(William  Banner) 

Nicholas  Miller 

Nathan  Huston 

Peter  Miller 

Philip  Moyer 

(Alexa  Newman) 

Hamilton  I  Hufman 

John  Cline 

Thomas  Reaves 

William  Reaves 

Charles  Chandler 

David  Chandler 

(Tandy  Dovel) 

William  Bird 

John  Anders 

David  Weaver 

George  Kaylor 

George  Nicholas 
Philip  Deal 
Solomon  Leonard 
Berryman  Dorsson 
David  Royer 
Abraham  Argebright 
James  Kook 
(John  Williams) 
David  Huston 
John  Argebright 
Jacob  Royer 
Peter  Roler 
John  May 
Jacob  Earman 
Jacob  Allabaugh 
John  Huffman 
Albert  Yancey 
Francis  Kertly 
John  Dovel 
William  Youst 
(John  Wallace) 
George  E.  Craige 
William  Eater 
David  Oungst 
William  Eaton 
(Joseph  Oungst) 
Samuel  H.  Huffman 
David  Eitor 
Samuel  Showalter 
Adam  Blose  Jr 
Joshua  Snider 
Abraham  Whitmore 
Daniel  Rife 
Benja  Miller 
David  Eversole 
(Jacob  Kiblinger  Jr) 
Henry  Conrod 
Henry  Hansbarger 
George  Huston 
Reuben  Propst 
Jacob  Llnaweaver 



Wm  Peterfish  Jacob  Conrod 

Ninrod  Hitt  Samuel  Gibbons 

Jacob  Blose  Thomas  Miller 

Isaac  Hammer  George  Kellar 

John  Hammer  John  Swats 

John  Williamson  George  Secrist 

Westely  Bear  John  Roberts 
St.  Clair  Kertley 

Upon  special  inquiry  made  not  long  since  of  two  vener- 
ble  gentlemen,  Mr.  Richard  Mauzyof  McGaheysville  and  Mr. 
J.  N.  Liggett  of  Harrisonburg,  I  was  informed  that  Rocking- 
ham County,  although  a  stronghold  for  Polk  and  his  party, 
took  very  little  interest  in  the  Mexican  War,  1846-8.  Of 
Rockingham  soldiers  in  Mexico,  the  following  were  all  that 
could  be  recalled:  John  P.  BrockM1823-1892) ;  N.  Calvin 
Smith"  (1823-1897);  William  Smith  (brother  of  Calvin). 

In  October,  1873,  William  Ralston  died  near  Linville 
Depot,  aged  about  50,  It  was  said  that  he  had  been  in  the 
Mexican  War,  as  well  as  in  the  Civil  War.  He  was  known  as 
"Soldier  Bill." 

Mr.  Robert  Coifman  of  Dayton  states  that  Frederick 
Linhoss,  formerly  of  the  same  town,  was  a  soldier  in  Mex- 
ico; and  Mr.  Benj.  Long,  also  of  Dayton,  agrees  with  Mr. 
Coffman  in  reporting  the  tradition,  received  from  Mr.  Lin- 
hoss and  Mr.  St.  Clair  Detamore,  that  a  number  of  men 
(about  a  dozen)  left  Dayton  for  the  Mexican  War. 

The  favorite  method  for  raising  money  for  all  "good 
causes,"  particularly  the  building  of  expensive  bridges,  was 
by  a  lottery.     Here  is  something  specific  in  point: 

3.  Born  May  17,  1823,  near  Lacey  Springs,  died  in  November,   1892. 
He  was  captain  of  the  Valley  Rangers  in  the  Civil  War. 

4-  Calvin  Smith  died  in  Providence,  R.  I. 






Ye  elect  sons  and  daughters  of  the  goddess  of  For- 
tune, call  and  buy  tickets  in  the  Shenandoah  Bridge  Lot- 
tery, where  large  sums  of  CASH  can  be  bought  for  the 
inconsiderable  sum  of  $4, 

This  is  the  heading  of  an  advertisement  that  appeared 
in  the  Rockingham  Register  in  January,  1833,  regarding  the 
Shenandoah  Free-Bridge  Lottery,  to  construct  a  bridge 
across  the  Shenandoah  River  on  the  Swift  Run  Gap  road. 
The  drawing  was  to  take  place  in  Winchester,  on  Tuesday, 
February  5,  1833.  The  capital  prize  was  $10,000;  other 
prizes  in  decreasing  amounts  were  offered,  there  being  finally 
18,000  prizes  of  $4  each.  In  all  there  were  18,556  prizes, 
aggregating  in  value  $108,000.  The  number  of  blanks  was 
17,434.  David  S.  Jones  was  manager,  with  his  ofRce  at  Har- 

At  the  same  time  that  the  above  lottery  was  being  pro- 
moted, another,  with  a  capital  prize  of  $8,000,  was  being 
advertised  by  Bruffy  &  Paul,  managers,  Mt.  Crawford,  Va. 
This  was  being  conducted  for  the  purpose  of  constructing  a 
free  bridge  across  the  North  River  near  Mt.  Crawford.  The 
drawing  was  to  be  held  at  Strasburg  on  January  15,  1833. 
In  this  there  were  30,000  prizes— no  blanks;  but  the  small 
prizes  were  only  $2  each,  while  the  price  of  a  ticket  was  $4. 
The  aggregate  value  of  the  prizes  offered  was  $90,000.  This 
scheme  therefore,  would  have  allowed  a  balance  of  $30,000  to 
the  managers  with  which  to  pay  expenses,  aid  the  bridge 
building,  and  profit  themselves.  The  gross  balance  falling 
to  the  management  under  Mr.  Jones'  lottery  would  have 
been  $35,960.  However,  there  were  repeated  dravvlngs  for 
the  same  bridge — at  least  in  some  cases.     Mr.  Jones  states  in 



his  advertisement  that  he  had  already  paid  out  prizes  in  the 
Shenandoah  Bridge  lottery  ranging  from  $10,000  to  $200;  and 
in  the  same  issue  of  the  Register  he  advertises  another  draw- 
ing to  be  held  at  Winchester  in  April,  1833,  for  a  capital 
prize  of  $12,000,  v^^ith  smaller  prizes  in  great  number. 

Among  other  contemporary  lotteries  that  were  author- 
ized or  operated  in  Rockingham  were  the  following: 

One  in  1831-2  for  raising  money  to  construct  a  road  from 
Harrisonburg  to  Moorefield;  another  at  the  same  time  for  the 
benefit  of  the  Port  Republic  and  New  Haven  bridge;  in  1833, 
one  to  be  conducted  by  Wm.  Thompson,  Anderson  Moffitt, 
John  Zigler,  Peter  Grim,  Saml.  Hoover,  and  Isaac  Thomas 
for  erecting  a  free  bridge  near  Thompson's  Store  (now  Tim- 
berville);  and  one  in  1838  for  the  benefit  of  the  "Mt.  Craw- 
ford Free  Bridge." 

In  the  Rockingham  Register  of  November  9,  1833,  the 
following  notice  appeared: 

The  annual  general  meeting  of  the  Stockholders  of  the  New  Shenan- 
doah Company  will  be  held  at  the  house  of  Mrs.  Graham,  in  Port  Re- 
public, on  the  15th  day  of  November  Inst.  A  general  attendance  of  the 
Company  is  requested.  S.  H.  Lewis, 

Treas'r.  N.  S.  Com. 

In  1836  the  General  Assembly  agreed  to  a  resolution  re- 
questing the  board  of  public  works  to  employ  a  competent 
engineer  to  survey  a  route  for  a  proposed  railroad  from  Gor- 
donsville,  in  Orange  County,  to  Harrisonburg,  in  Rocking- 
ham County. 

The  winter  of  1840  in  Rockingham  was  of  unusual  sever- 
ity, and  is  thus  described  by  Joseph  Funk  in  a  letter  written 
January  11: 

As  our  winter  weather  here  has  thus  far  proved  to  be  rather  extra- 
ordinary, I  will  state  to  you  something  about  it.  On  Saturday  night  and 
Sunday  before  Christmas  there  fell  a  snow  14  or  15  inches  deep,  on  a 
previous  snow  several  inches  deep;  and  on  Friday  after  Christmas,  (being 
on  the  day  of  Hannah's  infair  which  was  held  at  Daniel  Frank's)  there 
fell  another  about  10  or  12  inches  deep,  which  drifted,  together  with  the 
other,  in  such  a  manner  that  many  places  of  roads  are  impassible  either 
with  wagon  or  horse.     Mounds  of  snow  are  drifted  together  from  4  to  6 



feet  deep.  Your  sister  Elizabeth  could  not  return  home  from  the  wed- 
ding till  the  following  Wednesday  and  they  were  obliged  to  go  through 
fences  and  fields  to  get  along:  Since  then  we  have  had  3  snows  several 
inches  deep.  Both  our  lanes  and  many  others,  have  not  yet  been  passed 
through  by  any  person  since  the  snows  fell.  The  weather  has  also  been 
extremely  cold,  but  has  now  moderated  and  become  more  mild  and 

Financial,  agricultural,  and  religious  conditions  are  de- 
picted, in  a  letter  written  by  Joseph  Funk,  October  2,  1842, 
as  follows: 

Times  with  us  are  very  pressing  in  the  money  way;  of  which,  how- 
ever, our  county  has  felt  less  weight  than  any  of  the  adjacent.  But  in 
many  respects  the  times  are  good.  The  season  has,  the  past  summer, 
been  very  good;  heavy  crops  of  wheat  oats  and  corn  were  produced,  so 
that  we  abound  in  the  provisions  of  life.  But,  with  regret  I  mention, 
that  I  fear  there  is  too  little  of  true  and  unfeigned  religion  among  us; 
which  in  a  great  measure,  may  be  owing  to  the  Clergy.  If  in  the  room 
of  a  pious  life — good  examples— and  warmly  preaching  the  Word  of  God 
to  our  hearts,  the  preachers  read  their  sermons,  and  live  in  conformity 
to  the  world,  and  its  vain  fashions,  I  think  the  church  committed  to  their 
charge,  of  course,  cannot  grow  and  thrive. 

The  California  gold  fever  of  1848-9  seems  to  have  affected 
Rockingham  only  slightly.     Says  Mr.  Mauzy: 

"If  any  persons  from  this  county  went,  at  that  time,  to 
California,  I  do  not  know  it,  though  it  is  probable  that  a  few 
did  so.  I  know  of  two  who  went  from  Woodstock— John 
Anderson  and  a  friend  of  his  named  Harrison."^ 

Says  Mr.  Liggett: 

"As  to  gold  seekers:  On  conference  with  Mr.  John  Ken- 
ney,  whose  memory  of  ancient  occurrences  is  more  tenacious 
than  mine,  the  following  are  recalled:  John  Higgins,  Thomas 
Fletcher,  Jacob  Jones,  Benj.  Miller  (probably), — Britt,  and 
John  Williams;  the  last  a  lawyer.  .  .  .  Mr.  William  Dainger- 
field  emigrated  too  at  an  early  date,  and  achieved  distinction 
and  fame,  ultimately  being  elevated  to  the  judicial  bench. 
He  was  a  brother  of  Capt.  Daingerfield  and  Leroy,  soldiers 
celebrated  for  gallantry  in  the  Confederate  army."^ 

5-  Letter  of  February  25,  1912. 
<i.  Letter  of  February  24,  1912. 



Gen.  Samuel  H.  Lewis,  ^  who  Jived  a  mile  or  two  below 
Port  Republic,  was  a  wealthy  farmer  and  man  of  affairs. 
Like  many  of  his  contemporaries,  he  frequently  consulted 
the  almanac  in  the  management  of  his  farm,  and  was  in  the 
habit  of  recording  weather  observations  and  related  items  at 
the  proper  places  in  the  calendar.  His  almanac  for  1852  is 
before  me,  and  I  reproduce  from  it  the  following  item: 

Great  Flood. 

April  19.— Great  flood  in  the  river&  runs— Being  as  high  (within  two 
inches)  as  in  1842. — The  Bottom  field  being  recently  ploughed,  &  almost 
ready  to  be  planted  in  corn,  was  very  much  damaged 

In  his  letter  of  1840  Joseph  Funk  makes  reference  to  a 
wedding  and  an  infair.  In  order  that  present-day  readers 
may  know  what  an  infair  was,  and  at  the  same  time  appre- 
ciate more  definitely  the  social  conditions  that  obtained  in  the 
earlier  half  of  the  century,  I  append  the  following  account, 
written  for  this  work,  upon  special  request,  by  Mrs.  Bettie 
Neff  Miller,  of  Bridgewater. 

I  will  tell  you  of  the  first  wedding  I  ever  witnessed.  My  step-grand- 
mother Neff 's  maiden  sister,  Barbara  Landes,  was  united  in  marriage 
with  David  Stemphley  (a  German)  sometime  in  the  forties.  I  was  about 
8  years  old.  (You  remember  Stemphleytown  near  Bridgewater;  since 
he  was  the  first  settler  there  the  place  was  named  for  him.) 

I  will  describe  the  costumes.  The  groom  was  dressed  in  drab  cloth; 
the  bride  in  a  brown  merino  dress-made  petticoat  and  short  gown,  with  a 
white  apron  and  handkerchief  and  a  white  jaconet  cap. 

The  first  relative  wedding  I  ever  attended  was  Uncle  Abe  Neff' s. 
That  was  soon  after  the  other— sometime  in  the  forties.  He  was  attired 
in  fine  black  cloth,  the  bride  in  a  white  dress,  with  apron  of  the  same 
material,    a  beautiful  white  silk  handkerchief  and  a  bobinet  cap.      The 

7.  Samuel  H.  Lewis  (1794-1869)  was  the  son  of  Charles  Lewis  (1772- 
1832),  who  was  the  son  of  Thomas  Lewis  (1718-1790).  Thomas  was  the 
eldest  son  of  John  Lewis,  pioneer  of  Augfusta.  Thomas  lived  and  died  at 
Lewiston,  below  Port  Republic.  He  was  the  first  surveyor  of  Rocking- 
ham, and  had  one  of  the  largest  libraries  in  the  West.  General  Andrew 
Lewis  (1720-1780)  and  Col.  Chas.  Lewis  (1736-1774)  were  his  brothers. 
Samuel  H.  Lewis  was  the  father  of  Sen.  John  F.  Lewis  and  Samuel  H. 
Lewis  (1820-1892). 



ceremony  was  rather  long,  including  a  prayer,  in  which  all  knelt     When 
they  arose  the  minister  sang  a  few  lines: 

Bless,  Lord,  this  newly-married  pair. 
And  make  the  match  a  blessing  prove. 

Uncle  Abe's  was  the  first  infair  I  attended.  All  rode  on  horseback. 
When  they  came  near  the  house  they  galloped  the  horses,  and  all  alighted 
in  a  huddle.  The  friends  came  to  meet  them,  and  ushered  them  into  the 
house,  where  the  bride  and  her  attendant  dressed  for  dinner.  The  bride 
wore  a  blue  alpaca  dress,  a  black  silk  apron,  and  a  fancy  silk  handker- 
chief. Her  bonnet  was  a  white  lawn  over  a  whole  pasteboard — or  half  a 
one,  I  should  have  said.  Of  course,  we  all  thought  it  was  beautiful  and 
tasteful.  The  table  was  set  with  pies,  puff  cakes,  pickles,  and  different 
kinds  of  preserves,  with  chicken,  turkey,  and  ham  on  a  side  table.  After 
eating  plenty  of  meat  and  chicken,  the  plates  were  removed,  and  pie  and 
cakes  were  served. 

After  dinner  all  went  into  a  room  prepared  to  have  them  spend  their 
time  in  playing  the  oldtime  apple-butter  plays.  We  children  looked  on 
with  delight.     Bridal  presents  were  unknown. 

I  attended  several  infairs  just  like  the  one  I  have  described.  In 
earlier  days,  while  on  the  road  to  the  groom's  home,  two  young  men  were 
sent  for  two  bottles  of  wine  to  treat  the  bride  and  groom  before  they 
arrived  at  the  house.  When  Aunt  Mary  Neff  was  married  to  William 
Pence  they  prepared  to  send  out  two  bottles  of  wine— had  the  bottles 
trimmed,  and  looked  for  the  men  to  come.  Old  Mr.  Pence  was  an  old- 
fashioned  man,  and  wanted  to  treat  his  nevv^  daughter-in-lav/.  Your 
mother  and  I  were  in  that  bridal  procession.  Times  changed  somewhat 
before  your  mother  and  I  were  married.  My  bridal  presents  were  a  home- 
woven  wash  line,  a  home-made  linen  towel,  and  a  wash-bowl  with  pitcher. 
Since  then  there  have  been  many  changes,  as  you  know.  8 

In  the  four-cornered  fight  for  the  Presidencj^  in  1860  the 
Rockingham  Register  supported  Douglas.  In  the  issue  of 
August  3,  1860,  the  editor  disapproves  the  talk  of  revolution 
and  declares  for  the  preservation  of  the  Union,  yet  expresses 
fear  of  "black  republican  fanaticism"  and  flays  the  aboli- 
tionists. At  the  same  time  the  division  of  the  Democratic 
party  is  deplored.  On  election  day  the  vote  in  Rockingham 
stood  as  follows:  676  for  Breckenridge,  888  for  Bell,  and  1354 
for  Douglas.  If  Lincoln  got  any  votes  in  the  county,  the 
Register  did  not  report  them;  yet  it  was  only  78  years  since 

£.  From  a  letter  written  September  4,  1911. 


( Fapres  oo'i,  :!5ti) 


his  father  and  grandfather  had  left  Rockingham,  and  a  num- 
ber of  his  relatives  were  still  residing  in  the  county  at  the 

By  December  14,  1860,  the  Register,  while  still  adoring 
the  Union,  showed  decided  signs  of  secession  sentiment. 
Evidently  it  had  veered  considerably  during  the  last  pre- 
ceding month  or  two.  In  the  issue  of  December  28  appears 
the  following,  anent  the  secession  of  South  Carolina: 

We  are  sorry  that  the  gallant  Palmetto  State  did  not  continue  in  the 
Union  until  the  North  had  time  to  retrace  its  steps  and  do  us  justice. 
There  are  unequivocal  signs  of  returning  reason  in  many  portions  of  the 
North,  and  we  at  least  hope  they  will  yet  do  what  they  ought  before  the 
rest  of  the  Southern  States  dissolve  their  connexion  with  the  Union. 

These  words  have  an  ominous  sound.  Coming  events 
were  casting  shadows.'^ 

y.  For  letters,  almanacs,  old  newspapers,  etc.,  belonging  to  the  period 
covered  by  this  chapter,  I  am  indebted,  among  others,  to  Mrs.  E.  Rue- 
bush,  Dayton,  Va.,  and  to  Mr.  S.  C.  Rohr  and  Hon.  George  N.  Conrad, 
both  of  Harrisonburg. 




186L— 1865. 

A  consecutive  and  detailed  narrative  of  a  great  county 
in  a  great  war  cannot  be  attempted  in  a  single  brief  chapter, 
yet  enough  may  be  given  to  bring  those  '  'old,  unhappy,  far- 
off  things  and  battles  long  ago"  vividly  before  us.  The  rising 
spirit  of  early  '61  may  be  felt  in  the  following,  copied  from 
the  Rockingham  Register  of  January  25,  1861: 

Military  Meeting. 

Monday  was  a  proud  day  for  old  Rockingham.  Notwithstanding  the 
diversity  of  opinion  which  exists  as  to  the  best  mode  of  settling  our 
present  difficulties,  all  are  agreed  on  arming  our  Volunteer  Regiment. 
The  immense  crowd  was  addressed  by  Messrs.  Warren,  Shands,  Winfield 
and  Yancey,  in  patriotic  and  thrilling  speeches,  and  when  the  motion  was 
made  by  Mr.  Shands,  to  ask  the  County  Court  to  subscribe  $2000  in  addi- 
tion to  the  amount  already  subscribed,  there  was  not  a  dissenting  voice 
in  the  crowd  that  was  audible.  The  meeting  adjourned  with  three  cheers 
for  the  Regiment.  The  arming  and  equiping  of  that  Regiment  is  a  fixed 
fact.  It  was  the  largest  meeting  ever  convened  in  our  Court-House. 
Hundreds  outside  could  not  gain  admittance,  but  endorsed  the  action  of 
the  meeting. 

The  voting  places  in  the  county  at  this  time  were  as 

District  No.  1. 
Conrad's  Store  McGaheysville 

District  No.  2. 
Taliaferro's  Store  Port  Republic 

District  No.  3. 
Mt.  Crawford  Dayton 


District  No.  4. 
Bridgewater  Ottobine 

District  No.  5. 
Mt.  Clinton  Bowman's  Mill 

District  No.  6. 
Court  House  Keezletown 

District  No.  7. 
Spartapolis  Henton's  Mill 

District  No.  8. 
Cootes'  Store  Timberville 

Mennonite  School  House 

District  No.  9. 
Sprinkel's  Store  Wittig's  Store 

On  February  4,  1861,  an  election  was  held  to  choose 
delegates  to  the  State  convention.  S.  A.  Coffman,  John  F. 
Lewis,  and  A.  S.  Gray  were  chosen.  An  unusually  large  vote 
was  polled,  and  was  distributed  among  the  several  candidates 
as  follows: 













In  reporting  the  election,  the  Register  of  February  8  says: 

The  delegates  elect  are  all  conservative  Union  men,  and  were  voted 
for  by  the  people  with  the  understanding  that  they  are  to  be  the  repre- 
sentatives of  the  strong  Union  sentiment  of  the  county.  Yet  while  they 
are  all  Union  men,  yet  none  of  them  desire  to  be  classed  in  the  category 
of  ''submissionists."  They  will  go  for  the  Union  as  long  as  there  is  hope 
of  its  honorable  preservation;  but  when  all  just  and  proper  efforts  in  that 
direction  fail,  then  they  will  go,  as  Virginians  and  Southern  men,  for  the 
rights,  the  honor,  and  dignity  of  the  old  Commonwealth  out  of  the 
Union. — We  hope  and  pray  that  such  an  alternative  may  not  be  pre- 
sented; but  if  it  should,  we  know  enough  of  the  metal  of  our  delegates 



to  the  Convention,  to  be  assured,   that  Virginia's  sacred  honor  will  be 
safe  in  their  hands. 

Politics  were  ignored  in  the  canvass.  In  politics,  the  delegates  stand 
as  follows:  Two  democrats,  (Messrs.  Coffman  and  Gray,)  and  one  whig, 
(Mr.  Lewis.)  They  are  all  comparatively  young  men,  Mr.  Coffman,  the 
foremost  man  in  the  race,  being  the  youngest  of  the  three. 

Vote  for  and  against  referring  the  action  of  the  conven- 
tion to  the  people: 

For  Ref.        Against  Ref. 

Harrisonburg,  474  183 

Keezletown,  52  4 

Conrad's  Store,  144  76 

McGaheysville,  77  73 

Port  Republic,  145  2 

Taliaferro's  Store,  107  14 

Mt.  Crawford,  175  38 

Dayton,  118  9 

Bridge  water,  151  6 

Ottobine,  180  20 

Mt.  Clinton,  93  1 

Bowman's  Mill,  185  8 

Spartapolis,  138  49 

Henton's  Mill,  82  10 

Timberville,  123  3 

Trissel's  School  House,  61  6 

Cootes'  Store,  100  64 

.     Sprinkel's  Store,  13  22 

Wittig's  71  00 

2499  593 

As  shown  by  the  unusually  large  vote,  the  people  all  over 
the  county  were  intensely  aroused.  Wednesday  morning, 
March  27,  1861,  a  Confederate  flag  was  seen  floating  from 
the  Exchange  Hotel  in  Harrisonburg — three  weeks  before  the 
Virginia  convention  adopted  the  ordinance  of  secession,  and 
eighteen  days  before  Lincoln's  call  for  troops.  "It  was," 
said  the  next  Register,  '  'the  work  of  a  portion  of  the  gallant 



fair  ladies  of  our  town,   who  are  in  favor  of  joining  the 

On  April  17  the  convention  at  Richmond  adopted  an 
ordinance  of  secession  by  a  vote  of  88  to  55.  Consistently 
with  his  declarations  before  the  election,  Mr.  Lewis  voted  with 
the  minority,  and  steadfastly  refused  to  sign  the  ordinance 
after  it  was  passed. 

The  division  of  opinions  and  convictions  in  the  convention 
but  reflected  the  similar  divisions  over  the  State — particularly 
in  the  western  part.  In  Rockingham  the  majority  agreed 
with  the  majority  of  the  convention,  but  there  were  also  a 
number  who  thought  differently.  For  example,  in  the  Blue 
Ridge  sections  of  East  Rockingham,  where  anti  -  slavery 
sentiment  and  martial  spirit  were  both  strong,  a  number  of 
men  went  north  and  joined  the  Union  armies.  In  other 
sections  of  the  county  the  peace  principles  of  large  numbers 
of  the  people,  particularly  the  Dunkers  and  Mennonites.  kept 
many  from  assuming  a  decided  attitude  oneway  or  the  other; 
but  notwithstanding  all  these  conditions,  the  attitude  of  the 
county  as  a  whole  was  soon  definitely  and  decidedly  for  the 
Confederacy.  On  April  20,  when  the  "Mountain  Guards," 
from  Spring  Hill,  Augusta  County,  and  the  "Rockbridge 
Rifles"  were  passing  through  Harrisonburg  the  ladies  pre- 
sented them  with  flags.  The  firing  on  Sumter,  Lincoln's  call 
for  troops,  and  the  action  of  the  Virginia  convention  had 
aroused  tremendous  enthusiasm.  Meetings  to  organize 
home  guards,  etc.,  were  held  at  Bridgewater,  Lacey  Spring, 
Harrisonburg,  and  elsewhere. 

Before  the  war  was  over,  Rockingham  men  were  serving 
in  many  different  commands;  but  the  organization  that  is 
perhaps  most  frequently  thought  of  in  connection  with  the 
military  history  of  the  county  is  the  10th  Regiment,  Va.  V. 
I.,  made  up  chiefly  of  Rockingham  soldiers;  and  we  deem  our 
readers  fortunate  in  having  presented  to  them  herewith  an 
account  of  this  regiment,  written  by  one  who  knows  its 
history  at  first  hand. 





Written  Specially  for  This  Work. 

The  nucleus  of  the  10th  Regiment  Virginia  Volunteer  In- 
fantry was  formed  in  Rockingham  County  just  prior  to  the 
commencement  of  the  Civil  War.  One  company,  the  Valley 
Guards,  was  organized  before  the  John  Brown  raid  at  Harper's 
Ferry,  with  S.  B.  Gibbons  as  captain.  This  company  was 
sent  to  Charlestown  as  part  of  the  military  force  used  as  a 
guard.  These  events  created  or  aroused  a  military  spirit  in 
Rockingham,  resulting  in  the  formation  of  six  other  com- 
panies, viz.,  the  Rockingham  Rifles,  captain,  James  Kenney; 
Chrisman's  Infantry,  captain,  George  Chrisman;  Bridgewater 
Grays,  captain,  John  Brown;  Brock's  Gap  Rifles,  captain, 
John  Q.  Winfield;2  Peaked  Mountain  Grays,  captain,  William 

1.  Col.  Martz  was  born  at  the  old  family  homestead  near  Lacey  Spring, 
March  23,  1837.  After  his  early  life  on  the  farm  he  engaged  in  mercan- 
tile business,  which  was  interrupted  by  the  war.  He  rose  from  the 
rank  of  sergeant  in  the  10th  Virginia  Infantry  to  that  of  colonel,  and 
at  the  close  of  the  war  he  was  in  command  of  the  10th,  23d,  and  37th 
Virginia  regiments.  After  a  number  of  years  in  business  again  he  was 
elected,  in  1887,  clerk  of  the  circuit  court  in  Rockingham  County,  and 
still  holds  that  office.  He  has  been  commander  of  the  S.  B.  Gibbons 
Camp,  Confederate  Veterans,  since  1893.  On  November  14,  1860,  he 
married  Miss  Mary  Nicholas  Carter.  Mr.  Ed.  C.  Martz,  a  well-known 
lawyer  of  Harrisonburg,  is  his  son. 

2.  Capt.  Winfield  was  born  at  Mt.  Jackson,  Va.,  June  20, 1822,  the  son 
of  Dr.  Richard  Winfield.  He  was  a  graduate  of  Washington  College, 
Lexington,  Va.,  and  of  Jefferson  Medical  College,  Phila.  As  captain  of 
the  Letcher  Brock's  Gap  Rifles,  in  the  7th  Va.  Cavalry,  he  won  dis- 
tinction, and  was  mentioned  as  the  one  likely  to  succeed  Ashby  in  command 
of  the  regiment,  but  failing  health  interrupted  his  military  service.  In 
spite  of  failing  health  he  continued  the  practice  of  medicine  at  his  home 
in  Broadway,  where  he  died  July  29,  1892.  Mr.  Chas.  R.  Winfield, 
attorney-at-law,  is  his  son. 



B.  Yancey;  Riverton  Invincibles,  captain,  W.  D.  C.  Covington. 
These  seven  companies  were  organized  as  a  regiment  just 
before  the  war,  under  the  Virginia  laws,  as  State  Volunteer 
Militia,  with  S.  B.  Gibbons  colonel,  E.  T.  H.  Warren  lieu- 
tenant-colonel, Burke  Chrisman  and  George  W.  Miller  majors. 
The  last  two  did  not  see  active  service. 

At  the  outbreak  of  the  war  this  regiment  was  ordered  to 
Harper's  Ferry,  leaving  home  on  the  18th  day  of  April,  1861, 
as  the  4th  Virginia  Regiment  of  State  troops.  The  regiment, 
as  finally  organized,  became  the  10th  Virginia  Infantry,  C.  S. 
A.,  with  S.  B.  Gibbons  colonel,  E.  T.  H.  Warren  lieutenant- 
colonel,  and  Samuel  T.  Walker  major.  With  the  addition  of 
three  companies  from  Shenandoah  County — one  each  from 
Strasburg,  Woodstock,  and  Edinburg — the  regiment  remained 
at  Harper's  Ferry  until  some  time  in  June,  1861.  Then  it 
moved  to  Romney,  now  in  West  Virginia,  by  way  of  Win- 
chester, as  part  of  the  4th  Brigade,  commanded  at  the  time 
by  Col.  A.  P.  Hill  of  the  13th  Va.  On  the  way  back  to  Win- 
chester the  Brock's  Gap  Rifles  were  transferred  to  the  cavalry, 
the  regiment  being  finally  composed  of  eleven  companies:  six 
from  Rockingham,  three  from  Shenandoah,  one  from  Page, 
and  one  from  Madison. 

The  impending  battle  of  Manassas  caused  the  army  in  the 
Valley,  under  Gen.  Jos.  E.  Johnston,  to  be  moved  to  eastern 
Virginia,  reaching  Manassas  Junction  on  the  21st  of  July. 
Thence  it  was  hurried  to  the  field  of  battle.  Only  four 
companies,  however,  of  the  10th  Regiment  (now  in  Gen. 
Arnold  Elzey's  brigade)  took  part  in  the  battle,  having  been 
detached  from  the  regiment  and  sent  to  strengthen  the  Con- 
federate left.  These  four  companies  suffered  some  loss  in 
killed  and  wounded.  After  this  battle  the  Confederate  army 
remained  around  or  near  Manassas  Junction  until  the  following 
spring,  when  it  was  moved  to  the  south  side  of  the  Rappa- 
hannock River. 

Nothing  of  importance  affecting  the  10th  Regiment 
occurred  in  this  time  until  April,  1862,  when  it  was  trans- 
ferred to  the  Valley,  and  made  a  part  of  Gen.  W.  B.  Talia- 



ferro's  Brigade,  Jackson's  Division,  then  at  what  is  nov/ 
Elkton.  The  regiment  was  composed  of  the  eleven  companies 
aforesaid:  A,  C,  and  F  from  Shenandoah;  B,  D,  E,  G,  H,  and 
I  from  Rockingham;  K  from  Page;  and  L  from  Madison. 
While  at  Elkton  Co.  C  was  disbanded,  and  a  new  Co.  C  from 
Rockingham,  Robert  C.  Mauck  captain,  assigned  to  the 

Early  in  May,  1862,  Jackson's  command  was  sent  to 
reinforce  Gen.  Edward  Johnson,  in  the  campaign  ending 
May  8  in  the  battle  of  McDowell,  with  Gen.  Milroy  in  com- 
mand of  the  Federals.  In  this  battle  the  10th  Regiment  had 
the  misfortune  to  lose  its  colonel,  the  brave  and  chivalrous 
S.  B.  Gibbons,^  as  well  as  several  men.  Soon  the  command 
was  marched  back  to  the  Valley  by  way  of  Bridgewater, 
moved  down  to  New  Market,  thence  over  the  mountain  into 
the  Page  Valley,  down  by  Front  Royal,  thence  across  to  the 
Valley  Pike  at  Middletovv^n,  and  on  to  Winchester  after  Gen. 
Banks,  who  had  v/ithdrawn  to  Winchester  and  there  made  a 
stand.  Being  so  vigorously  assailed  by  Jackson  and  Ewell  as 
to  be  completely  routed,  he  hurried  on  toward  the  Potomac. 
The  10th  Regiment  did  not  actively  engage  in  this  battle,  but 
nevertheless  suffered  some  loss,  Capt.  Mauck  of  Co.  C  being 
wounded  and  permanently  disabled. 

After  pursuing  Banks  several  miles,  the  troops  were 
withdrawn  and  moved  rapidly  up  the  Valley  to  Harrisonburg, 
the  3d  Brigade  going  to  a  point  between  Port  Republic  and 
Cross  Keys.  V/hile  a  battle  was  being  fought  there,  on 
Sunday  morning,  June  8,  the  enemy  occupied  Port  Republic 
and  planted  a  piece  of  artillery  at  the  mouth  of  the  bridge, 
on  the  Port  Republic  side  of  North  River.  The  3d  Brigade 
was  hurried  to  the  bridge,  drove  the  enemy  away  and  took 
possession  of  the  village. 

3.  Simeon  B.  Gibbons  was  born  May  25,  1833,  at  Shenandoah  Furnace, 
Page  Co.,  Va.,  and  was  educated  at  the  Virginia  Military  Institute. 
When  put  in  command  of  his  regiment,  he  was  the  youngest  colonel  in 
the  Confederacy.  His,  father  was  a  Col.  Gibbons  of  Virginia,  later  of 



The  battle  of  Port  Republic  was  fought  on  the  next  day, 
June  9,  but  the  Tenth  did  not  become  engaged,  though  hurried 
to  the  front  to  join  in  the  attack  upon  Shields.  A  few  days 
after  Fremont  and  Shields  had  been  disposed  of,  Gen.  Jackson 
was  ordered  east  to  join  Gen.  Lee  in  the  defence  of  Richmond. 
Marching  to  Mechum's  River,  he  went  thence  by  rail  to 
Beaver  Dam;  thence  marched  to  the  scene  of  the  conflict, 
which  culminated  in  seven  days  of  desperate  fighting,  Mc- 
Clellan  to  capture,  Lee  to  save,  Richmond.  However,  from 
the  time  the  Tenth  reached  its  destination  until  the  end  of 
the  struggle,  it  did  not  fire  a  gun,  being  held  in  reserve;  but 
it  was  exposed  for  a  time  to  damage  from  the  exploding 
shells  of  the  enemy  at  Malvern  Hill,  while  supporting  a  bat- 
tery, two  or  three  men  being  slightly  wounded. 

Soon  after  the  close  of  this  part  of  the  campaign  Gen. 
Jackson  with  his  corps  was  ordered  to  Gordonsville  to  look 
after  the  redoubtable  Federal  general,  John  Pope.  On  the 
8th  of  August  (1862),  a  few  miles  south  of  Culpeper  Court 
House,  near  or  at  Slaughter's  Mountain,  called  by  the  Con- 
federates Cedar  Run,  the  first  encounter  took  place  between 
Jackson  and  Pope,  resulting  in  a  hard-fought  battle,  with  vic- 
tory for  a  time  trembling  in  the  balance,  llie  Tenth,  under 
command  of  Major  Stover,  was  in  the  fray  from  start  to  finish, 
suffering  a  considerable  loss  in  killed  and  wounded.  After 
this  battle  the  troops  followed  Pope's  discomfited  army,  ex- 
pecting to  give  him  battle  before  he  could  recross  the  Rap- 
pahannock; but  this  plan  failed  from  some  cause.  The  next 
move  was  to  cross  the  Rappahannock  and  give  him  battle. 

For  Jackson,  the  next  thing  was  to  move  up  the  river, 
cross  its  two  branches,  pass  around  Pope's  right,  and  move 
on  Manassas  Junction,  thus  getting  completely  in  Pope's  rear 
— a  very  daring  and  desperate  move,  resulting  in  a  three  days 
battle,  the  Second  Manassas.  In  all  this  the  10th  Virginia 
took  an  active  part,  losing  heavily  in  killed  and  wounded. 
Among  the  latter  were  Lt.-Col.  Walker  and  Major  Stover. 
On  the  second  day.  Col.  Warren  being  absent,  the  command 



of  the  regiment  devolved  upon  Capt.  W.  B.  Yancey.     Pope's 
army  was  routed  and  driven  back  with  tremendous  loss. 

The  next  move  was  the  invasion  of  Maryland.  The  Tenth 
passed  through  Frederick  City,  and  came  back  into  Virginia 
by  Williamsport  to  Martinsburg,  where  it  was  left  on  duty 
with  the  2d  Va.,  while  Jackson  captured  Harper's  Ferry. 
The  Tenth  remained  here  until  the  army  returned  to  Vir- 
ginia, after  the  battle  of  Sharpsburg.  After  remaining  in  the 
lower  Valley  for  a  time,  the  army  crossed  into  eastern  Vir- 
ginia, and,  moving  near  Fredericksburg,  took  position  on  the 
hills  running  parallel  with  the  Rappahannock,  back  of  the 
town.  The  Federal  general,  Burnside,  was  on  the  Stafford 
Heights,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  river. 

On  the  13th  of  December  (1862)  Burnside,  having  suc- 
ceeded in  crossing  the  river,  fought  the  desperate  and  bloody 
battle  of  Fredericksburg.  The  Tenth  did  not  take  an  active 
part  on  the  13th,  but  was  placed  on  the  front  line  that  night, 
expecting  bloody  work  the  next  day;  but  Burnside  thought  it 
better  not  to  renew  the  battle,  and  withdrew  to  the  north 
side  of  the  liver. 

Gen.  Lee  went  into  winter  quarters  at  Skinker's  Neck, 
on  the  south  side  of  the  Rappahannock.  In  the  meantime 
"Fighting  Joe  Hooker"  was  placed  in  command  of  the 
Federal  army,  and  in  the  spring  of  1863  began  his  "on  to 
Richmond"  campaign,  posting  his  army  about  Chancellors- 
ville.  Then  was  planned  Jackson's  famous  flank  movement 
around  Hooker's  right.  The  Tenth,  being  with  Jackson, 
took  an  active  part  in  the  assault  upon  the  enemy,  losing 
many  officers  and  men,  on  Saturday  evening.  May  2.  Among 
the  wounded  were  Col.  Warren  and  the  writer.  On  Sunday 
further  heavy  losses  were  sustained,  among  the  killed  being 
Lt.-Col.  Samuel  T.  Walker  and  Major  Joshua  Stover. 

The  next  movement  was  into  Pennsylvania,  and  on  to 
Gettysburg,  where  the  Tenth  again  participated  in  some 
heavy  fighting,  under  the  command  of  Capt.  W.  B.  Yancey. 
The  loss  here  was  not  heavy. 

After  the  battle  of  Chancellorsville  the  writer  was  pro- 









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Facsimile  of  manuscript  statement  made  out  by  Capt.  A.  S.  Byrd,  quartermaster  inth  Reg 
Va.  \'ol.  Inf.,  and  countersigned  by  Col.  E.  T.  H.  Warren      (Pages  IMS,  i:«)) 


moted  to  the  rank  of  lieutenant-colonel.  After  Gettysburg 
the  army  returned  to  Virginia,  soon  moving  east  of  the  Blue 
Ridge  and  placing  itself  in  front  of  Gen.  Meade,  the  new 
Federal  commander.  The  Tenth,  now  of  George  H.  Steuart's 
brigade,  Edward  Johnson's  division,  engaged  in  a  hot  fight 
with  the  Federal  general,  French,  on  November  27,  at  Mine 
Run,  losing  several  men  in  killed  and  wounded.  This  was 
supposed  to  be  the  prelude  to  a  bloody  battle,  for  which 
great  preparations  were  made,  but  Meade  finally  concluded 
not  to  risk  it.  Thus  ended  the  campaign  of  1863.  The  Army 
of  Northern  Virginia  went  into  winter  quarters  near  Orange 
Court  House. 

About  the  1st  of  May,  1864,  Gen.  Grant,  now  in  supreme 
command  of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  began  to  move.  The 
first  important  battle  was  fought  May  5,  in  which  the  Tenth 
again  lost  heavily  in  killed  and  wounded,  among  the  former 
being  Col.  Warren*  and  Major  I.  G.  Coffman,  leaving  the  writer 
the  only  field  officer  of  the  regiment.  On  the  evening  of 
May  10  the  enemy  captured  part  of  our  works,  which  the 
Tenth  helped  to  recapture  from  them.  On  the  12th  of  May 
Gen.  Hancock,  of  the  Federals,  made  his  famous  assault  on 
our  works,  capturing  nearly  all  of  Johnson's  division,  includ- 
ing the  10th  Va.  and  the  writer.  The  brave  adjutant  of  the 
regiment,  Whit.  Kisling,  was  killed  in  this  fight.  A  small 
remnant  of  the  regiment,  under  command  of  that  veteran, 
Capt.  W.  B.  Yancey,  took  part  in  several  skirmishes  until  he 
was  permanently  disabled  by  a  severe  wound. 

Shortly  after  May  12,  1864,  the  Tenth  was  made  part  of  a 
new  brigade  under  Gen.  Wm.  Terry,  being  later  moved  to 
the  Valley,  whence,  under  Gen.  Early,  it  again  went  into 
Maryland  to  threaten  Washington,  in  process  of  which  it  took 

4.  Edward  Tiffin  Harrison  Warren  was  born  in  Rockingham,  June  19, 
1829.  At  Frescati,  Orange  County,  be  married  Virginia  Magruder,  De- 
cember 5,  1855.  His  son,  James  Magruder  Warren,  was  a  prominent 
physician  in  the  80's  and  90's  at  New  Hope  and  Bridgewater.  Col.  Warren 
was  a  practicing  lawyer  at  Harrisonburg  at  the  outbreak  of  the  war. 



part  in  the  battle  of  Monocacy,  July  9,  1864,  in  which  Gen. 
Lew  Wallace  was  defeated. 

The  writer  was  exchanged  on  the  3d  of  August,  1864, 
came  home,  and  rejoined  his  command.  In  the  meantime, 
however,  the  regiment,  now  no  larger  than  a  company,  took 
part  in  the  third  battle  of  Winchester,  September  19,  1864, 
when  Capt.  C.  F.  Campbell  was  killed,  and  at  Fisher's  Hill, 
both  engagements  being  disastrous  to  Early,  who  came  up 
the  Valley  as  far  as  Weyer's  Cave.  In  a  short  time  he  moved 
down  the  Valley,  surprising  the  enemy  by  a  flank  movement 
at  Cedar  Creek  on  the  morning  of  October  19,  in  which  the 
Tenth  took  an  active  part,  the  Confederates  driving  every- 
thing before  them.  They  captured  a  large  number  of  pris- 
oners, many  pieces  of  artillery,  and  quantities  of  supplies, 
only  to  lose  all  except  the  prisoners,  and  more  too,  before 
the  day  ended. 

In  December  (1864)  Terry's  brigade  was  sent  to  Gen. 
Lee,  near  Petersburg,  camping  on  Hatcher's  Run,  a  few 
miles  south  of  the  city.  The  Tenth  took  part  in  a  hotly  fought 
battle  in  February,  1865,  the  writer  being  in  command  of  the 
10th,  23d,  and  37th  Va.  Regiments.  Later  on  we  were  moved 
to  a  point  in  front  of  the  city,  where  on  the  morning  of  April 
2,  as  part  of  Gen.  J.  B.  Gordon's  corps,  we  stormed  and  car- 
ried the  enemy's  works,  but  were  finally  driven  back,  the 
Tenth  losing  many  of  its  number  in  killed,  wounded,  and 

Late  on  the  2d  of  April  we  withdrew  from  the  front 
of  Petersburg,  in  the  vain  effort  to  get  away  from  Grant. 
On  the  retreat  we  took  part  in  the  fight  at  Sailor's  Creek, 
with  but  two  commissioned  company  officers  in  the  Tenth: 
Lieut.  John  H.  Ralston,  who  was  badly  wounded  and  left  in 
the  hands  of  the  enemy,  and  Lieut.  J.  G.  H.  Miller,  now  com- 
manding the  regiment. 

On  the  morning  of  April  9  we  had  a  skirmish  with  the 
enemy  at  Appomattox,  driving  them  some  distance,  only 
to  be  withdrawn  and  to  furl  our  banners, — banners  never 
again  to  be  unfurled.     But  the  Tenth  did  not  surrender  the 



old  battle  flag,  which  was  hidden  under  his  coat  by  Lieut.  J. 
G.  H.  Miller,  5  and  which  is  still  preserved  in  Rockingham 
by  his  family. 

Lieut.  Miller  commanded  the  regiment  at  Appomattox, 
now  reduced  to  8  or  10  muskets.  The  writer  had  been  put  in 
command  of  the  10th,  23d,  and  37th  regiments.  Here  ended 
the  military  career  of  the  noble  Tenth  Virginia.  By  April 
15  we  were  home  again  to  start  life  anew.^ 

We  give  below  Gen.  Jackson's  own  occount  of  the  battle 
of  Cross  Keys  and  Port  Republic,  June  8  and  9,  1862,  as  em- 
bodied in  his  report  to  the  Department  Headquarters. 

We  reached  Harrisonburg  at  an  early  hour  on  the  morning  of  the  5th, 
and,  passing  beyond  that  town,  turned  towards  the  east  in  the  direction 
of  Port  Republic.  On  the  6th,  General  Ashby  took  position  on  the  road 
between  Harrisonburg  and  Port  Republic,  and  received  a  spirited  charge 
from  a  portion  of  the  enemy's  cavalry,  which  resulted  in  the  repulse  of 
the  enemy,  and  the  capture  of  Colonel  Wyndham  and  sixty-three  others. 

Apprehending  that  the  Federals  would  make  a  more  serious  attack, 
Ashby  called  for  an  infantry  support.  The  brigade  of  General  Geo.  H. 
Stewart  was  accordingly  ordered  forward.  In  a  short  time  the  fifty- 
eighth  Virginia  regiment  became  engaged  with  a  Pennsylvania  regiment 
called  the  Bucktails,  when  Colonel  Johnson,  of  the  first  Maryland  regi- 
ment, coming  up  in  the  hottest  period  of  the  fire,  charged  gallantly  into 
its  flank  and  drove  the  enemy,  with  heavy  loss,  from  the  field,  capturing 
Lieutenant  Colonel  Kane,  commanding.  In  this  skirmish  our  infantry 
loss  was  seventeen  (17)  killed,  fifty  (50)  wounded,  and  three  missing.  In 
this  affair  General  Turner  Ashby  was  killed.  An  oflficial  report  is  not  an 
appropriate  place  for  more  than  a  passing  notice  of  the  distinguished 
dead;  but  the  close  relation  which  General  Ashby  bore  to  my  command 
for  most  of  the  previous  twelve  months,  will  justify  me  in  saying  that 
as  a  partisan  oflftcer  I  never  knew  his  superior.  His  daring  was  pro- 
verbial; his  powers  of  endurance  almost  incredible;  his  tone  of  character 
heroic,  and  his  sagacity  almost  intuitive  in  divining  the  purposes  and 
movements  of  the  enemy. 

5.  Capt.  Miller  died  at  his  home  in  Elkton,  June  16,  1889.  Upon  the 
old  flag  he  saved  may  still  be  read  the  names  of  the  following  battles: 
Manassas  No.  1,  McDowell,  Winchester  No.  1,  Port  Republic,  Cold  Har- 
bor, Malvern  Hill,  Cedar  Run,  Manassas  No. 2,  Chantilly,  Fredericksburg, 
Chancellorsville,  Winchester  No.  2,  Gettysburg. 

<5.  Complete  muster  rolls  of  the  various  Rockingham  companies  are 
given  in  the  Appendix,  as  far  as  possible. 



The  main  body  of  my  command  had  now  reached  the  vicinity  of  Port 
Republic.     The  village  is  situated  in  the  angle  formed  by  the  junction  of 
the  North  and  South  rivers,  tributaries  of  the  south  fork  of  the  Shen- 
andoah.    Over  the  larger  and  deeper  of  those  two  streams,  the  North 
river,   there  was  a  wooden  bridge,  connecting  the  town  with  the  road 
leading  to  Harrisonburg.     Over  the  South  river  there  was  a  passable 
ford.     The  troops  more  immediately  under  my  own  eye  were  encamped 
on  the  high  ground  north  of  the  village,  about  a  mile  from  the  river. 
General  Ewell  was  some  four  miles  distant,  near  the  road  leading  from 
Harrisonburg  to  Port  Republic.     General  Fremont  had  arrived  with  his 
forces  in  the  vicinity  of  Harrisonburg,  and  General  Shields  was  moving 
up  the  east  side  of  the  south  fork  of  the  Shenandoah;  and  was  then  at 
Conrad's  store,  some  fifteen  miles  below  Port  Republic,  my  position  being 
about  equi-distant  from  both  hostile  armies.     To  prevent  a  junction  of 
the  two  Federal  armies,  I  had  caused  the  bridge  over  the  south  fork  of 
the  Shenandoah  at  Conrad's  store  to  be  destroyed.     Intelligence  having 
been  received  that   Gen.    Shields   was  advancing  further  up  the  river. 
Captain  Sipe,7  with  a  small  cavalry  force,  was  sent  down  during  the  night 
of  the  7th  to  verify  the  report  and  gain  such  other  information  respecting 
the  enemy  as  he  could.     Captain  G.  W.  Myers,  of  the  cavalry,  was  sub- 
sequently directed  to  move  with  his  company  in  the  same  direction  for 
the  purpose  of  supporting  Captain  Sipe,  if  necessary.     The  next  morning 
Captain  Myers'  company  came  rushing  back  in  disgraceful  disorder,  an- 
nouncing that  the  Federal  forces  were  in  close  pursuit.     Captain  Chipley 
and  his  company  of  cavalry,  which  was  in  town,  also  shamefully  fled. 
The  brigades  of  Generals  Taliaferro  and  Winder  were  soon  under  arms, 
and  ordered  to  occupy  positions  immediately  north  of  the  bridge.     By 
this  time  the  Federal  cavalry,  accompanied  by  artillery,  were  in  sight, 
and,  after  directing  a  few  shots  towards  the  bridge,  they  crossed  South 
river,  and  dashing  into  the  village,  planted  one  of  their  pieces  at  the 
southern   entrance  of   the  bridge.     In  the   meantime   the  batteries   of 
Wooding,    Poague    and   Carpenter   were   being  placed  in  position,   and 
General  Taliaferro's  brigade  having  reached  the  vicinity  of  the  bridge, 
was  ordered  to  charge  across,  capture  the  piece,  and  occupy  the  town. 
Whilst  one  of  Poague 's  pieces  was  returning  the  fire  of  that  of  the  enemy 
at   the  far  end  of   the   bridge,   the  thirty-seventh  Virginia   regiment, 
Colonel  Fulkerson,  after  delivering  its  fire,  gallantly  charged  over  the 
bridge,  captured  the  gun,   and  followed  by  the  other  regiments  of  the 

".  Emanuel  Sipe,  captain  Co.  H,  12th  Va.  Cavalry,  later  lieutenant- 
colonel,  assigned  to  command  of  the  7th  Va.  Cavalry.  He  was  born  in 
Rockingham,  July  5,  1830.  Prior  to  the  war  he  was  lieutenant-colonel  of 
the  116th  Va.  Militia;  and  both  before  and  after  the  war  was  a  prominent 
merchant  and  man  of  affairs.     He  died  Sept.  23,  1901. 



brigade,  entered  the  town,  and  dispersed  and  drove  back  the  Federal 
cavalry.  Another  piece  of  artillery,  with  which  the  Federals  had  ad- 
vanced, was  abandoned  and  subsequently  fell  into  our  hands. 

About  this  time,  a  considerable  body  of  infantry  was  seen  advancing 
up  the  same  road.  Our  batteries  opened  with  marked  effect  upon  the 
retreating  cavalry  and  advancing  infantry.  In  a  short  time  the  infantry 
followed  the  cavalry,  falling  back  to  Lewis',  three  miles  down  the  river, 
pursued  for  a  mile  by  our  batteries  on  the  opposite  bank,  when  the  enemy 
disappeared  in  the  wood  around  a  bend  in  the  road.  This  attack  of 
General  Shields  had  hardly  been  repulsed,  before  Ewell  was  seriously 
engaged  with  Fremont,  moving  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  river.  The 
enemy  pushed  forward  driving  in  the  fifteenth  Alabama,  Colonel  Canty, 
from  their  post  on  picket.  This  regiment  made  a  gallant  resistance, 
which  so  far  checked  the  Federal  advance  as  to  afford  General  Ewell  time 
for  the  choice  of  his  position  at  leisure. 

His  ground  was  well  selected,  on  a  commanding  ridge,  a  rivulet  and 
large  field  of  open  ground  in  front,  wood  on  both  flanks,  and  his  line  in- 
tersected near  its  centre  by  the  road  leading  to  Port  Republic.  General 
Trimble's  brigade  was  posted  on  the  right,  somewhat  in  advance  of  his 
centre.  The  batteries  of  Courtnay,  Lusk,  Brockenbrough,  and  Raines  in 
the  centre,  General  Stewart's  brigade  on  the  left,  and  General  Elzey's 
brigade  in  rear  of  the  centre,  and  in  position  to  strengthen  either  wing. 
Both  wings  were  in  the  wood. 

About  ten  o'clock,  the  enemy  threw  out  his  skirmishers,  and  shortly 
after  posted  his  artillery  opposite  to  our  batteries.  The  artillery  fire  was 
kept  up  with  great  animation  and  spirit  on  both  sides  for  several  hours. 
In  the  meantime  a  brigade  of  Federal  forces  advanced  under  cover,  upon 
the  right,  occupied  by  General  Trimble,  who  reserved  his  fire  until  they 
reached  the  crest  of  the  hill,  in  easy  range  of  his  musketry,  when  he 
poured  a  deadly  fire  from  his  whole  front,  under  which  they  fell  back. 
Observing  a  battery  about  being  posted  on  the  enemy's  left,  half  a  mile 
in  front,  General  Trimble,  now  supported  by  the  thirteenth  and  twenty- 
fifth  Virginia  regiments,  of  Elzey's  brigade,  pushed  forward  for  the  pur- 
pose of  taking  it,  but  found  it  withdrawn  before  he  reached  the  spot, 
having,  in  the  meantime,  some  spirited  skirmishing  with  its  infantry 
supports.  General  Trimble  had  now  advanced  more  than  a  mile  from  his 
original  position,  while  the  Federal  advance  had  fallen  back  to  the  ground 
occupied  by  them  in  the  morning. 

General  Taylor,  of  the  eighth  brigade  of  Louisiana  troops,  having 
arrived  from  the  vicinity  of  the  bridge,  at  Port  Republic,  towards  which 
he  had  moved  in  the  morning,  reported  to  General  Ewell  about  two,  P. 
M.,  and  was  placed  in  rear.  Colonel  Patton,  with  the  forty-second  and 
forty-eighth  Virginia  regiments,  and  first  battalion  of  Virginia  regulars, 
also  joined,  and,  with  the  remainder  of  General  Elzey's    brigade,   was 



added  to  the  centre  and  left,  then  supposed  to  be  threatened.  General 
Ewell  having  been  informed  by  Lieutenant  Heinrichs,  of  the  engineer 
corps,  who  had  been  sent  out  to  reconnoitre,  that  the  enemy  was  moving 
a  large  column  on  his  left,  did  not  advance  at  once;  but  subsequently 
ascertaining  that  no  attack  was  designed  by  the  force  referred  to,  he 
advanced,  drove  in  the  enemy's  skirmishers  and,  when  night  closed,  was 
in  position  on  ground  previously  held  by  the  enemy.  During  this  fight 
Brigadier  Generals  Elzey  and  Stewart  were  wounded,  and  disabled  from 

This  engagement  with  Fremont  has  generally  been  known  as  the 
battle  of  Cross  Keys,  in  which  our  troops  were  commanded  by  General 
Ewell.  I  had  remained  at  Port  Republic  during  the  principal  part  of  the 
8th,  expecting  a  renewal  of  the  attack.  As  no  movement  was  made  by 
General  Shields  to  renew  the  action  that  day,  I  determined  to  take  the 
initiative  and  attack  him  the  following  morning. 

Accordingly,  General  Ewell  was  directed  to  move  his  position  at  an 
early  hour,  on  the  morning  of  the  9th,  towards  Port  Republic,  leaving 
General  Trimble  with  his  brigade,  supported  by  Colonel  Patton  with  the 
forty-second  Virginia  infantry  and  the  first  battalion  of  Virginia  regulars, 
to  hold  Fremont  in  check,  with  instructions  if  hard  pressed  to  retire 
across  the  North  river,  and  burn  the  bridge  in  their  rear.  Soon  after  ten 
o'clock,  General  Trimble  with  the  last  of  our  forces  had  crossed  the  North 
river,  and  the  bridge  was  destroyed. 8  In  the  meantime,  before  five  in 
the  morning,  General  Winder's  brigade  was  in  Port  Republic,  and  having 
crossed  the  South  Fork,  by  a  temporary  wagon  bridge,  placed  there  for 
the  purpose,  was  moving  down  the  River  road  to  attack  the  forces  of 
General  Shields.  Advancing  a  mile  and  a  half,  he  encountered  the 
Federal  pickets  and  drove  them  in. 

The  enemy  had  judiciously  selected  his  position  for  defence.  Upon  a 
rising  ground  near  the  Lewis  House,  he  had  planted  six  guns  which  com- 
manded the  road  from  Port  Republic,  and  swept  the  plateau  for  a  consid- 
erable distance  in  front.  As  General  Winder  moved  forward  his  brigade,  a 
rapid  and  severe  fire  of  shell  was  opened  upon  it.  Capt.  Poague,  with  two 
Parrott  guns,  was  promptly  placed  in  position  on  the  left  of  the  road  to 
engage,  and  if  possible  to  dislodge  the  Federal  battery.  Captain  Car- 
penter was  sent  to  the  right  to  select  a  position  for  his  battery,  but 
finding  it  impracticable  to  drag  it  through  the  dense  undergrowth,  it  was 
brought  back,  and  part  of  it  placed  near  Poague.  The  artillery  fire  was 
well  sustained  by  our  batteries,  but  found  unequal  to  that  of  the  enemy. 

8.  The  squad  that  burned  the  bridge  was  in  charge  of  Courier  Geo.  H. 
Hulvey,  a  native  of  Rockingham,  born  at  Cross  Keys,  April  19, 1844.  He 
lost  his  left  arm  in  the  Wilderness,  May  6,  1864.  For  the  past  25  years 
or  more  he  has  been  superintendent  of  schools  for  Rockingham  County, 
and  is  one  of  the  best  known  educators  in  the  State. 


a  fc 

a  -I 

4->       bo 

\  & 


In  the  meantime,  Winder  being  now  reinforced  by  the  seventh  Louisiana 
regiment,  Colonel  Hays,  seeing  no  mode  of  silencing  the  Federal  battery, 
or  escaping  its  destructive  missiles  but  by  a  rapid  charge,  and  the  capture 
of  it,  adranced  with  great  boldness  for  some  distance,  but  encountered 
such  a  heavy  fire  of  artillery  and  small  arms  as  greatly  to  disorganize  his 
command,  which  fell  back  in  disorder.  The  enemy  advanced  across  the 
field,  and,  by  a  heavy  musketry  fire,  forced  back  our  infantry  supports, 
in  consequence  of  which  our  guns  had  to  retire.  The  enemy's  advance 
was  checked  by  a  spirited  attack  upon  their  flank,  by  the  fifty-eighth  and 
fifty-fourth  Virginia  regiments,  directed  by  General  Ewell  and  led  by 
Colonel  Scott,  although  his  command  was  afterwards  driven  back  to  the 
woods  with  severe  loss.  The  batteries  were  all  safely  withdrawn  except 
one  of  Captain  Poague's  six-pounder  guns,  which  was  carried  off  by  the 

Whilst  Winder's  command  was  in  this  critical  condition,  the  gallant 
and  successful  attack  of  General  Taylor  on  the  Federal  left  and  rear, 
directed  attention  from  the  front,  and  lead  to  a  concentration  of  their 
force  upon  him.  IMoving  to  the  right  along  the  mountain  acclivity,  through 
a  rough  and  tangled  forest,  and  much  disordered  by  the  rapidity  and  ob- 
structions of  the  march,  Taylor  emerged  with  his  command  from  the 
wood,  just  as  the  loud  cheers  of  the  enemy  had  proclaimed  their  success 
in  front;  and  although  assailed  by  a  superior  force  in  front  and  flank, 
with  their  guns  in  position  within  point  blank  range,  the  charge  was 
gallantly  made,  and  the  battery,  consisting  of  six  guns,  fell  into  our 
hands.  Three  times  was  this  battery  lost  and  won  in  the  desperate  and 
determined  efforts  to  capture  and  recover  it.  After  holding  the  batteries 
for  a  short  time,  a  fresh  brigade  of  the  enemy  advancing  upon  his  flank, 
made  a  vigorous  and  well  conducted  attack  upon  him,  accompanied  by  a 
galling  fire  of  canister  from  a  piece  suddenly  brought  into  position,  at  a 
distance  of  about  three  hundred  and  fifty  yards.  Under  this  combined 
attack,  Taylor  fell  back  to  the  skirt  of  the  wood,  near  which  the  captured 
battery  was  stationed,  and  from  that  point  continued  his  fire  upon  the 
advancing  enemy,  who  succeeded  in  recapturing  one  of  the  guns,  which 
he  carried  off,  leaving  both  caisson  and  limber.  The  enemy,  now  occupied 
with  Taylor,  halted  his  advance  to  the  front.  Winder  made  a  renewed 
effort  to  rally  his  command,  and  succeeding,  with  the  seventh  Louisiana, 
under  Major  Penn,  (the  Colonel  and  Lieutenant  Colonel  having  been 
carried  from  the  field  wounded,)  and  the  fifth  Virginia  regiment.  Col. 
Funk,  he  placed  part  of  Poague's  battery  in  the  position  previously 
occupied  by  it,  and  again  opened  upon  the  enemy,  who  were  moving 
against  Taylor's  left  flank,  apparently  to  surround  him  in  the  wood. 
Chew's  battery  now  reported,  and  was  placed  in  position,  and  did  good 
service.  Soon  after,  guns  from  the  batteries  of  Brockenbough,  Courtnay 
and  Rains,  were  brought  forward  and  placed  in  position.     Whilst  these 



movements  were  in  progress  on  the  left  and  front,  Colonel  Scott,  having 
rallied  his  command,  led  them,  under  the  orders  of  General  Ewel',  to  the 
support  of  General  Taylor,  v^^ho,  pushing  forward  with  the  reinforcements 
just  received,  and  assisted  by  the  well-directed  fire  of  our  artillery,  forced 
the  enemy  to  fall  back,  which  was  soon  followed  by  his  precipitate 
retreat,  leaving  many  killed  and  wounded  upon  the  field.  General 
Taliaferro,  who  the  previous  day  had  occupied  the  town,  was  directed  to 
continue  to  do  so  with  part  of  his  troops,  and,  with  the  remainder,  to 
hold  the  elevated  position  on  the  north  side  of  the  river,  for  the  purpose 
of  co-operating,  if  necessary,  with  General  Trimble,  and  prevent  his 
being  cut  off  from  the  main  body  of  the  army  by  the  destruction  of  the 
bridge  in  his  rear.  But  finding  the  resistance  more  obstinate  than  I 
anticipated,  orders  were  sent  to  Taliaferro  and  Trimble  to  join  the  main 
body.  Taliaferro  came  up  in  time  to  discharge  an  effective  volley  into  the 
ranks  of  the  wavering  and  retreating  enemy.  The  pursuit  was  continued 
some  five  miles  beyond  the  battle-field  by  Generals  Taliaferro  and  Winder 
with  their  brigades  and  portions  of  the  batteries  of  Wooding  ard  Caskie. 
Colonel  Munford,  with  cavalry  and  some  artillery,  advanced  about  three 
miles  beyond  the  other  troops.  Our  forces  captured  in  the  pursuit  about 
four  hundred  and  fifty  (450)  prisoners,  some  wagons,  one  piece  of 
abandoned  artillery,  and  about  eight  hundred  muskets.  Some  two 
hundred  and  seventy-five  (275)  wounded  were  paroled  in  the  hospitals 
near  Port  Republic. 

Whilst  the  forces  of  Shields  were  in  full  retreat,  and  our  troops  in 
pursuit,  Fremont  appeared  on  the  opposite  bank  of  the  south  fork  of  the 
Shenandoah,  with  his  army,  and  opened  his  artillery  upon  our  ambulances, 
and  parties  engaged  in  the  humane  labors  of  attending  to  our  dead  and 
wounded,  and  the  dead  and  wounded  of  the  enemy.  The  next  day,  with- 
drawing his  forces,  he  retreated  down  the  Valley. 

On  the  morning  of  the  12th,  Munford  entered  Harrisonburg,  where, 
in  addition  to  wagons,  medical  stores  and  camp  equipage,  he  captured 
some  two  hundred  small  arms.  At  that  point  there  also  fell  into  our 
hands  about  two  hundred  of  Fremont's  men,  many  of  them  severely 
wounded  on  the  8th,  and  most  of  the  others  had  been  left  behind  as  sick. 
The  Federal  surgeons  attending  them  were  released,   and  those  under 

their  care  paroled. 

The  official  reports  of  the  casualties  of  the  battle  show  a  loss  of  six- 
teen (16)  officers  killed,  sixty-seven  (67)  wounded,  and  two  (2)  missing; 
one  hundred  and  seventeen  (117)  non-commissioned  officers  and  privates 
killed,  eight  hundred  and  sixty-two  (862)  wounded,  and  thirty-two 
missing,  making  a  total  loss  of  one  thousand  and  ninety-six,  (1,096) 
including  skirmishers  on  the  6th;  since  evacuation  of  Winchester,  one 
thousand  one  hundred  and  sixty-seven,  (1,167;)  also  one  piece  of  artillery. 
If  we  add  to  the  prisoners  captured  on  the  6th  and  9th,  those  who  were 
paroled  at  Harrisonburg,  and  in  hospitals  in  the  vicinity  of  Port  Republic,. 



it  will  make  the  number  of  the  enemy  who  fell  into  our  possession  about 
nine  hundred  and  seventy-five,  (975,)  exclusive  of  his  killed,  and  such  of 
his  wounded  as  he  removed.  The  small  arms  taken  on  the  9th,  and  at 
Harrisonburg,  numbered  about  one  thousand  (1,000.)  We  captured  seven 
pieces  of  artillery,  with  their  caissons  and  all  of  their  limbers,  except 
one.  The  conduct  of  the  officers  and  men,  during  the  action,  merits  the 
highest  praise. 

I  forward,  herewith,  two  maps,  by  Mr.  J.  Hotchkiss,  one  giving  the 
route  of  the  army  during  the  retreat  from  Strasburg  to  Port  Republic, 
and  the  other  of  the  battle-field. 

On  the  12th,  the  troops  recrossed  South  river,  and  encamped  near 
Weyer's  Cave.  For  the  purpose  of  rendering  thanks  to  God  for  having 
crowned  our  arms  with  success,  and  to  implore  His  continued  favor, 
divine  service  was  held  in  the  army  on  the  14th. 

The  army  remained  near  Weyer's  Cave  until  the  17th,  when,  in 
obedience  to  instructions  from  the  commanding  General  of  the  Depart- 
mert,  it  moved  towards  Richmond. 

I  am.  General,  very  respectfully,  your  obedient  servant, 


Lieutenant  General. 

The  following  letter,  giving  additional  particulars  relating 
to  the  battle  of  Cross  Keys,  was  written  in  May,  1912,  at 
Frankfort,  Indiana,  by  Capt.  William  N.  Jordan,  a  native  of 
Rockingham,  then  nearly  ninety-two  years  of  age. 

I  was  born  in  Mt.  Crawford  Christmas  Day  in  the  year  1820,  and  my 
mother  died  when  I  was  nine  days  old.  I  was  taken  and  raised  by 
strangers  in  the  neighborhood  of  Friedens  Church,  by  a  man  named  Martin 
Neir,  and  I  staid  with  him  until  he  died  in  1844.  Before  I  was  seventeen 
years  old  I  commenced  driving  his  team  of  six  horses  in  hauling  produce 
to  market,  — Fredericksburg  and  Richmond  were  the  markets  at  that 
time.  After  some  time  had  passed  Scottsville  became  a  market  for  pro- 
duce, and  after  a  few  years  more  Winchester  became  a  market  for  the 
people  of  Rockingham. 

I  still  remained  on  the  place.  On  the  5th  day  of  October,  1847,  about 
eight  o'clock,  we  had  a  cyclone.  It  tore  the  barn  clear  away,  and  part 
of  the  house;  and  in  a  large  orchard  there  was  not  one  tree  left  standing. 
Wife  and  I  and  the  girl  were  in  the  part  of  the  house  that  was  not  torn 
down.  In  the  part  of  which  the  roof  was  taken  off  were  two  boys;  but 
none  of  us  was  hurt. 

Then  Martin  Neir's  widow  and  I  made  sale  of  the  land  and  property, 
and  I  bought  me  a  home  near  the  Cross  Keys,  and  lived  there  until  the 
Civil  War  commenced.  I  was  assessor  of  that  district  in  '59  and  '60,  and 
I  was  captain  of  the  Cross  Keys  and  Mt.  Crawford  cavalry.     I  had  about 



100  men  in  the  company,  and  we  were  mustered  into  service  of  the  Con- 
federacy on  the  third  day  of  June,  1861,  and  were  in  a  number  of  battles. 
Among  them  was  the  fight  at  Cross  Keys.  We  were  on  the  left  flank  of 
Gen.  Ewell's  army  during  the  fight. 

My  farm  was  just  outside  of  the  line  of  battle.  The  Yankees  broke 
open  my  corn  crib  and  took  corn  to  feed  their  horses,  but  did  not  disturb 
my  family.  This  was  on  Sunday,  and  the  next  morning  Gen.  Jackson 
took  us  across  the  river  and  burnt  the  bridge;  and  the  North  River  being 
high  they  could  not  follow  us;  and  we  went  across  South  River,  then  down 
the  river,  and  whipped  Shield's  forces,  and  ran  them  away  below  the 
White  Post;  and  on  Monday  night  Fremont  began  to  fall  back. 

They  had  made  a  hospital  of  a  very  large  two-story  house,  and  set  it 
afire  when  they  left.  It  was  thought  by  the  old  people  that  lived  close 
there  that  there  was  a  large  number  of  dead  and  wounded  in  the  house  at 
the  time,  for  they  heard  some  of  them  calling  for  help.  And  they  left 
their  dead  lying  all  over  the  battlefield;  and  we  had  to  make  a  big  circuit 
to  cross  the  river  to  get  on  the  battlefield  [of  Cross  Keys].  We  did  not 
get  around  there  until  Wednesday  morning.  Gen.  Imboden,  who  was  in 
command  of  the  cavalry,  detailed  me  and  my  company  to  gather  up  and 
bury  the  dead.  At  one  place  we  buried  81  bodies,  and  at  another  21. 
They  were  mostly  foreigners,  from  the  looks  of  them.  It  has  been  so 
long  ago  that  I  don't  remember  how  many  we  lost  in  that  battle. 

I  had  eight  children  of  school  age  at  that  time,  that  I  thought  ought 
to  be  going  to  school.  As  there  was  no  free  school  system  then,  I  thought 
I  would  go  to  a  state  where  they  could  get  an  education.  So  I  sold  out 
there  and  came  to  Indiana.  My  wife  died  January  21,  1911.  We  were 
married  and  lived  together  nearly  sixty-six  years.  I  am  now  staying 
with  one  of  my  daughters,  and  expect  to  stay  here  what  few  days  may 
yet  be  allotted  to  me. 

I  voted  for  James  K.  Polk  in  1844,  for  President,  and  I  am  still  a 
Democrat.     So  good  bye. 

(Signed)   Capt.  Wm.  N.  Jordan. 

In  1860  there  were  in  Rockingham  County  2387  slaves; 
in  1863,  2039:  loss,  348.  During  the  same  time  the  number  of 
horses  was  reduced  from  7670  to  6656:  loss,  1014;  and  the 
number  of  cattle  from  21, 413  to  14,739:  loss,  6674.  ^  But  when 
these  statistics  were  gathered  the  worst  was  yet  to  come. 

In  the  fall  of  1864  Sheridan's  army  was  encamped  about 
Harrisonburg  and  Dayton.  One  rainy  evening  Major  John  R. 
Meigs,  of  Sheridan's  staff,  and  two  other  Federals  met  three 
Confederate  scouts  near  Dayton,  and  attempted  to  capture 

9-  Rockingham  Register,  March  25,  1864. 



or  kill  them,  but  in  the  fight  Meigs  himself  was  killed.  It 
was  reported  to  Sheridan  that  Meigs  had  been  shot  by  a 
bushwhacker.  To  administer  a  gentle  reproof  to  the  com- 
munity, Sheridan  ordered  that  every  house  within  five  miles 
of  the  spot  where  Meigs  fell  should  be  burned.  The  work  of 
burning  began,  A  number  of  buildings  in  the  vicinity  w^ere 
devoted  to  the  torch.  The  people  of  Dayton  were  warned  of 
the  impending  destruction,  and  moved  out  into  the  surround- 
ing fields,  where  men,  women,  and  children  spent  the  chill 
October  night  as  comfortably  as  they  could,  waiting  to  see 
their  homes  go  up  in  flames.  But  sometime  the  next  evening 
they  were  told  the  order  to  burn  the  town  had  been  with- 
drawn, and  were  allowed  to  return  to  their  houses. 

I  have  heard  several  explanations  as  to  why  Dayton  was 
not  burned.  One  report  has  it  that  a  Masonic  apron  was 
found  by  the  burners  in  one  of  the  houses  nearby;  another, 
that  the  many  kindnesses  extended  to  the  Federals  by  the 
people  of  the  community  were  remembered  in  the  camps. 
Not  long  ago  I  learned  that  the  Federal  officer  whose  task  it 
had  been  to  carry  out  the  order  to  burn  was  still  living  in  Ohio, 
and  I  wrote  to  him  asking  him  for  information.  He  is  mayor 
of  Clarington,  Monroe  County,  Ohio.     His  letter  follows. 

Clarington,  Ohio,  March  16,  1912. 

My  Dear  Sir: 

Yours  of  the  11th  reed.  In  reply  will  say  that  I  was 
a  main  participant  in  that  stirring  and  heart-rending  event  of  Oct.  5th, 
1864,  at  the  town  of  Dayton,  Va. ,  where,  at  5  o'clock  P.  M.,  by  an  order 
issued  by  our  commander,  Genl.  P.  H.  Sheridan  (order  No.  89) ,  I  was 
ordered  to  take  my  regiment,  the  116th  0.  V.  I.,  and  set  the  torch  of 
destruction  to  every  building  in  that  beautiful  town,  for  what  some  fool- 
hardy citizen  had  done,  or  was  supposed  to  have  done — the  killing  of 
Major  Meigs  of  Sheridan's  Staff. 

Now  the  reason  why  the  order  of  Genl.  Sheridan  was  not  carried  out 
is,  Genl.  Thomas  F.  Wildes  of  my  brigade,  at  one  time  colonel  of  the 
116th  O.  V.  I.  (my  regiment),  who  was  a  particularly  ideal  officer  under 
Sheridan,  and  suited  Sheridan  on  account  of  his  bravery  and  fighting 
qualities,  begged  and  prayed  Sheridan  to  revoke  the  order,  as  my  regi- 
ment, the  116th  O.  V.  I.,  formerly  Genl.  T.  F.  Wildes'  regiment,  was 
the  regiment  detailed  by  Sheridan  to  carry  out  his  heart-rending  order. 



Gen.  Wildes  prevailed  on  Sheridan  to  revoke  the  order,  and  I  got  the 
order  5  minutes  before  we  were  to  apply  the  torch  to  that  beautiful  and 
peaceful  town. 

When  I  announced  the  revoking  of  the  order,  there  was  louder  cheer- 
ing than  there  ever  was  when  we  made  a  bayonet  charge. 

I  know  every  foot  of  ground  in  that  country.  I  was  only  17  years  old 
then,  and  my  heart  fairly  leaped  for  joy  when  the  order  was  rescinded. 
Brigadier-Genl.  Thomas  F.  Wildes,  together  with  the  regimental  officers, 
are  the  ones  who  saved  those  towns,  Dayton,  Harrisonburg,  and  Mt. 
Crawford,  from  being  burned  down.  We  fought  quite  a  hard  battle  at 
Piedmont  on  June  5th,  under  Genl.  Hunter. 

Yours  very  truly. 

Col,  S.  Tschappat. 

It  was  just  a  day  or  two  after  the  incidents  above  re- 
corded that  Sheridan  began  his  wide-spread  retreat  down  the 
Valley,  burning  mills  and  barns,  and  driving  off  or  killing 
horses,  cattle,  sheep,  and  hogs. 

A  vivid  and  realistic  conception  of  the  destruction 
wrought  in  Rockingham  by  the  "burning"  may  be  obtained 
by  looking  over  the  various  items  in  the  following  letter, 
written  by  a  gentleman  living  at  the  time  in  the  vicinity  of 
Timberville,  and  published  in  the  Rockingham  Register  of 
March  24,  1865. 

Near  Timberville,  Va  ,  February  13,  1865. 

Editors  of  the  Register: — I  hereby  send  you  a  list  of  losses  sustained 
in  this  portion  of  Rockingham  county,  by  Sheridan's  army.  The  prices 
fixed  are  those  prevailing  before  the  war. 

David  Cline,  one  barn,  horse  stable,  300  bushels  of  wheat,  34  tons  of 
hay,  9  cattle,  30  sheep,  loss  about  $2,600. 

George  Moffett,  1  barn,  20  tons  of  hay,  cattle,  farming  utensils,  &c., 
loss  about  $1600. 

Jonas  Early,  1  barn,  150  bushels  of  wheat,  10  tons  of  hay,  house 
property,  &c. ,  loss  $2000. 

John  Rife,  1  barn,  wheat,  hay,  &c. ,  loss  $1000. 

John  W.  Driver,  6  horses,  14  sheep,  loss  $800. 

Widow  Driver,  1  barn,  horse  stable,  200  bushels  of  wheat,  20  tons  of 
hay,  wagon,  ploughs,  &c. ,  loss  $2,500. 

S.  H.  Myers,  1  barn,  325  bushels  of  wheat,  10  tons  of  hay,  7  cattle, 
and  other  property,  $2500. 

Thornton  Thomas,  5  horses,  10  cattle,  30  sheep,  loss  $700. 

George  Lohr  and  Sons,  3  barns,  1000  bushels  grain,  10  tons  hay,  7 
horses,  10  cattle,  farming  implements,  &c.,  $5,900. 



Philip  Lowry,  1  stable,  1  horse,  hay,  &c.,  $400. 

Jesse  Bushong,  2  horses,  3  cows,  $225. 

A.  Bushong,  1  horse,  $100. 

Albert  Flemens,  1  barn,  2  cows,  hay,  &c.,  $700. 

Matthias  Minnick  &  Son,  1  barn,  225  bushels  of  wheat,  6  tons  hay, 
5  horses,  12  cattle,  threshing  machine,  ploughs,  &c.,  $2,000. 

George  Arehart,  1  barn,  160  bushels  of  wheat,  10  tons  hay,  8  cattle, 
farming  in7plements,  $1,400. 

Abram  Arehart,  1  barn,  horse  stable,  200  bushels  wheat,  12  tons  hay, 
11  cattle,  sheep,  hogs,  &c.,  $2,000. 

Jacob  Arehart,  3  horses,  4  cattle,  11  sheep,  $400. 

Moses  Tussing,  1  barn,  4  tons  hay,  3  horses,  2  cows,  $900. 

David  Bowman,   1  barn,  500  bushels  wheat,   10  tons  hay,   12  cattle, 
&c.,  $2,000. 

William  G.   Thompson,   1  merchant  mill,   some  grain,   horse  gears, 
cattle,  etc.,  $4,000. 

The  above  list  comprises  that  portion  of  the  8th  district,  north  of  the 
Shenandoah  River  and  east  of  the  Timberville  road.     A  number  of  other 
persons  had  small  losses  which  are  not  mentioned  in  the  above  list. 
Yours,  Respectfully, 

B.  Hoover. 

The  losses  enumerated  by  Mr.  Hoover  foot  up  a  total  of 
$33,725.  The  district  in  which  this  loss  was  sustained  is  not 
over  one-sixtieth  of  the  productive  portion  of  the  county; 
therefore,  if  equivalent  loss  was  suffered  all  over  the  county, 
the  grand  total  would  exceed  $2,000,000— estimated  upon 
ante  bellum  prices.  Estimated  upon  contemporary  prices  in 
Confederate  money,  the  grand  total  would  be  over  $20,000- 
000.  A  calculation  of  this  sort  will  obviously  justify  the  fol- 
lowing statement  found  on  page  1303  of  Garner  and  Lodge's 
history  of  the  United  States: 

'  'The  value  of  property  destroyed  in  Rockingham  County 
alone  was  estimated  at  $25,000,000;  thousands  of  families 
were  reduced  to  absolute  want  and  on  every  hand  the  signs 
of  desolation  were  pitiable  in  the  extreme." 

In  the  summer  of  1864,  upon  the  advance  of  Hunter's 
army  up  the  Valley,  a  lot  of  the  records  of  the  county  and  of 
the  circuit  court  were  loaded  on  a  wagon  and  hauled  east- 
ward, the  aim  being  to  take  them  through  Brown's  Gap  to  a 
place  of  safety  in  or  beyond  the  Blue  Ridge.     The  wagon  was 



overtaken  on  the  road  between  Port  Republic  and  Mt.  Ver- 
non Furnace  by  some  of  Hunter's  men,  and  set  afire.  After 
the  Federals  left,  some  persons  in  the  neighborhood  put  out 
the  fire,  using  for  the  purpose,  it  is  said,  some  green  hay  just 
cut  in  a  nearby  field.  The  records  left  at  the  courthouse  were 
not  injured,  though  the  files  of  the  Rockingham  Register,  in 
the  office  of  that  paper,  were  destroyed.  The  partly  burned 
records  of  the  county  were  collected  and  brought  back  to  the 
county-seat,  where  many  of  them  may  still  be  seen.  An  ef- 
fort has  been  made  to  restore  them  as  fully  as  possible. 

A  war  always  stimulates  home  manufactures.  ''Neces- 
sity is  the  mother  of  invention."  In  Chapter  XXI  will  be 
found  a  number  of  items  showing  some  of  the  particular 
manufactures  in  Rockingham  during  the  war,  as  well  as  dur- 
ing other  periods.  It  is  needless  to  say  that  a  war  also  raises 
prices.     Here  are  some  illustrations  from  the  case  before  us: 


"Prices  Reduced!  Best  fine  salt  at  $9  to  $9.25.  Prime 
Super  Flour  $4.75.— Isaac  Paul." 

Brown  sugar  20  cents  a  pound. 

Orleans  molasses  $1.00  a  gallon. 


Cash  prices  paid  by  Isaac  Paul  in  August:  Butter,  40c; 
cheese,  40c;  lard,  25c;  hard  soap,  30c;  bacon,  27-30c. 

In  October  Isaac  Paul  was  advertising  tobacco  at  60  cents 
a  pound,  and  oflfering  to  pay  the  following  prices:  Wool,  $1 
to  $1.25;  flax  seed,  $1  to  $1.25;  butter,  40  to  50c;  cheese,  40  to 
50c;  lard,  25c;  flour,  $8  to  $8.50;  bacon,  35  to  40c. 

In  September-October  salt  was  over  $15  a  sack. 

In  November  ink  was  $1  a  bottle;  Isaac  Paul  was  offering 
75c  for  butter  and  cheese;  J.  N.  Hill  was  offering  to  pay  $1  a 
pound  cash  for  10,000  pounds  of  good  roll  butter. 


In  April  flour  was  $20  a  barrel  at  the  mill;  wheat  was  $4 
a  bushel;  corn,  $4;  bacon,  $1  a  pound;  hay,  $1  a  cwt. 


In  February  the  American  Hotel  in  Harrisonburg  was  ad- 



vertising  board  at  $150  a  month;  supper,  lodging,  and  break- 
fast for  $10;  board  at  $10  a  day;  single  meals  at  $4.  "Posi- 
tively no  credit." 

The  same  month  D.  A.  Flecker  was  urging:  "Buy  your 
salt  two  years  in  advance  when  you  can  get  it  at  50  cts. 
per  pound";  while  Fishback  iS:  Long,  at  Montezuma,  were 
offering  "Also,  a  lot  of  Salt  which  we  will  sell  at  60  cents  by 
the  sack." 

In  May  Isaac  Paul  had  some  salt  at  45  cents. 

In  July  $1000  was  given  or  offered  for  a  horse. 

In  December  salt  was  80  cents  a  pound. 


In  the  Register  of  March  24  the  following  estray  notice 
appeared:  "A  White  Boar,  supposed  to  be  one  and  a  half 
years  old,  left  ear  cut,  appraised  at  $175." 

But  the  flowers  still  bloomed  In  Rockingham,  though 
often  broken  in  the  strife.  In  the  fall  of  1861  the  Female 
Seminary,  located  where  the  Main  Street  school  in  Harrison- 
burg now  stands,  J.  Mark  Wilson,  principal,  was  turned  into 
a  hospital  for  wounded  and  sick  Confederate  soldiers.  Early 
in  1864  there  was  a  general  hospital  at  Harrisonburg,  Dr.  A.  R. 
Meem,  surgeon  in  charge.  More  than  300  Confederate  soldiers 
were  buried  in  Woodbine  Cemetery,  where,  every  springtime, 
sw^eet  flowers  in  fair  hands  are  borne  to  mark  the  place. 

In  Chapter  XVI  other  particulars  are  given  that  have 
application  here. 

In  1862  Rev.  Daniel  Thomas,  a  Dunker  minister,  sold 
1000  gallons  of  cane  molasses  at  $1  a  gallon.  Confederate 
money,  to  his  poor  friends  and  neighbors,  when  he  was  of- 
fered $2  a  gallon  in  gold  or  silver,  by  speculators.  At  an- 
other time  he  sold  several  hundred  gallons  of  flaxseed  oil  at 
great  pecuniary  loss,  for  benevolent  reasons. 

In  the  Register  of  April  24,  1863,  appeared  a  fine  tribute 
to  the  Rockingham  farmers.  It  was  shown  that  they  were  a 
sturdy,  industrious  class  of  loyal  citizens,  even  in  the  midst 
of  most  aggravating  circumstances.  When  their  fields  were 
devastated,  their  stock  driven  off,  and  their  buildings  burned 



by  the  public  enemy,  and  when  their  own  fellow-countrymen 
in  arms  failed  to  respect  their  rights— riding  down  grain  and 
grass  in  mere  wantonness,  burning  fences,  men  and  officers 
alike,  and  even  threatening  the  protesting  owners,  the  farm- 
ers of  Rockingham  County  were  still  loyal,  and  strove  with 
no  less  energy  to  raise  supplies  for  their  country  at  large  as 
well  as  for  their  immediate  families. 

The  following  paragraphs  appeared  in  the  Register  of 
February  5,  1864: 


At  a  meeting  of  the  Rockingham  Medical  Association,  held  in  Har- 
risonburg, January  18th,  1864,  the  following  resolutions  were  unani- 
mously adopted: 

Resolved,  That  we  will  practice  at  old  rates,  notwithstanding  the 
present  high  prices  of  medicines,  in  all  cases  where  our  patrons  will  pay 
us  in  produce  at  old  prices. 

Resolved,  That  in  every  case  where  it  is  not  convenient  to  pay  in  pro- 
duce, we  will  receive  a  bond  at  old  rates,  payable  after  the  war. 

Resolved,  That  in  every  instance  where  it  is  desirable  to  pay  us  in 
money,  we  will  regulate  our  charges  in  proportion  to  the  prices  of  the 
produce  of  the  country;  except  for  our  services  to  the  poor  and  needy, 
and  especially  to  families  in  service,  or  killed  or  disabled  in  the  service. 

Resolved,  That  all  old  open  accounts  standing  upon  our  books  shall 
be  included  in  the  above  regulations. 

The  next  meeting  will  be  on  the  3d  Monday  in  February,  at  10 

Geo.  K.  Gilmer,  Secretary. 

This  chapter  must  be  concluded  with  another  excerpt 
from  the  Rockingham  Register, — that  paper  true  to  its  name. 
The  following  article  appeared  under  date  of  March,  24, 

Trotter's  Stage  Line. 

One  of  the  "institutions"  that  has,  so  far,  survived  "the  wreck  of 
matter"  caused  by  the  Yankees  in  this  beautiful  Valley,  is  Trotter's 
stage  line.  Notwithstanding  the  heavy  losses  of  the  enterprising  pro- 
prietor caused  by  the  enemy,  he  is  still  in  motion,  and  his  teams  and  his 
stages  still  run  up  and  down  the  Valley  as  though  nothing  had  occurred 
to  molest  them.  A  stage  line  requires  unusual  energy  and  industry  in  its 
proper  management,   and  that  is  exactly  what  "Trotter's  line"  (most 



appropriate  designation!)  has.  It  required  great  skill  and  activity  to 
save  the  stages  and  teams  from  the  Yankees  the  last  time  they  came  up 
the  Valley;  but  Trotter  has  the  singular  good  fortune  to  have  an  agent  at 
this  end  of  the  line,  who  may  be  safely  trusted  to  take  care  of  everything 
under  his  control.  Jos.  Andrews  is  as  energetic  as  the  proprietor  of  the 
stage  line  whose  interests  he  so  carefully  protects  and  promotes.  It  is  to 
the  energy  and  industry  of  Mr.  Andrews,  (who,  by  the  way,  is  "an  old 
stager"  himself,)  that  the  Valley  people  are  now  indebted  for  the  mail  fa- 
cilities and  other  very  great  accommodations  resulting  from  the  movements 
of  a  regular  daily  line  of  stages.  These  can  hardly  be  properly  estimated 
and  appreciated.  We  almost  felt  as  if  we  were  cut  off  from  the  outside 
world  and  the  rest  of  mankind  until  the  arrival  of  Trotter's  stages  dis- 
turbed the  Sabbath-like  stillness  of  our  paralyzed  village.  With  our 
stores  closed,  (the  merchants  fearing  that  the  Yankees  might  soon  come 
again,)  and  with  our  Post  Office  shut  up  as  if  v/e  had  entered  upon  an 
unending  Sabbath,  it  was  really  a  pleasant  sight  to  us  to  see  Trotter's 
teams  coming  trotting  in  a  week  ago  as  gaily  as  if  there  never  had  been 
Yankees  in  the  Valley,  and  as  if  forage  and  corn  could  still  be  had  in 
abundance.  It  has,  really,  been  a  wonder  with  us,  how  the  large  number 
of  teams  have  been  kept  up  so  well.  It  is  all  attributable  to  the  tireless 
activity  and  industry  of  the  chief  director  and  agent,  Mr.  Andrews,  who 
is  known  to  all  travellers  in  the  Valley  as  one  of  the  most  accommodating 
stage  agents  to  be  met  with.  A  stage  line,  under  his  management,  is 
obliged  to  go  ahead.  If  ever  any  stage  line  deserved  encouragement  and 
countenance  Trotter's  Valley  line  assuredly  does.  In  fact,  we  cannot 
see  how  the  people  could  possibly  do  without 

10.  For  the  gift  or  loan  of  old  papers  and  other  source  materials  for 
the  period  covered  by  this  chapter,  I  am  under  grateful  obligation  to 
Mrs.  Cornelia  S.  Burkholder,  of  Harrisonburg,  and  to  the  following  gen- 
tlemen: Joseph  E.  Shaver,  Friedens;  C.  L.  Denton,  Pleasant  Valley; 
Joe  K.  Ruebush,  Dayton;  A.  E.  Wyant,  Elkton;  W.  H.  Sipe,  Bridge- 
water;  Rev.  C.  W.  Stinespring,  Baltimore;  and  Q.  G.  Kaylor,  Marshall 
Crawford,  C.  A.  Hammer,  and  Capt.  J.  H.  Dwyer;  Harrisonburg,  as 
well  as  to  others  whose  names  have  already  been  given. 



In  no  period  of  our  nation's  history  have  so  many  great 
problems  thrust  themselves  upon  us  as  during  the  decade  im- 
mediately following  the  Civil  War.  America  continued  to  be 
a  world  stage  for  the  play  of  giants;  and  while  the  full  light 
was  upon  the  center,  the  great  drama,  in  its  subsidiary  parts 
and  inevitable  accompaniments,  was  in  thrilling  action  round 
all  the  widening  circles.  Although  Rockingham  County  was 
more  or  less  remote  from  the  stage's  center,  it  never  lost  its 
cue  or  count  from  the  bitter  opening  to  the  better  end.  It 
played  its  part  and  suffered  its  share  of  the  tragic  years. 

In  other  chapters,  under  particular  topics— roads  and  rail- 
roads, churches  and  religious  life,  education  and  schools, 
banking,  manufacturing,  etc.— will  be  found  much  of  the 
matter  that  chronologically  falls  in  this;  but  enough  will 
doubtless  be  given  here  to  justify  the  title:  "Days  of  Re- 

The  period  was  marked  first  by  high  prices  and  financial 
stringency;  later  came  the  rush  of  enterprise  and  speculation, 
attendant  upon  rising  prosperity;  then  the  crash  of  '73,  and 
the  tedious  recovery  from  the  shock.  In  January,  1867,  flour 
was  selling  in  Harrisonburg  at  $12  and  $12.50  a  barrel;  bacon, 
hog  round,  at  11  and  12  cents  a  pound;  butter  at  25  cents.  In 
the  same  issue  of  the  Register  from  which  these  quotations 
are  taken  is  found  the  following  paragraph: 

At  a  recent  sale  in  Shenandoah  county  of  the  property  of  Mrs.  Han- 
nah Wilkin,  dec'd,  wheat  sold  for  $3.10  per  bushel;  com,  69  cents;  cows 
$25  and  $32;  beds  and  bedding  each  from  $30  to  $35.1 

I- Roc  kingham  Register,  January  17,  1867. 


One  of  the  most  striking  features  of  the  time,  up  to  1870, 
■or  thereabouts,  was  the  prevalence  of  lawlessness.  Robbery 
and  vandalism  were  rife.  There  was  robbing  of  stores, 
mills,  smoke-houses,  and  persons.  Early  in  1870  the  street 
lamps  of  Harrisonburg  were  smashed,  and  a  few  months 
later  a  large  number  of  shade  trees  about  the  public  square 
and  elsewhere  were  "belted"— the  bark  being  cut  off  in  a 
circle  all  around  the  trunks.  Cattle  were  killed  in  the  fields 
—the  meat  being  carried  off,  the  horns  and  hide  usually  being 
left.  Hogs  in  their  owners'  fields  or  sties  were  either  butch- 
ered there  or  driven  away.  Much  of  this  freebooting  was 
done  by  negroes  lately  slaves  and  by  poor  whites  hard  pressed 
by  evil  times;  but  it  is  also  known  that  some  of  it  was  done 
by  young  white  men  of  respectable  families,  whose  foraging 
propensities  still  lacked  restraint.  War  is  always  demoraliz- 
ing; and  the  country  fell  heir  to  more  than  one  unwelcome 
legacy  from  the  years  of  '61  to  '65. 

But,  as  already  intimated,  depression  and  stringency 
were  soon  overborne  by  the  rising  spirit  of  progress  and  the 
onrush  of  material  prosperity.  In  April,  1866,  there  were 
two  iron  foundries  in  full  blast  at  Port  Republic.  Conditions 
in  May  are  thus  graphically  portrayed  in  the  Register: 

The  remarkable  display  of  energy  by  the  people  of  the  Valley,  since 
the  close  of  the  war,  is  the  most  forcible  commentary  that  could  be  given 
of  their  character.  Without  a  currency,  almost  destitute  of  money, 
their  fields  laid  waste,  barns  and  other  farm  houses  destroyed,  stock 
stolen  and  driven  off,  no  surplus  supplies  on  hand,  and  their  labor  system 
broken  up,  yet  they  have  managed  to  rebuild  their  fences  and  barns, 
repair  their  premises  generally,  and  [make]  progress  in  improvements 
heretofore  not  enjoyed.  Throughout  the  entire  Valley  steam  saw-mills 
dot  almost  every  neighborhood,  factories  and  foundries  are  being  built, 
and  the  slow  and  imperfect  implements  of  agricultural  husbandry  here- 
tofore used  supplanted  by  the  most  improved  labor-saving  machinery. 

....  At  Mt.  Crawford  a  large  Woolen  Factory  is  in  process  of 
construction;  also,  an  Earthen  Ware  establishment.  In  Harrisonburg, 
Messrs.  Bradley  &  Co.  have  in  successful  operation  their  Foundry,  and 
will  shortly  commence  erecting  a  much  larger  one,  on  ground  recently 
purchased  for  that  purpose  near  the  old  buildings.  At  Port  Republic  and 
McGaheysville  the  spirit  of  enterprize  is  fully  awakened,  factories,  foun- 
dries and  mills  being  put  into  operation  as  rapidly  as  the  workmen  can 



complete  their  contracts.  Carding  mills  are,  also,  multiplying  through- 
out the  county,  and  many  other  improvements  are  being  inaugurated, 
which  we  have  not  space  to  enumerate.  2 

By  June  a  great  many  of  the  barns  and  mills  destroyed 
by  Sheridan  in  October,  1864,  had  been  replaced.  In  Sep- 
tember the  editor  of  the  Register  wrote: 

Our  friends,  Henry  E.  Rhodes  and  David  Weaver,  have  erected  and 
completed  not  less  than  eight  large  Swisher  barns  within  the  last  six 
months.  These  barns  are  all  in  Rockingham,  and  all,  with  but  one 
exception,  take  the  places  of  barns  burnt  by  Gen.  Sheridan.  3 

In  his  issue  of  October  11  the  editor  of  the  same  journal 
devotes  a  full  column  to  progress  in  the  eastern  section  of 
the  county:  The  sawmills  of  Dr.  S.  P.  H.  Miller  &  Co.,  near 
Conrad's  Store;  the  iron  furnace  of  Milnes  &  Johns,  succes- 
sors of  the  Forrer  Brothers;  the  chapel  erected  by  the  iron- 
masters foT*  the  benefit  of  the  iron-workers,  etc. 

In  the  Register  of  December  20  (1866),  a  correspondent 
from  John  J.  Bowman's  mill,  on  Linville  Creek,  says: 

You  can  count  ^around  it  [the  mill]  some  fourteen  new  barns,  one 

extensive  tannery,  and  one  first  class  up-and-down  saw  mill,  all 

erected  during  the  past  summer  and  the  previous  autumn. 

Among  the  other  features  of  the  year,  a  find  of  coal  was 
reported  on  Briery  Branch.  During  the  next  decade  or  more 
this  coal  field  was  a  center  of  interest  and  speculation. 

Early  in  1867  it  was  announced  that  Philo  Bradley  &  Co. , 
operating  the  foundry  in  Harrisonburg,  had  sold  within  the 
past  year  more  than  700  ploughs  of  their  own  pattern,  and 
had  been  obliged  to  refuse  orders  for  more.* 

A  noteworthy  instance  of  energetic  push  and  practical 
method  in  rebuilding  material  fortunes  out  the  wreck  of  war 
was  cited  at  River  Bank,  two  and  a  half  miles  east  of  Mc- 
Gaheysville,  where  Larkins  &  Harlow  had  installed  a  circular 

2.  Rockingham  Register,  May  24,  1866. 

3.  Idem,  Sept.  20,  1866. 

4.  Idem,  February  7,  1867. 



saw,  laid  the  foundations  for  a  large  flouring  mill,  and  made 
other  substantial  improvements.-^ 

By  the  latter  part  of  1868  Harrisonburg  had  made  so 
many  important  steps  upward,  and  had  so  many  more  in  con- 
templation, that  we  might  truthfully  declare  that  it  was  ex- 
periencing a  moderate  "boom."  The  same  might  be  said  of 
Bridgewater,  Timberville,  and  other  towns  of  the  county. 

From  1866  to  1872  John  Woods  of  Shenandoah,  the  famous 
bridge  builder,  had  built  or  rebuilt  no  less  than  five  bridges 
in  Rockingham:  one  each  at  Bridgewater,  Mt.  Crawford,  the 
crossing  above  Mt.  Crawford,  River  Bank,  and  Conrad's  Store. 

In  the  last  month  of  1868  the  Manassas  Gap  railroad  was 
extended  to  Harrisonburg,  and  the  first  train  ran  into  the 
town.  Other  railroads  were  projected,  and  construction 
work  on  some  was  seriously  begun.  In  1873  work  was  begun 
on  the  Washington,  Cincinnati  &  St.  Louis  (narrow  gauge) 
road,  surveyed  westward  past  Bridgewater;  and  in  1874  the 
Valley  road  was  pushed  on  to  Staunton.  Some  of  the  wagon 
roads  were  laid  out  upon  new  routes,  and  many  were  im- 
proved one  way  or  another. 

There  was  a  revival  in  things  spiritual  as  well  as  things 
material.  Soon  after  the  close  of  the  war,  about  1867,  a 
county  library  association  was  formed,  with  James  Kenney  as 
president.  In  November,  1867,  the  Valley  Musical  Associa- 
tion was  organized  at  Harrisonburg.  A  great  wave  of  tem- 
perance sentiment  began  to  sweep  over  the  country,  and 
friends  of  temperance  associated  themselves  for  aggressive 
service  under  different  names.  In  June,  1868,  the  Ladies' 
Memorial  Association  was  formed,  under  the  presidency  of 
Mrs.  C.  C.  Strayer,  with  Mrs.  W.  H.  Ritenour  and  Mrs.  M. 
M.  Sibert.  secretaries.  In  the  fall  of  1868,  and  again  in  1875, 
the  second  coming  of  Christ  was  preached  in  Rockingham  and 
adjacent  sections  by  William  C.  Thurman  and  others.  In 
May,  1873,  a  Young  Men's  Christian  Association  was  organ- 
ized at  the  Episcopal  Church  in  Harrisonburg,  with  F.  A. 
Berlin,  president;  and  in  October  of  the  same  year  the  Rock- 

5.  Rockingham  Register,  May  23,  1867. 



ingham  County  Bible  Society  was  organized  at  the  Methodist 
Church  in  the  same  town,  with  Philo  Bradley,  president. 

In  March,  1866,  there  was  a  small  squad  of  Federal  sol- 
diers in  the  county,  looking  up  horses,  etc.,  bearing  the 
United  States  brand.  They  also  made  one  or  two  arrests, 
under  military  orders.  Later,  a  number  of  the  civil  officers 
were  removed  by  order  of  the  military  governor,  but  for  the 
most  part  the  military  aspects  of  the  reconstruction  program 
were  less  prominent  in  Rockingham  than  in  many  other  sec- 
tions of  the  State.  On  March  18,  1866,  a  large  mass  meeting 
of  citizens  of  the  county  was  held  at  the  court  house,  and 
resolutions  were  adopted  expressing  hearty  approval  of  Presi- 
dent Johnson  in  his  efforts  to  uphold  the  Constitution  against 
infringement  by  Congress,  and  declaring  a  cordial  loyalty  to 
his  administration.  On  the  whole,  there  appears  to  have 
been  a  good  feeling  between  the  two  races,  and  a  sensible  co- 
operation between  them.  An  exception  to  this  might  have 
been  noted  at  Bridgewater,  on  the  night  of  December  24, 
1868,  when  some  young  white  men  entered  the  colored  school 
building,  recently  opened  by  an  agent  of  the  Freedmen's 
Bureau,  and  knocked  out  the  windows,  broke  the  stove,  dam- 
aged the  other  furniture,  etc. ;  but  this  act  was  not  approved 
by  the  better  judgment  of  the  people  at  large.*' 

A  notable  incident  of  the  year  1866  was  a  violent  tor- 
nado, which,  on  the  23d  of  April,  swept  in  a  semi-circle 
around  Harrisonburg,  not  damaging  the  town,  but  blowing 
down  barns  and  other  buildings,  uprooting  trees,  unroofing 
barns  and  houses,  etc.,  in  the  vicinity. 

At  the  time  under  consideration  Harrisonburg  was  a 
great  distributing  point  for  mail.  From  July  1,  1867,  to 
June 30,  1871,  the  mails  went  out  thence  into  the  county  and 
adjacent  sections  according  to  the  following  schedule: 

To  Waynesboro  and  intermediate  points,  34  miles,  and 
back,  twice  a  week; 

To  Keezletown,  Roadside,  and  intermediate  points,  18 
miles,  and  back,  twice  a  week; 

6.  See  the  Old  Commonwealth,  January  6,   1869. 


(Pages  161,  356,  35?) 


To  Cootes*  Store,  Broadway,  New  Market,  etc.,  33  miles, 
and  back,  twice  a  week; 

To  Franklin  and  intermediate  points,  43  miles,  and  back, 
once  a  week; 

To  Bridgewater,  Mt.  Solon,  Deerfield,  Bath  Alum,  etc., 
62  miles,  and  back,  twice  a  week. 

E.  M.  Nuckols  got  the  contract  for  carrying  the  mails 
between  Harrisonburg  and  Waynesboro  at  $446  a  year,  for 
four  years;  and  C,  W.  Airy  secured  the  job  of  carrying  them 
between  Harrisonburg  and  Franklin  at  $300  a  year.'' 

The  old  county  court,  composed  of  justices  of  the  peace, 
continued  till  1870.  The  circuit  superior  court,  held  first  in 
1809,  was  succeeded  by  the  present  circuit  court  in  1852.  The 
judge  of  the  circuit  court  from  1866  to  1869,  a  critical  period, 
was  Hon.  John  T.  Harris,  a  citizen  of  Rockingham,  dis- 
tinguished in  various  departments  of  public  service.  No 
truer  commentary  on  the  times  and  no  keener  analysis  of  con- 
ditions can  be  found  than  that  presented  in  his  charge  to  the 
grand  jury,  May  11,  1867,  and  it  is  accordingly  reproduced  in 

I  feel  it  my  duty  to  say  a  word  to  you  on  the  changed  condition  of 
our  public  affairs  with  a  view  that  you  may  the  more  fully  understand 

Since  our  last  meeting  a  very  material  and  important  change  has 
taken  place  in  our  State  and  National  relations.  For  the  first  time  in 
our  history,  the  civil  law  has  become  subordinate  to  and  dependent  on 
the  military. —This  you  may  suppose  works  an  important  change  in  your 
duties,  but  it  does  not,  as  I  will  presently  shew.  You  who  have  ever 
been  taught  that  in  peace  at  least,  the  civil  tribunals  are  supreme,  can 
scarcely  realize  that  now  they  are  a  mere  institution  of  the  moment, 
liable  at  any  time  to  be  superceded  or  abolished  at  the  will  and  pleasure 
of  a  military  commander.  It  seems  anomalous  that  the  power  hereto- 
fore only  secondary  and  used  in  aid  of  the  civil  law,  shall,  in  the  twink- 
ling of  an  eye,  become  supreme,  and  all  else  to  it  secondary  and  only 
existing  by  its  v/ill  and  its  pleasure.  Yet  such  is  the  stern  reality,  and 
one  of  the  many  sad  results  of  the  terrible  conflict  from  which  we  have 
just  em-erged  Changes  as  important  and  more  marvelous  than  this  have 
been  wrought.     In  a  brief  space  the  political  institutions  of  a  whole 

7.  See  Rockingham  Register,  January  10  and  March  28,  1867. 




section  have  been  changed.  From  the  greatest  and  most  enlarged 
liberty  compatible  with  republican  government  enjoyed  by  one  class,  and 
the  most  absolute  servitude  imposed  on  another,  we  witness  a  curtail- 
ment of  the  enlarged  liberty  of  the  one  and  an  entire  disenthrallment  of 
the  latter;  and  where  once  existed  legal  and  political  distinctions  so 
broad,  positive  and  marked,  that  it  was  thought  nothing  but  Providence 
could  remove  them,  now  are  seen  the  entire  obliteration  of  those  distinc- 
tions and  all  before  the  law  are  placed  in  a  great  measure  upon  an  equal 

The  question  recurs,  shall  we  recognize  the  changes  as  facts  fixed 
and  irrevocable,  and  conform  our  actions  accordingly,  or  shall  we  per- 
versely and  stubbornly  refuse  to  do  anything  to  ameliorate  the  condition 
of  the  people?— Wisdom,  patriotism,  love  of  family,  love  of  friends  and 
duty  to  posterity,  all  combine  to  enjoin  upon  us  the  full  recognition  of 
our  true  condition,  and  stimulate  us  to  active  exertion  to  do  all  that  is 
possible  to  restore  as  far  as  may  be  the  countless  blessings  v/e  once 
enjoyed.  Fault-finding,  crimination,  recrimination,  partj'^  strife,  unchar- 
itableness  of  thought  and  opinion  will  not  promote  this  much  desired 
result,  but  only  tend  to  increase  our  troubles,  intensify  the  feelings  of 
hostility  and  postpone  the  end  desired,  if  not  sought  by  all,  the  restora- 
tion of  the  States  to  all  the  rights  and  powers  to  which  they  are  now 
entitled.  This  consummation  so  devoutly  wished  can  best  be  attained  by 
a  strict  adherence  to  the  appeal  made  us  by  the  General  commanding 
this  State,  wherein  he  says:— "The  undersigned  appeals  to  the  people  of 
Virginia,  and  especially  to  Magistrates  and  other  civil  officers,  to  render 
the  necessity  for  the  exercise  of  this  (military)  power  as  slight  as  possible 
by  a  strict  obedience  to  the  laws  and  by  impartial  administration  of  justice 
to  all  classes. "  Strict  obedience  to  the  laws  and  impartial  administration 
of  justice  to  all  classes,  the  cultivation  of  kindly  feeling  one  for  another,  a 
due  deference  to  the  opinion  of  those  who  differ  from  us,  an  honest  effort 
to  overcome  prejudices  of  a  century,  the  banishment  of  visionary  hopes 
of  other  and  better  terms  of  National  adjustment,  a  frank  and  manly 
acceptance  of  the  terms  and  conditions  imposed  upon  us,  will  tend  in  a 
great  degree  to  lighten  our  burthens  and  bring  us  back   to  other  and 

better  days. 

Notwithstanding   these  important    revolutions,    the    Judiciary    still 

exists — still  continues  to  perform  its  varied  functions,  and  to  this  time 
has  not  been  touched  even  by  the  hand  of  the  military.  And  you,  gentle- 
men, are  not  only  permitted  but  enjoined  to  perform  your  time-honored 
and  sacred  duties  without  "fear  or  favor, "  only  remembering  that  so 
far  as  pertains  to  your  office  and  duty,  that  the  law  has  wiped  out  all 
distinction  of  caste,  and  placed  all,  in  regard  to  "crime  and  punish- 
ment, "  on  a  common  footing.  I  trust,  gentlemen,  you  will  prove  equal 
to  the  occasion.  8 

8.  Rockingham  Register,  May  16,  1867 



This  authoritative  recommendation,  so  obviously  the  ex- 
pression of  common  sense  and  prophetic  wisdom,  must  have 
had  a  far-reaching  influence,  and  doubtless  accomplished 
much  in  bringing  the  people  at  large  to  "a  frank  and  manly- 
acceptance"  of  the  results  of  the  war  and  the  actual  condi- 
tions of  the  time,  and  thus  in  relieving  Rockingham  from 
some  of  the  unfortunate  experiences  that  attended  recon- 
struction in  so  many  other  places. 

The  number  of  white  voters  registered  in  Rockingham  in 
1867, — ^the  first  registration  under  the  reconstruction  laws  of 
Congress, — was  3228,  a  very  large  number  considering  all  the 
circumstances;  and  the  number  of  colored  men  registered  was 
418.^  These  figures,  compared  with  corresponding  ones  in 
other  sections  of  the  South,  will  in  large  measure  explain 
why  the  process  of  reconstruction  was  accomplished  here 
with  so  little  disturbance. 

There  were  nine  voting  places  in  the  county  at  this  time 
(1867),  namely.  Roadside  (near  Conrad's  Store),  Port  Re- 
public, Mt.  Crawford,  Bridgewater,  Hopkins'  School  House, 
Harrisonburg,  Lacey  Springs,  Bowman's  Mill,  and  Squire 
Fulk's.  The  colored  voters  were  lined  up  in  '  'Loyal  Leagues, ' ' 
but  of  course  this  made  little  difference,  they  being  so  few.  At 
the  election,  October  22,  1867,  the  whites  cast  261  votes  for  a 
constitutional  convention  in  Virginia,  and  1082  votes  against 
such  a  convention;  the  negroes  cast  304  votes  for,  and  10  votes 
against,  a  convention.  At  the  same  time  J.  N.  Liggett  and 
John  C.  "Woodson,  Democrats,  were  elected  delegates  for 
Rockingham  by  decided  majorities.'" 

The  watchful  editors  of  the  Register,  J.  H.  Wartman 
and  S.  M.  Yost,  reported  what  they  regarded  as  a  decided 
movement  of  immigration  into  Rockingham  from  the  States 
north  and  west  during  the  year  1867,  etc. ;  but  at  the  same 
time  they  were  obliged  to  chronicle  with  regret  a  continuance 
of  the  westward  movement  on  the  part  of  home  folks.  About 
the  only  consolation  the  loyal  editors  had  in  the  matter  was 

9-  Rockingham  Register,  October  17,  1867. 
10.  Rockingham  Register,  October  24,  1867. 



that  many  of  those  who  left  Rockingham  had  the  Register 
sent  after  them.  Before  me  is  one  of  the  old  ledgers  used  in 
the  Register  office— the  one  covering  the  period  from  1857  to 
1868;  and  from  it  one  can  determine  not  only  the  names  of  many 
who  had  left  the  county  during  these  and  preceding  years, 
but  also  the  places  to  which  they  had  gone.  In  this  particu- 
lar ledger  there  are  the  names  of  1343  subscribers  to  the 
Register,  214  being  in  States  other  than  Virginia;  and  these 
214  names  are  thus  distributed: 



New  York,                        2 

West  Virginia, 


Alabama,                           1 
District  of  Columbia,        1 



Florida,                              1 



Georgia,                             1 
Kansas,                              1 




Kentucky,                          1 
Massachusetts,                 1 

Pennsylvania,             4        Oregon,                              1 

Texas,                         3        Washington  Territory,      1 

Maryland,                    2 

The  following  table,  showing  the  number  of  marriage 
licenses  issued  to  persons  of  both  races  in  Rockingham  during 
certain  years,  will  be  of  interest. 

Year.               To  White. 

To  Colored.                  Total. 



1                            209 



4                            281 



13                            267 



22                            185 



-   1875 


22                             208 

In  January,  1868,  the  Register  paid  a  handsome  compli- 
ment to  Joseph  D.  Price,  "formerly  of  Maryland,  but  now 
a  permanent  resident  of  this  place  [Harrisonburg]  —a  gen- 
tleman who  has  done  more  to  stimulate  enterprise  and  busi- 
ness in  this  part  of  the  State  than  any  other  citizen  of  the 
Valley."  Price  was  at  the  time  head  of  a  wood- working 
factory  company  in  Harrisonburg,  and  a  dealer  in  real  estate. 



In  May,  1868,  Mr.  Ela,  member  of  Congress  from  New- 
Hampshire,  made  a  political  speech  in  Harrisonburg,  dividing 
time  with  Hon.  John  B.  Baldwin.  According  to  the  facetious 
(though  I  suspect  slightly  prejudiced)  report  given  in  the 
next  issue  of  the  Register,  the  gentleman  from  New  Hamp- 
shire was  somewhat  enlightened  and  very  decidedly  out- 

In  September,  1868,  it  was  announced  that  the  people  of 
East  Rockingham  were  to  have  improved  mail  facilities— 
that  the  mail  was  to  be  carried  to  Keezletown,  McGaheysville, 
and  Roadside  three  times  a  week  instead  of  twice,  as  before. 

Early  in  1870  some  changes  were  made  in  the  political 
divisions  of  the  county,  and  the  nine  townships,  according  to 
the  new  arrangement,  had  the  following  names,  with  the 
respective  areas,  as  indicated: 

sq.  mi. 

Brock's  Gap,  171.7 

Plains,  84.8 

Linville's  Creek,  91.0 

Elk  Run,  107.6 
Stonewall  (including  McGaheysville,  Port  Re- 

pubHc,  etc.),  94.2 
Ashby  (including  Cross  Keys,  Peale's  Cross 

Roads,  etc.),  59.8 
Harrisonburg,  29.0 
Central,  144.8 
Franklin    (including  Mt.   Crawford,    Bridge- 
water,  etc.),  95.1 

Total,  878.0 

(561,920  acres). 

Of  the  total,  about  500  square  miles  were  reckoned  as 
mountain  land,  the  remainder,  378  square  miles,  being  com- 
paratively level.  Of  these  378  square  miles,  nearly  one- 
fourth  was  supposed  to  be  in  timber  in  1870.     It  is  safe  to 



conclude  that  practically    all    the    mountain    land   was   in 

According  to  the  current  edition  of  Johnson's  Cyclopaedia, 
there  were  about  this  time  14  flouring  mills  in  the  county. 
This  was  doubtless  below  the  actual  number;  for  the  Register 
of  November  3,  1870,  gives  the  following  statistics  for  the 
four  tov/nships  named: 

-D^^v^l^  Productive 

P^^P^^-  Industries. 

Elk  Run,  2341  10 

Plains,  3040  30 

Brock's  Gap,  1366  16 

Linville,  3547  17 

The  most  memorable,  as  well  as  the  most  disastrous, 
incident  of  the  year  1870  was  the  great  flood  in  October.  The 
Shenandoah  River,  as  well  as  many  others  streams  of  Vir- 
ginia, rose  to  an  unprecedented  height,  field  crops,  fences, 
bridges,  buildings,  stock,  and  even  people  being  carried  away 
in  the  rush  of  swirling  waters.  At  Bridgewater,  Mt.  Craw- 
ford, Port  Republic,  River  Bank,  Conrad's  Store,  Shenandoah 
City,  and  many  other  places  in  Rockingham  and  Page  the 
damage  done  was  incalculable,  and  in  many  cases  irreparable. 
In  the  Register  of  September  14,  1871,  the  following 
figures  of  values,  prepared  by  S.  R.  Sterling,  appeared: 

Township.  Real  Estate.  Personal  Property. 

Harrisonburg,  $    930,389.82  $    377,063.88 

Central,  1,127,827.13  372,617.00 

Frankhn,  1,048,063.47  397,534.00 

Ashby,  901,783.07  182,333.00 

Plains,  1,276,247.00  349,152.00 

Linville,  1,179,022.29  320,132.00 

Stonewall,  681,966.21  159,069.00 

Elk  Run,  545,095.41  92,580.00 

Brock's  Gap,  91,503.29  43,118.00 

Total,  $7,781,897.69  $2,293,598.88 

Grand  Total,  $10, 075, 496. 57 

11-  See  Rockingham  Register,  May  5,  June  2,  and  August  25,  1870. 



Appended  is  this  note:  "Stonewall  and  Elk  Run  Town- 
ship were  seriously  injured  by  the  flood  of  1870,  and  these 
assessments  were  made  since  then.  The  re-assessment  of  the 
lands  in  these  Townships  has  greatly  reduced  their  value.'' 

In  January,  1872,  John  E,  Roller  of  Rockingham  intro- 
duced in  the  Virginia  Senate  a  bill  proposing  to  re-arrange 
the  townships  of  the  county,  reducing  their  number,  etc. 
On  March  2,  following,  this  bill  was  passed,  and  the  next 
month  George  J.  Kisling,  Henry  Neff,  and  George  H.  Dinges, 
commissioners,  appointed  under  the  Act,  made  a  division  of 
the  county  into  five  townships,  or  districts,  as  at  present 

Prices  of  some  common  necessities  and  luxuries  in  June, 
1872,  were  as  follows:  Flour,  $8.50  to  $9.75  a  barrel;  wheat, 
$1.85  a  bushel;  corn,  80  cents  a  bushel;  bacon,  hog  round,  8 
cents  a  pound;  chickens,  live,  $3.00  a  dozen;  turkeys,  7  cents 
a  pound. 

In  the  Presidential  campaign  of  1872  Rockingham  seems 
to  have  been  enthusiastic  for  Greeley  and  Brown,  giving  them 
2130  votes;  but  the  735  votes  cast  for  Grant  and  Wilson  at 
the  same  time  is  a  surprisingly  large  number,  considering 

In  1873  the  assessors'  books  showed  the  number  of  horses 
in  Rockingham  County  to  be  7550,  and  their  value  $418, 297. 00. 
At  the  same  time  there  were  16,946  cattle,  valued  at 

As  an  example  of  the  numerous  development  enterprises 
of  1872,  1873,  etc.,  many  of  which  found  Black  Friday  of 
September,  1873,  an  unlucky  day,  the  Virginia  Improvement 
Company  may  be  cited.  This  company  was  chartered  and 
organized  in  1873,  with  a  capital  stock  of  $500,000.00.  B.  B. 
Thomas  was  president;  R.  N.  Pool,  vice-president:  Robt.  C. 
Thomas,  secretary;  Eugene  Borda,  treasurer;  and  Henry  M. 
Clay,  general  superintendent.  The  principal  offices  were  at 
Philadelphia,  Pa.,  and  Bridgewater,  Va.  The  principal  ob- 
jects appear  to  have  been  the  building  of  North  River  Rail- 
road and  the  booming  of  Bridgewater. 



In  the  State  election  of  1873  Rockingham  gave  2794  votes 
to  Kemper  (Conservative)  and  623  to  Hughes  (Republican). 
There  v^ere  at  this  time  19  voting  places  in  the  county,  dis- 
tributed among  the  five  townships  as  follows: 

In  Stonewall  three:  Conrad's  Store,  McGaheysville,  and 
Port  Republic. 

In  Ashby  five:  Cross  Keys,  Mt.  Crawford,  Dayton,  Bridge- 
water,  and  Ottobine. 

In  Central  three:  Keezletown,  Harrisonburg,  and  Mt. 

In  Linville  Creek  four:  Melrose,  Edom,  E.  Hoover's 
Cooper  Shop,  and  Singer's  Glen. 

In  Plains  four:  Tenth  Legion,  Timberville,  Cootes'  Store, 
and  Wittig's  Store. 

In  April,  1874,  the  county  supervisors  adopted  the  plans 
of  Julius  C.  Holmes  of  Charlestown,  W.  Va. ,  for  a  new  court 
house;  in  May  the  contract  for  the  building  v/as  let  to  Holmes 
at  $11,450.00;  and  in  December  the  new  building  was  used 
for  the  first  time. 

I  have  before  me  a  diary,  covering  the  years  from  1873 
to  1880,  kept  in  the  exact  hand  of  James  Kenney,  who  for 
nearly  four  years,  1870  to  1873,  was  judge  of  the  Rocking- 
ham County  Court.  Two  items  from  this  diary  are  here  in- 

Feb.  8,  1876— Wednesday— 7  A.  M.  10  degrees  below  0.  Clear  &  cold. 
The  coal  oil  in  the  lamp  on  the  office  mantel  piece  froze.  I  do  not  mean 
solid,  but  it  had  that  white,  milky  look  like  sweet  oil  when  it  freezes. 
This  is  decidedly  the  coldest  weather  I  can  remember. 

Apr.  24,  1875 — Saturday — J.  R.  Jonesi2  who  owns  the  old  stone  Pres. 
church  on  East  Market  St.  is  now  having  it  pulled  down  for  the  erection 
of  a  nev/  building  for  business  purposes  on  the  same  site.     My  earliest 

12.  John  Robert  Jones,  son  of  David  S.  and  Harriet  Yost  Jones,  was 
born  in  Harrisonburg  in  1828.  As  captain  he  served  the  South  with  dis- 
tinction in  Florida,  March,  1861;  in  April  following  he  enlisted  a  company 
of  104  men  in  Rockingham  County,  Va. ,  and  joined  Gen.  Johnston  at 
Winchester,  his  company  a  little  later  being  made  Co.  I,  33d  Va.  Infan- 
try, Stonewall  Brigade.  In  August,  1861,  he  was  made  lieutenant-colonel 
of  the  33d  regiment,  and  in  July,  1862,  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  briga- 



recollection  of  a  church  was  this  one  where  I  went  to  Sunday  school  at 
least  44  years 

At  the  April  court,  1875,  ten  licenses  for  selling  liquor  in 
Rockingham  County  were  granted:  five  at  Harrisonburg,  one 
at  Timberville,  two  at  Broadway,  one  near  Airey's  still  house, 
and  one  at  Rawley  Springs.  Applications  for  four  others 
were  refused. 

On  August  4,  1875,  the  10th  Regiment,  Virginia  Volun- 
teer Infantry,  the  history  of  which  has  been  given  in  the 
preceding  chapter,  held  a  reunion  at  Brock's  Springs,  and 
effected  a  permanent  organization." 

The  Reconstruction  Period  and  this  chapter  may  both  be 
fittingly  closed  with  two  more  extracts  from  Judge  Kenney's 
diary,  which  are  herewith  presented. 

1876    Saturday  Jan.  22 

I  have  just  returned  from  a  visit  to  the  Soldiers' 
Monument.  It  was  completed  on  yesterday,  the  21st  of  January  1876. 
The  monument  is  quite  handsome  and  speaks  well  for  the  taste  of  those 
who  got  up  the  design  and  for  the  skill  and  workmanship  of  Anthony  who 
did  the  stone  work  and  carving  and  superintended  the  erection.  I  had 
the  honor  of  preparing  two  of  the  inscriptions.  Shortly  after  the  war 
which  ended  in  1865  a  Memorial  Association  was  formed  by  some  of  the 
ladies  of  our  town  and  county.  The  bodies  of  the  Confederate  soldiers 
who  had  died  or  were  buried  in  this  Rockingham  County  were  removed 
to  a  lot  adjoining  Woodbine  Cemetery,  and  every  year  since  the  war  the 
ladies  have  designated  a  day,  and  with  processions,  dirges,  muffled  drums, 
and  tolling  bells  laid  spring  flowers  and  ever  greens  above  the  dust  of  the 
dead  soldiers,  and  this  spring  these  ladies  can  point  with  pride  to  this 
beautiful  tribute  of  patriotism  and  gratitude. 

dier-general.  He  was  captured  at  Gettysburg,  and  held  as  a  prisoner  at 
Johnson's  Island  and  at  Fort  Warren  till  July,  1865.  For  a  number  of 
years  following  the  war  he  was  a  dealer  in  agricultural  implements,  and  a 
writer  on  agricultural  subjects.  For  eight  years  or  more,  from  about 
1876,  he  was  commissioner  in  chancery  for  the  circuit  court.  He  died 
April  1,  1901. 

13.  I  am  indebted  to  the  kindness  of  Mr.  Chas.  Switzer,  of  Harrison- 
burg, for  the  loan  of  the  Kenney  diary. 

14.  Rockingham  Register,  August  12,  1875. 



Mrs.  Juliet  Strayeri5  is  the  president  of  the  Association  and  to  her 
more  than  any  other  person  belongs  the  credit  of  erecting  this  Monu- 

December  31,  1876,'  Sunday 

This  is  the  last  day  of  the  year  1876,  a  year  that  will  be  considered 
in  the  future  history  of  the  nation  as  remarkable  for  many  reasons.  This 
is  the  100th  year  of  our  national  independence,  that  is  that  on  the  4th  of 
July,  1776,  the  colonies  through  their  representatives  in  Congress  assem- 
bled at  Philadelphia  declared  their  independence  of  Great  Britain  and  af- 
ter a  seven  years  war  assisted  by  the  French  their  independence  was 
acknowledged.  The  anniversary  was  celebrated  by  a  national  exhibition 
at  Philadelphia.  It  was  called  the  Centennial  Exhibition  and  all  the  na- 
tions of  the  earth  were  invited  to  participate  and  most  of  them  did.  The 
exhibition  was  a  complete  success.  I  went  to  the  exhibition  and  was 
astonished  at  its  magnitude. 

This  has  also  been  a  remarkable  year  for  the  Presidential  election. 
It  is  remarkable  in  this,  that  questions  have  arisen  for  which  there  is 
neither  law  nor  precedent  to  decide.  Hayes,  Governor  of  Ohio,  was  the 
administration  or  Republican  candidate,  and  Tilden  Governor  of  New 
York  the  Democratic  or  Conservative  candidate.  Soon  after  the  election 
(which  was  held  on  Nov.  7  1876)  it  was  announced  that  Tilden  had 
received  203  electoral  votes  and  Hayes  163,  it  requiring  185  electoral 
votes  to  decide,  but  in  a  short  time  it  was  reported  that  South  Carolina, 
Florida  and  Louisiana,  had  gone  for  Hayes  and  those  the  states  having 
19  electoral  votes  would  change  the  whole  matter  give  Hayes  186  votes 
and  leave  Tilden  184.  The  Democrats  charged  that  it  was  a  fraud  per- 
petrated by  the  retiring  board  all  of  whom  were  of  the  administration 
party,  that  they  had  changed  the  true  vote  and  counted  the  Hayes 
electors  in.  Affairs  were  in  this  situation  when  Congress  met  in  Decem- 
ber, the  Democrats  having  a  majority  in  the  house  of  representatives 
and  the  Republicans  in  the  Senate.  Both  houses  of  Congress  at  once 
appointed  committees  to  proceed  at  once  to  those  three  states  examine 
into  the  questions  of  fraud.  So  far  only  one  committee  have  reported 
&  they  say  that  South  Carolina  voted  for  Hayes  by  a  small  majority. 
The  people  of  the  whole  country  are  greatly  excited  and  many  persons 

15.  Juliet  Lyle  Strayer,  wife  of  Crawford  C.  Strayer,  lived  in  Harri- 
sonburg over  40  years,  and  was  president  of  the  Ladies'  Memorial  Asso- 
ciation about  35  years.  She  was  born  Nov.  12,  1826,  the  daughter  of 
Abraham  and  Martha  Reid  Smith  of  Rockingham,  and  died  in  Harrison- 
burg Aug.  31,  1893.  On  the  entrance  to  the  soldiers'  section  of  Wood- 
bine Cemetery  is  a  tablet  with  this  inscription:  "To  the  Memory  of  Mrs. 
Juliet  Lyle  Strayer  Founder  and  for  Many  Years  President  of  the  Ladies. 
Memorial  Association." 



fear  a  civil  war,  but  I  have  no  apprehensions.  Most  persons  are  willing 
that  the  Congress  settle  the  question,  and  I  think  they  will.  The  popu- 
lar vote  was  Tilden  4,268,207.  Hayes  4,027,245.  Peter  Cooper  82,920, 
and  about  11,000  scattering.  The  administration  is  with  Hayes  and  is 
loth  to  see  the  power  pass  from  their  party.  There  are  more  than  100,- 
000  office-holders,  all  appointees  of  the  administration  and  they  will  do  any- 
thing they  dare  to  retain  their  party  in  power.  In  South  Carolina  in 
addition  to  the  presidential  contest  they  have  one  for  Lieut.  Governor, 
Members  of  Congress  and  members  of  the  State  Legislature.  The  Demo- 
crats claim  the  election  of  their  candidates  and  the  Republicans  the 
election  of  theirs.  Both  Governors  have  been  inaugurated,  and  there  are 
two  Legislatures,  each  body  claiming  to  be  the  Legislature  of  South  Car- 
olina according  to  the  laws  and  constitution  of  the  state.  The  adminis- 
tration sides  with  the  republicans  and  keeps  its  candidate  in  power  by 
the  aid  of  the  United  States  soldiers. 

In  Oregon  the  Governor  refused  to  certify  the  election  of  Hayes 
electors  in  full  and  gave  a  certificate  to  one  of  the  Tilden  electors.  At 
this  date,  the  31st  of  December  1876  no  one  can  forsee  the  result  but  I 
hope  the  whole  matter  may  be  settled  without  bloodshed.  I  have  been 
through  one  war  and  do  not  wish  to  see  another.  (Added  later)  On  the 
25th  &  26th  January  1877  Congress  passed  a  compromise  election  bill 
selecting  a  committee  of  15  to  decide  all  disputed  questions  as  to  the 
electoral  vote. 


FROM  1876  TO  1912. 

The  earlier  periods  of  the  history  of  the  County  have 
been  presented  in  chapters  of  considerable  length,  but  it  is 
not  deemed  necessary  or  advisable  to  make  this  chapter  very 
long.  Accordingly,  it  is  made  to  consist,  for  the  most  part, 
of  a  brief  chronicle  of  certain  important  or  significant  events. 

In  1876  Rockingham  County  gave  Tilden  and  Hendricks 
3444  votes,  as  against  514  for  Hayes  and  Wheeler;  the  nation  at 
large  gave  the  former  4, 284, 885  and  the  latter  4, 033, 950.  Not- 
withstanding these  facts,  and  others  even  more  pertinent,  the 
Electoral  Commission,  by  a  partisan  vote,  declared  Hayes  and 
Wheeler  elected.  The  South,  to  use  the  words  of  Judge 
Kenney,  had  been  through  one  war,  and  did  not  wish  to  see 
another,  and  so  accepted  the  ruling.  President  Hayes,  on 
his  part,  did  the  fitting  thing  by  withdrawing  the  last  Federal 
troops  from  the  South,  and  Reconstruction,  as  prepared  by 
Stevens  and  distributed  by  carpetbaggers,  came  to  an  end. 
Rockingham  had  already  begun  to  show,  in  her  own  revival 
and  progress,  what  the  whole  South  was  soon  to  become. 

One  of  the  significant  things  about  the  county  has  been 
that  she  has  always  contributed  liberally  to  good  causes. 
Possibly  herein  is  revealed  the  secret  of  her  growth  and 
prosperity.  She  has  given  abundantly,  not  only  in  means, 
but  also  in  women  and  men.  Her  part  in  the  development  of 
the  great  West  and  Northwest  has  already  been  referred  to 
several  times.  During  the  years  now  under  consideration  the 
building  of  the  West  was  going  rapidly  on,  and  Rockingham 
still  continued  to  send  forward  sturdy  helpers.  In  1876  there 
seems  to  have  been  a  marked  immigration  from  the  Valley 
and  other  parts  of  the  State.     In  February  of  that  year  a 


party  of  about  fifty  persons  went  west  from  Rockingham. 
It  may  have  been  a  loss  to  Rockingham,  but  it  was  certainly 
a  gain  to  the  West. 

On  Friday,  March  9,  1877,  Judge  Kenney  wrote  in  his 
diary:  "A  volunteer  company  was  formed  to-night  called 
after  my  old  company,  the  Rockingham  Rifles  (the  name  was 
subsequently  changed).      0.  B.  Roller  was  elected  captain." 

In  November,  1877,  another  great  flood  devastated  the 
river  sections  of  Rockingham  and  adjacent  counties.  Of  all 
the  floods  in  the  Valley,  those  of  1870  and  1877  are  most  fre- 
quently referred  to  as  notable  for  destructiveness.^ 

On  January  27,  1878,  Judge  Kenney  wrote:  "I  notice 
some  10  or  12  English  sparrows  in  the  street.  Last  fall  or 
winter  was  their  first  appearance  in  this  town  [Harrison- 

On  Sunday,  September  29,  the  same  year,  he  wrote: 
"Col.  A.  S.  Gray  died  about  2  P.  M.  He  was  in  the  65th 
year  of  his  age.  He  was  the  son  of  Robert  Gray,  who  was  born 
in  Ireland.  A.  S.  Gray  was  born  in  Harrisonburg.  He  began 
life  as  a  lawyer;  was  a  militia  colonel;  was  a  member  of  the 
convention  when  the  war  began,  and  was  opposed  to  seces- 
sion. After  the  war  was  a  Republican,  and  was  marshal  of 
this  district  for  about  8  years." 

March  3,  1879,  an  Act  was  passed  by  the  General  As- 
sembly for  the  protection  of  deer  in  Rockingham  County, 
making  it  unlawful  to  kill  them  from  December  1  to  August  1. 

Three  more  brief  extracts  from  the  Kenney  diary  are  here 
introduced;  natural  history,  State  politics,  and  agricultural 
progress  being  the  respective  topics. 

Friday,  May  9,  1879:  Birds  that  I  have  seen  in  our  yard  in  the  last 
day  or  two:  the  house  sparrow,  English  sparrow,  wren,  yellow  bird,  blue 
bird,  cat  bird,  bee  bird,  peewit,  robin,  martin,  chimney  sweep,  house 
martin,  sand  martin,  &  oriole;  and  the  humming  bird  will  come  when  the 
trumpet  creeper  blooms. 

Tuesday,  Nov.  4,  1879:  This  is  election  day  for  a  Senator  &  two 
delegates  from  this  county.     There  is  great  excitement  throughout  the 

1.  On  the  flood  of  1877,  see  the  Rockingham  Register,  Nov.  29,  1877. 



state  in  regard  to  the  adjustment  of  the  state  debt.  One  party  is  called 
funders  and  the  other  party  readjusters.  The  funders  support  the  law 
known  as  the  McCullok  bill,  and  the  other  party  want  a  new  settlement. 
Tuesday,  June  22,  1880:  I  went  to  Lurty's  farm  to  see  a  self-bind- 
ing reaping  machine.     It  works  well. 

About  January  1,  1881,  there  was  intense  cold  through- 
out the  Valley.  The  snow  in  Rockingham  and  surrounding 
districts  was  from  25  to  30  inches  in  depth.  At  Harrison- 
burg the  temperature  was  20  degrees  below  zero;  at  Mt. 
Clinton  and  Broadway  it  was  30,  and  at  Bridgewater  22.  In 
June  of  the  same  year  a  terrific  hail-storm  swept  over  Port 
Republic.  In  August,  1882,  Harrisonburg  and  vicinity  was 
visited  by  a  destructive  flood. 

There  were  at  least  two  notable  incidents  in  1883.  In 
July  John  F.  Lewis,  J.  B.  Webb,  and  Henry  B.  Harnsberger, 
commissioners,  selected  the  site  in  Harrisonburg  for  the  new 
Federal  court  house.  The  Baptist  Church  lot,  the  Henry 
Shackiett  lot,  and  the  W.  C.  Harrison  lot,  lying  together  in 
the  corner  of  Main  Street  and  Elizabeth  Street,  east  of  Main, 
were  taken  at  the  price  of  $12,000.  In  September  about  200 
Union  veterans  came  in  a  body  to  visit  the  Valley.  Harrison- 
burg and  the  county  turned  out  in  hearty  style,  and  gave 
them  a  royal  welcome. 

In  1884  certain  changes  were  made  in  two  of  the  lines 
dividing  townships:  (1)  the  one  between  Ashby  and  Central; 
(2)  the  one  between  Linvilleand  Plains.  The  same  year  the 
work  of  restoring  the  county  records,  partly  destroyed  in 
1864,  was  authorized. 

In  April,  1887,  three  of  the  five  districts  in  Rockingham, 
namely,  Ashby,  Central,  and  Linville,  voted  under  the  local 
option  law  to  prohibit  the  sale  of  liquor.  The  vote  in  each 
district  was  as  follows: 

Ashby,  714  against  license;  121  for  license. 

Central,  692  against  license;  451  for  license. 

Linville,  286  against  license;  252  for  license. 

The  vote  taken  in  Plains  at  the  same  time  resulted  in  a 
count  of  301  against  license,  and  329  for  license.  But  there 
were  no  bar-rooms  in  any  of  the  districts  except  Central  (at 



Harrisonburg)  and  Stonewall  (one  at  McGaheysville).  The 
vote  taken  in  Stonewall  the  following  July  resulted  in  a  con- 
siderable majority  in  favor  of  license. - 

The  year  1889  was  remarkable  for  its  heavy  rainfall.  It 
was  thought  by  Rockinghamers  to  have  broken  the  record  of 
a  century  or  more.  Floods  did  much  damage  to  crops  in 
various  parts  of  the  county.  This  will  be  remembered  as  the 
year  of  the  Johnstown  flood.  Other  things  too  were  at  the 
flood  in  Rockingham  and  neighboring  counties;  for  this  year 
of  1889,  with  the  year  or  two  following,  has  ever  since  been 
called  the  "Boom  Time."  Cities  were  laid  out — on  paper — 
and  built,  too, — on  cherished  hopes  and  fair  prospects.  The 
farmers  of  Rockingham  almost  always  know  what  to  do  with 
their  money,  but  at  that  particular  period  it  soon  became  pain- 
fully evident  that  some  of  them,  not  a  few,  did  not  know. 
Harrisonburg,  Shendun,  and  Elkton  were  doubtless  the  Rock- 
ingham towns  most  conspicuous  in  the  booms,  but  Broadway 
and  other  places  were  also  heard  from.  It  is  only  fair  to  add 
that  nearly  all  these  towns  have  ever  since  had  a  normal, 
healthy  growth,  even  if  the  dreams  of  boom  times  have  not 
all  come  true — yet. 

In  1890  the  population  of  the  county  was  31,299:  28,477 
white,  2822  colored.  Upon  petition  of  the  requisite  number  of 
voters,  Judge  George  G.  Grattan,  of  the  county  court,  ordered 
a  new  division  of  the  county  into  voting  precincts.  A  new 
voting  place  was  established  at  Swift  Run.  As  finally  ad- 
justed, the  arrangement  was  as  follows: 

Stonewall  District:  Port  Republic,  Swift  Run,  McGa- 
heysville, Furnace  No.  2,  Elkton. 

Ashby  District:  Moyerhoeffer's  Store,  Cross  Keys, 
Pleasant  Valley,  Mt.  Crawford,  Bridgewater,  Dayton,  Otto- 

Central  District:  Mt.  Clinton,  Keezletown,  Harrison- 

Linville  District:  Oak  Grove  School  House,  Singer's 
Glen,  Edom,  Melrose,  Mountain  Valley. 

3.  See  Rockingham  Register,  April  28  and  July  14,  1887. 



Plains  District:  Tenth  Legion,  Broadway,  Timberville, 
Cootes'  Store,  Wittig's  Store. 

In  1891  there  was  much  agitation  for  better  roads  in 
Rockingham.  The  year  is  especially  notable  for  the  death  of 
the  pine  trees  all  over  the  Appalachian  region  in  Virginia, 
West  Virginia,  etc. 

It  is  said  that  Rockingham,  in  1892,  was  the  first  Vir- 
ginia county  to  organize  forces  to  take  part  in  the  great 
world's  fair  at  Chicago.  Governor  McKinney  appointed  Dr. 
S.  K.  Cox  and  Mrs.  A.  E.  Heneberger  as  managers  of  the 
Rockingham  exhibit  at  the  fair,  and  they  appointed  assistant 
committees  in  the  several  districts  of  the  county.  Mrs.  K. 
S.  Paul  of  Harrisonburg  rendered  notable  service  in  the  en- 

In  the  Presidential  election  of  1892,  Rockingham  gave 
Cleveland  569  votes  more  than  she  gave  Harrison.  In  1888 
she  had  given  281  more  to  Harrison  than  to  Cleveland;  and  in 
1884  she  had  given  Cleveland  the  princely  plurality  of  one 
vote  over  Blaine. 

In  1891  a  dispute  had  arisen  between  Rockingham  and 
Augusta  concerning  the  location  of  the  dividing  line  from 
North  River  to  the  top  of  the  Blue  Ridge — past  Grottoes  and 
Black  Rock  Springs.  About  June,  1893,  the  matter  was 
settled,  according  to  the  Rockingham  claims,  for  the  most 
part,  at  least.  Professor  William  M.  Thornton  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Virginia  acting  as  expert  arbiter.  In  August  (1893) 
stones  were  put  up,  marking  that  part  of  the  line  that  had 
been  in  dispute. 

On  November  11,  1893,  the  S.  B.  Gibbons  Camp,  Con- 
federate Veterans,  was  organized  at  Harrisonburg,  with  the 
following  officers:  Captain,  D.  H.  Lee  Martz;  First  Lieu- 
tenant, B.  G.  Patterson;  Second  Lieutenant,  S.  H.  Butler; 
Adjutant,  J.  S.  Messerly;  Quartermaster,  Giles  Devier. 

The  following  statistics  relating  to  marriage  licenses 
issued  in  Rockingham  County  during  certain  recent  years 
may  be  apropos: 

1876  total,    208 


Stone  Barn  Built  in  180:!, 

on  BurkhoWer  Farm,  "Fort  Lynne' 





I  Page  lit?  J 

^^  SwKl 

Funk  Pi-inting-  House,  Singers  Glen 
I  Pages  320,  321,  33-2 1 

Madison  Hall.  Port  Repul)lic 
I  Page  355] 

Smithland,  Home  of  O   o    W.  Liskey 

Burtner  House  at  Dayton.     Old  Stone  Fort 
(Page  lii,H| 

Cown  an'.s    Mil!,  <  . :  -,  •_..■.,.    ,.nl 
I  Page  3751 

Bogota,  Home  of  Gabriel  Jones 



to  colored, 

















1879        to  white 





In  July,  1894,  there  was  a  destructive  hurricane  in  the 
vicinity  of  Broadway.  On  August  22  the  Kagey  family  held 
its  annual  reunion  at  Dayton.  Former  reunions  had  been 
held  in  Ohio,  Illinois,  and  elsewhere.  Franklin  Keagy,  Cham- 
bersburg,  Pa.,  published  a  massive,  splendidly  illustrated 
history  of  the  family  in  1899. 

The  assessment  for  1895  shov/ed  the  following  real 
estate  values  in  the  several  districts  of  the  county: 







$  6,612 


















Totals,       $7,161,677  $42,134        $7,203,811 

The  values  of  real  estate  in  the  towns  are  included  in  the 
above  statement.  In  Central  District  most  of  the  property 
owned  by  colored  persons  was  located  in  Harrisonburg,  the 
value  of  such  property  there  being  $15,940. 

On  September  29,  1896,  the  northern  sections  of  the  Val- 
ley were  visited  by  another  notable  freshet,  thought  by  some 
persons  to  have  been  the  worst  since  1870.  The  loss  in  Rock- 
ingham to  public  roads,  bridges,  etc.,  was  estimated  at  $15,- 
000  to  $20,000.  Mr.  S.  H.  W.  Byrd  of  Bridgewater  has  re- 
corded four  unusual  floods  at  that  town,  in  as  many  different 
years,  to  wit:  1870,  1877,  1889,  and  1896.  In  1877  North 
River  came  up  Main  Street  to  Bank  Street;  in  1896  Dry  River 
broke  across  the  bottom  above  the  town  and  poured  in  a  tor- 
rent diagonally  across,  passing  between  the  Methodist  Church 



and  the  public  school,  and  crossing  College  Street  just  east 
of  the  Presbyterian  Church. 

On  October  15,  1896,  the  corner  stone  of  the  present 
splendid  court  house  was  laid,  the  address  of  the  occasion 
being  made  by  Judge  John  Paul,  an  eminent  son  of  Rocking- 
ham. The  finished  building  was  formally  opened  on  Sep- 
tember 28  of  the  next  year,  the  address  on  that  occasion  being 
made  by  Senator  John  W.  Daniel.  A  nev/  jail  for  the  county 
was  completed  about  the  same  time.  The  board  of  county 
supervisors,  under  whose  authority  the  court  house  was  built, 
was  corc posed  of  the  following  men:  W.  L.  Dechert,  J.  H. 
Shipp,  E.  W.  Carpenter,  C.  E.  Fahrney,  and  D.  H.  Moore. 
The  building  committee  were  W.  L.  Dechert,  E.  W.  Car- 
penter, and  C.  E.  Fahrney.  W.  M.  Bucher  was  superin- 
tendent, W.  E.  Speir,  was  contractor,  T.  J.  Collins  &  Son 
were  architects.  According  to  the  report  made  to  the  sup- 
ervisors in  June,  1898,  the  cost  of  the  court  house  was  $82,  - 
142.77.  Including  the  outlay  for  approaches,  furniture,  etc., 
the  grand  total  was  stated  as  $96,826.24. 

At  the  November  election  in  1896,  McKinley  was  given 
3525  votes,  Bryan  2998,  Levering  100,  and  Palmer  27.  These 
figures  totaled  the  largest  number  of  votes  ever  cast  in  the 
county  at  one  election  up  to  that  time.  A  vote  distributed 
like  this  one  affords  concrete  and  striking  evidence  of  the 
fact  that  decided  changes  in  political  affiliation  have  taken 
place  since  the  days  when  overwhelming  Democratic  majori- 
ties were  the  rule  in  Rockingham. 

On  May  12,  1898,  the  Harrisonburg  Guards,  E.  W.  Sulli- 
van, captain,  left  for  the  war  in  Cuba.  Col.  0.  B.  Roller, 
who  accompanied  the  Guards,  was  acting  colonel  of  the  2d 
Virginia  Regiment  at  Jacksonville,  Florida,  during  the  sum- 
mer. On  September  23,  after  an  absence  of  four  months, 
the  Guards,  now  Co.  C  of  the  2d  Va.  Infantry,  reached  home. 
Most  of  their  time  away  had  been  spent  in  camp  at  Jackson- 
ville, and  they  were  properly  chagrinned  because  they  had 
not  been  called  to  the  front.  ^ 

3.  Muster  Rolls  of  the  Guards  may  be  found  in  the  Rockingham  Regis- 
ter of  May  13  and  20,  1898. 



Fittingly,  in  view  of  the  events  and  spirit  of  the  time, 
it  vv^as  in  the  summer  of  1898  that  the  movement,  long  re- 
tarded, to  mark  the  spot  where  General  Turner  Ashby  fell, 
June  6,  1862,  culminated  in  the  erection  of  a  monument.  It 
is  made  up  of  two  great  stones,  a  huge  pointed  granite  ele- 
vated upon  a  massive  limestone  base,  and  stands  a  mile  and 
a  half  south  of  Harrisonburg,  on  the  wooded  hill  where  the 
gallant  cavalry  leader  received  his  death  wound.  It  was  un- 
veiled on  the  6th  of  June,  1898,  just  thirty-six  years  after 
the  sad  day  held  in  memory.  The  place  is  visited  each  year 
by  an  increasing  number  of  persons  interested  in  the  history 
of  Virginia,  as  wrought  in  the  valor  of  her  sons.  Since  the 
State  Normal  School  was  opened  at  Harrisonburg  in  1909,  a 
large  number  of  young  women  from  all  parts  of  the  State 
have  visited  the  Ashby  monument,  and  have  carried  the 
story  learned  there  back  to  their  homes  and  into  their  schools. 

The  claims  allowed  by  the  county  supervisors  at  their 
June  meeting  in  1898,  for  sheep  killed  by  dogs,  amounted  to  the 
surprising  figure  of  $678.60.  A  century  earlier  the  justices' 
court  was  paying  for  the  scalps  of  wolves.  It  might  have 
been  proper  for  the  fathers  of  1898  to  have  considered  the 
advisability  of  putting  a  premium  on  the  scalps  of  worthless 
and  dangerous  curs. 

In  February,  1899,  the  thermometers  in  Rockingham  reg- 
istered 23  degrees  below  zero.  There  was  a  big  blizzard — 
the  snow  was  deep  and  drifted.  The  editor  of  the  Register, 
shivering  still  in  memory,  no  doubt,  wrote: 

It  made  the  deepest  snow  and  the  coldest  weather  we  have  known, 
certainly  since  the  famous  winter  of  1856-7,  and  possibly  since  the  begin- 
ning of  the  century.  4 

He  apparently  had  overlooked  or  forgotten  the  cold  of 
January,  1881.  Thermometer  readings  in  rural  sections  of 
the  county,  however,  seemed  to  sustain  the  editor's  conclu- 
sion. In  the  next  issue  of  his  paper  it  was  reported  that 
Eld.  John  P.  Zigler's  thermometer  had  registered  40  degrees 

4.  Rockingham  Register,  February  17,  1899. 



below  zero,  and  that  those  of  Jack  Bradford  and  Michael  J. 
Roller  had  registered  40  and  38  degrees  below  zero,  respec- 
tively.    All  these  readings  were  Fahrenheit. 

Since  these  instances  of  extreme  cold  have  been  recorded, 
it  is  proper  to  say  that  such  weather  is  very  unusual  in  Rock- 
ingham.    Zero  weather  is  unusual.     It  is  not  often  that  ther- 
mometers in  this  section  of  the  State  fall  below  10  degrees 
or  8  degrees  above  zero. 

In  May,  1899,  it  was  ordered  that  certain  experimental 
free  delivery  mail  routes  be  established  in  Rockingham;  and 
in  June  the  free  delivery  service  was  inaugurated. 

The  census  of  1900  showed  a  gain  of  2228  in  ten  years  in 
the  population  of  the  county,  and  the  increase  of  property 
values  shown  by  the  assessment  of  the  same  year  indicated 
an  era  of  material  growth.  The  next  year  the  tax  rate  v/as 
reduced  from  $1.25  to  $1.10. 

In  1902  the  first  automobile  owned  in  Harrisonburg,  —the 
property  of  J.  L.  Baugher, — attracted  much  attention.  At 
this  writing, — ten  years  later, — the  number  of  machines  in 
the  same  town  is  said  to  be  over  40. 

Monday,  January  8,  1904,  marked  the  opening  of  the  last 
term,  in  Rockingham,  of  the  old  county  court,  which  has  given 
place  to  the  circuit  court  under  the  present  constitution. 

Three  notable  events  in  1911  marked  gratifying  progress 
in  educational  and  benevolent  work:  The  opening  of  the 
Waterman  School,  the  building  of  the  Rockingham  Memorial 
Hospital,  and  the  adoption  of  the  law  for  compulsory  school 
attendance  in  Harrisonburg  and  Rockingham  County;  all  of 
which  are  noticed  in  more  detail  elsewhere  in  this  volume. 

Inasmuch  as  some  notice  has  been  given  to  unusual 
weather  conditions  in  preceding  years,  it^may  be  of  interest 
to  record  that  a  few  days  of  extreme  cold  weather  were  ex- 
perienced in  Rockingham,  as  well  as  in  many""  other  places, 
early  in  January,  1912,  the  mercury  time  falling  25  de- 
grees below  zero.  The  present  summer  (1912)  has  been  re- 
markably cool  and  agreeable.^ 

5.  For  the  loan  of  periodicals  falling  within  the  time  limits  of   this 




Rockingham  County,  like  every  other  great  county,  is  too 
big  to  be  seen  all  at  once,  and  too  many-sided  to  be  appreciated 
fully  from  any  single  view-point.  The  chapters  that  follow 
present  some  of  its  manifold  phases,  each  in  its  particular 
significance,  and  thus  make  possible  a  more  definite  estimate 
upon  an  analytical  basis;  all  that  is  attempted  here  is  a  col- 
lection of  a  few  more  or  less  general  statements,  in  the  nature 
of  a  suggestive,  though  incomplete,  summary. 

Rockingham  to-day  has  35,000  people  (34,903  by  the 
census  of  1910) ;  no  millionaires,  very  few  paupers,  and  $1000 
on  the  average  for  every  man,  woman,  and  child,  white  and 
black;  3528  farmers,  and  a  farm  for  each  of  them;  363,042 
acres  of  land  in  these  farms,  and  560,640  acres  of  land  alto- 
gether; 26,435  cattle;  11,704  horses;  19,754  swine;  25,199 
sheep;  2314  colonies  of  bees;  and  236,812  head  of  poultry. 
It  also  has  one  of  the  two  largest  hatcheries  in  the  State. 
There  are  seed  farms  for  the  planters,  thoroughbred  flocks 
and  herds  for  the  stockman,  and  nurseries  for  the  fruit 
grower;  there  are  hundreds  of  growing  orchards,  from  which 
about  1000  carloads  of  apples  are  produced  every  year,  not  to 
speak  of  peaches,  pears,  cherries,  plums, — or  watermelons. 

There  are  in  the  county  three  noted  summer  resorts, 
three  splendid  caves,  and  three  famous  battlefields;  there  are 
abundant  mineral  deposits,  of  various  kinds,  including  iron 
and  coal;  there  are  numerous  spring- fed  streams,  affording 
moisture  for  plants  and  unexcelled  water  power;  there  are  40 

chapter,  grateful  acknowledgement  is  made  to  Mr,  Garnett  C.  Sites,  of 
Staunton,  Bishop  L.  J.  Heatwole,  of  Dale  Enterprise,  and  Mr.  C.  L. 
Matthews,  of  Harrisonburg. 


flouring  mills,  *  two  large  tanneries,  brick  kilns  and  lime  kilns, 
plow  factories,  wood-working  factories,  creameries,  canneries, 
9  banks,  and  a  wool  mill  whose  products  are  recognized  as  of 
superior  excellence  at  home  and  abroad. 

In  Rockingham  to-day  16  religious  denominations  are 
represented,  and  more  than  140  Sunday-schools  are  operated; 
the  churches  are  served  by  about  80  preachers  and  pastors, 
and  the  people  at  large  by  34  physicians  and  surgeons,  several 
of  them  specialists ;  there  are  14  dentists,  27  lawyers,  and  about 
290  educators  and  teachers;  there  is  a  ministers'  union,  a 
medical  society,  a  teachers'  association,  a  ladies'  memorial 
society,  a  boys'  corn  club,  a  horticultural  society,  a  fair  for 
the  school  children,  an  annual  horse  show,  a  fair  for  mechanics 
and  farmers,  a  Sundayschool  association,  a  women's  Christian 
temperance  union,  and  an  anti- saloon  league;  there  are 
farmers'  and  stockmen's  organizations,  missionary  societies, 
insurance  companies,  and  benevolent,  fraternal,  and  patriotic 
societies  almost  without  number. 

There  is  a  modern  hospital,  with  hundreds  of  women 
working  for  it;  an  orphans'  home,  and  an  old  folks'  home; 
there  are  two  public  almshouses,  one  for  the  county,  one  for 
the  county-seat,  and  two  court  houses,  one  for  the  county, 
one  for  the  nation.  There  are  10  incorporated  towns,  several 
of  which  are  lighted  with  electricity,  and  more  than  30  towns 
and  villages  altogether;  the  rural  districts,  as  well  as  the 
towns,  are  supplied  with  excellent  telephone  systems,  and 
daily  mail  delivery;  there  are  about  80  miles  of  railroad  track, 
operated  by  four  different  companies,  about  70  miles  of 
macadamized  road,  with  a  growing  movement  for  more; 
dozens  of  strong  bridges  spanning  streams  large  and  small, 
37  postoffices,  and  20  regular  railroad  stations. 

Rockingham  has  to-day  a  weekly  newspaper  90  years  old. 

1-  For  information  on  this  point  I  acknowledge  special  obligation  to 
Messrs.  John  G.  Yancey  and  W.  J.  Dingledine,  of  Harrisonburg.  Mr. 
Dingledine  has  recently  published  an  attractive  booklet  giving  many 
interesting  statistics  concerning  Rockingham  County  and  the  town  of 



five  printing  and  publishing  establishments,  three  daily- 
papers,  and  a  monthly  music  journal  that  is  probably  the 
oldest  in  the  United  States;  there  are  five  or  six  bands  and 
orchestras  in  the  county,  and  probably  more  people,  old  and 
young,  who  can  sing,  and  who  love  music,  than  in  any  other 
section  with  the  same  population  in  America.  There  are  142 
school  buildings,  including  11  high-schools,  in  the  pubhc 
school  system;  and  besides  these  there  are  three  institutions 
for  higher  education,  whose  combined  annual  enrollment 
reaches  about  1000  students  representing  nearly  every  county 
in  Virginia  and  many  States  outside  of  Virginia. 

Rockingham  County  to-day  (1912)  has  the  follov/ing 
staff  of  county  and  district  officials: 

Circuit  Judge— T.  N.  Haas. 

Clerk  of  Court— D.  H.  Lee  Martz;  deputies — C.  H.  Brunk, 
J.  F.  Blackburn. 

Sheriff— E.  J.  Carickhoff;  deputies — D.  E.  Croushorn, 
John  Adams,  Otho  Miller,  Chas.  Meyerhoeffer,  Lurty  Koontz, 
R.  E.  Pugh,  J.  J.  Branner,  Chas.  R.  Fawley,  W.  H.  Yankey, 
T.  A.  Carickhoff. 

Commonwealth's  Attorney — Chas.  D.  Harrison. 

Treasurer — Peter  W.  Reherd;  deputy— Harry  Way. 

Superintendent  of  Schools— Geo.  H.  Hulvey. 

Surveyor — Jos.  G.  Myers. 

Coroner— J.  M.  Biedler. 

County  Supervisors. 
D.  N.  Washington,  from  Ashby  District. 
Brock  T.  White,  from  Central  District. 
J.  Newton  Swank,  from  Linville  District. 
A.  M.  Turner,  from  Plains  District. 
M.  H.  Harrison,  from  Stonewall  District. 

Ashby  District. 

Justices  of  the  Peace— J.  W.  Keiter,  J.  P.  Rauhof,  Homer 
M.  Hill. 

Constable— I.  N.  Jones. 

Road  Commissioner— A.  S.  Heatwole. 



Assessor — C.  H.  Funkhouser. 
Overseer  of  Poor— J.  H.  Simmers. 
School  Trustees-D.  C.  Graham,  C.  T.  Callender,  J.  S. 

Central  District. 

Justices  of  the  Peace— D,  Wampler  Earman,  F.  J.  Argen- 
bright,  P.  I.  Derrer. 

Constable — G.  R.  Black. 

Road  Commissioner — J.  W.  Sheets. 

Assessor— Frank  A.  Heatwole. 

Overseer  of  Poor— J.  W.  Minnich. 

School  Trustees — E.  J.  Suter,  Frank  Ralston,  C.  A.  Cren- 

Linville  District. 

Justices  of  the  Peace— J.  C.  Cooper,  J.  P.  Howver,  Joel 

Constable— A.  A.  Frank. 

Road  Commissioner — C.  W.  Dove. 

Assessor — B.  F.  Myers. 

Overseer  of  Poor — W.  H.  Shaver. 

School  Trustees— John  S.  Funk,  A.  A.  Howard,  S.  R. 

Plains  District. 

Justices  of  the  Peace — J.  W.  Pickering,  Geo.  A.  Neff, 
L.  P.  Souder. 

Constable— T.  A.  Fansler. 

Road  Commissioner — E.  P.  Myers. 

Assessor— M.  Harvey  Zirkle. 

Overseer  of  Poor— C.  F.  Evans. 

School  Trustees— E.  P.  Myers,  H.  H.  Aldhizer,  J.  Luther 

Stonewall  District. 

Justices  of  the  Peace — John  W.  May,  J.  A.  S.  Kyger, 
John  I.  Wood. 



Constable— G.  W.  Baugher. 
Road  Commissioner— C.  W.  Baugher. 
Assessor — E.  L.  Lambert 
Overseer  of  Poor — J.  F.  Life. 

School   Trustees— A.    S.    Bader,  A.    S.    Kemper,    J.    T. 

Representatives  in  General  Assembly. 

Senate— John  Paul. 

House  of  Delegates— C.  H.  Ralston,  G.  N.  Earman. 



It  appears  from  the  'American  Gazetteer"  that  in  1798 
there  was  only  one  postofFice  in  Rockingham  County.  This 
one  was  at  Harrisonburg,  which  was  put  down  as  '  'Rock- 
ingham Court  House.  "^  The  old  postoffice,  just  west  of  Har- 
risonburg, noticed  more  particularly  in  the  next  chapter,  had 
probably  been  absorbed  by  the  one  at  the  court  house  by 
1798.  In  1813  there  were  only  three  postoffices  in  the  county: 
Harrisonburg,  or  Rockingham  C.  H.,  Henry  Tutwiller,  P. 
M. ;  MGaheystown,  Tobias  R.  MGahey,  P.  M. ;  Kites  Mill, 
Jacob  Kite,  P.  M.-  In  Martin's  Gazetteer  of  Virginia,  edi- 
tion 1835,  the  following  towns  are  put  down  as  in  Rocking- 
ham County:  Bowman's  Mill,  P.  0.,  Brock's  Gap,  P.  0., 
Conrad's  Store,  P.  0.,  Cross  Keys,  P.  0.,  Harrisonburg, 
Kite's  Mills,  P.  0.,  Linville  Creek,  P.  0.,  McGaheysville,  P.O., 
Mount  Crawford,  Port  Republic,  and  Smith's  Creek,  P.  0.^ 
Harrisonburg,  Mt.  Crawford,  and  Port  Republic  are  fol- 
lowed by  the  letters  "P.V.,"  which  supposedly  stand  for 
"postal  village."  The  population  of  these  three  villages  is 
given  (1835)  as  1,000,  180,  and  160,  respectively.  In  1845,  or 
thereabouts,  Henry  Hov/e  visited  Harrisonburg,  Mt.  Craw- 
ford, Port  Republic,  Deaton  (Dayton),  and  Edom  Mills.  He 
says  Mt.  Crawford  then  had  a  church  and  about  30  dwellings; 
Port  Repubhc,  a  church,  and  about  35  dwellings;  Deaton  and 
Edom  Mills  he  calls  "small  places."      Harrisonburg  is  cred- 

1-  A  copy  of  the  American  Gazetteer,  abridged  edition  of  1798,  was 
loaned  by  Mr.  E.  M.  Whitesel,  Pleasant  Valley,  per  Mr.  Q.  G.  Kaylor. 

3.  For  these  items  I  am  indebted  to  the  researches  of  Mr.  Milo  Custer, 
Bloomington,  111.     Kite's  Mill  was  probably  on  the  river  below  Elkton. 

3.  I  am  indebted  to  Hon.  Geo.  E.  Sipefor  the  loan  of  Martin's  Virginia 
Gazetteer  for  1835. 


ited  (1845)  with  8  stores,  2  newspaper  offices,  a  market, 
1  Methodist  church,  2  Presbyterian  churches,  and  about 
1100  people.  < 

It  is  quite  probable  that  one  of  the  oldest  centers  of  trade 
in  what  is  now  Rockingham  v/as  at  Peale's  Cross  Roads,  the 
point  5  miles  southeast  of  Harrisonburg,  where  the  roads 
from  Swift  Run  Gap  and  Brown's  Gap  come  around  the  end 
of  Peaked  Mountain  and  cress  the  Keezletown  Road.  Felix 
Gilbert  had  a  store  at  or  near  this  point  in  1774,  and  likely 
had  been  located  there  for  a  number  of  years  preceding.  A 
tanyard  and  other  productive  establishments  marked  the 
place  later. 

With  these  statements  as  introductory,  let  us  take  up  the 
several  towns  in  m.ore  detail. 

Harrisonburg,  laid  out  upon  50  acres  of  land  belong- 
ing to  Thomas  Harrison,  w^as  legally  established  in  May, 
1780,  by  the  same  Act  that  gave  recognition  to  the  town  of 
Louisville,  in  the  county  of  Kentucky.^  The  place  in  early 
days  was  often  called  Rocktow^n;  for  example,  Bishop  Asbury 
designates  it  by  that  name  in  his  journal,  in  1795;  and  as  late 
as  1818,  perhaps  later,  the  name  Rocktown  was  frequently 
used.  It  is  said  that  German  Street  was  originally  the  main 
street,  and  what  is  now  Main  Street  was  then  called  Irish 
Street  or  Irish  Alley. 

In  1797  the  town  was  enlarged  by  an  addition  of  23J 
acres,  laid  off  in  lots  and  streets,  from  the  lands  of  Robert 
and  Reuben  Harrison;  and  Thomas  Scott,  JohnKoontz,  Asher 
Waterman,  Frederick  Spangler,  and  Saml.  McWilliams  were 
made  trustees.  In  1808  an  Act  was  passed  enabling  the  free- 
holders and  housekeepers  resident  in  the  town  to  elect  five 
trustees  annually;  and  by  the  same  Act  the  trustees  were 
authorized  to  raise  $1000  by  taxation  for  the  purchase  of  a  fire 
engine,  hocks,  and  ladders.  All  the  men  of  the  town  were 
to  constitute  the  Harrisonburg  Fire  Company. 

i-  Howe's  Historical  Collections  of   Virginia,   1852  Edition,   pp.   460, 

s.  Hening's  Statutes,  Vol.  X,  pp.  293-295. 



In  the  Rockingham  Register  of  October  5,  1876,  appeared 
a  long  article  entitled,  "Harrisonburg  Fifty  Years  Ago," 
from  which  we  quote  the  following  paragraphs.  They  pre- 
sent a  graphic  account  of  certain  interesting  conditions  in 
1826,  and  thereabouts. 

Jos.  Cline  occupied  the  Wm.  Ott  house, s  and  carried  on  the  tanyard 
now  owned  by  Lowenbach.  The  house  on  the  corner  was  built  by  James 
Hall,  lawyer,  fifty  years  ago.  The  stone  house  attached  was  the  first 
house  built  in  Harrisonburg.  It  was  built  by  Thomas  Harrison.  After 
that  house  was  put  up,  Mr.  Harrison  offered  Maj.  Richard  Ragan  (the 
father  of  'Aunt  Polly  Van  Pelt'),  who  was  a  blacksmith,  ten  acres  of 
land  around  the  'big  spring'  if  he  would  bind  himself  to  put  up  a  shop  near 
the  spring.  But  the  Major  could  not  be  fooled  into  any  such  a  specula- 
tion, and  he  declined.  At  that  time  the  ground  around  the  spring  was 
covered  with  rocks,  many  of  the  cliffs  being  so  tall  that  a  horse  could 
hide  behind  them.  There  were  but  two  practical  paths  to  the  spring,  one 
running  along  by  Dr.  Waterman's  house  and  the  other  down  by  the  house 
in  which  A.  M.  Effinger  lives.  Subsequently  the  rocks  and  thorn  bushes 
and  other  undergrowth  was  cleaned  away,  and  the  spring  was  made 
a  resort  of  the  ladies  of  the  town,  who  used  to  do  their  washing  by  the 
spring.  Clothes  lines  made  of  grape  vines  were  provided  along  the  branch, 
and  after  the  clothes  were  dried  they  were  carried  home  to  iron.  Subse- 
quently the  trustees  of  the  town  passed  an  ordinance  forbidding  women  to 
do  their  washing  at  the  'spring. ' 

Fifty  years  ago  there  were  no  railroads  in  all  this  country.  Our  mer- 
chants went  'below'  twice  a  year  only.  It  required  from  four  to  six 
weeks  to  go  'below,'  lay  in  goods  and  return.  The  goods  for  Harrison- 
burg were  sent  to  Fredericksburg  by  water,  and  from  there  brought  over 
in  wagons.  It  took  two  weeks  to  make  the  trip.  The  wagoners  charged 
from  $1  to  $1. 25  a  hundred  for  hauling.  Some  goods  were  brought  up  the 
Valley,  by  way  of  the  'Keezletown  road,'  that  being  at  that  time  the 
principal  thoroughfare  of  the  Valley. 

Fifty  years  ago  the  mails  were  carried  from  Winchester  to  Har- 
risonburg in  Bockett's  two-horse  coaches.  The  mail  came  once  a  week, 
except  when  the  river  at  Mt.  Jackson  would  be  swollen  by  the  rains,  or 
when  the  roads  were  very  bad,  when  the  mail  would  not  come  oftener 
than  semi-monthly.  In  the  course  of  time  the  business  of  the  Valley  be- 
came so  important,  that  the  mail  route  was  changed  to  a  semi-weekly  one. 
It  was  hard  work,  but  Bockett  actually  ran  from  Winchester  to  Staun- 
ton in  three  days. 

6.  The  Ewing  building,  opposite  Newman  Avenue,  occupies  the  site  of 
the  Ott  house.  The  stone  house  built  by  Th.  Harrison  is  now  Gen.  Roller's 
law  office. 



Fifty  years  ago  there  were  but  two  churches  in  town,  the  old  Meth- 
odist Church,  which  stood  on  the  hill  above  the  Catholic  Church,  and  the 
Presbyterian  Church.7 

Fifty-five  years  ago  there  was  no  paper  published  in  Harrisonburg. 
At  that  time  Ananias  Davisson,  had  a  small  office  in  which  he  printed 
the  Kentucky  Harmony  and  other  musical  works.  Shortly  after  that 
Lawrence  Wartmann  commenced  the  publication  of  the  'Rockingham 
Weekly  Register, '  with  86  subscribers.  The  Register  list  now  reaches 

On  March  31,  1838,  Samuel  Shacklett,  Isaac  Hardesty, 
Jacob  Rohr,  Jr.,  Nelson  Sprinkel,  and  Samuel  Liggett  were 
elected  trustees  of  Harrisonburg  for  the  ensuing  year.  All 
these  gentlemen  were  well  known  residents  of  the  town  for 
many  years,  Hardesty  and  Shacklett  being  very  successful 
merchants.  Before  me  is  an  old  account  book  used  by  Mr. 
Shacklett,  containing  entries  made  from  1851  to  1874.  On 
one  of  the  leaves  is  a  carefully  prepared  table,  of  four  columns, 

Merchants  that  have  done  business  in  Harrisonburg  and  quit,  classed 

as  follows  to  Wit 

Broke         |      Neither  made      |      Made  under  |      Made  over 
I  or  Lost  I  $10,000        |         $10,000 

In  the  column  under  "Broke"  are  written  the  names  of 
36  individuals  and  firms;  under  the  next  head,  "Neither  made 
nor  Lost,"  are  30  names;  three  men,  A.  E.  Heneberger,  M. 
Hite  Effinger,  and  Geo.  Cline,  are  put  down  as  having  made 
under  $10,000;  while  in  the  fourth  column  are  eight  names: 
Thos.  Scott,  John  Graham,  Jerry  Kyle,  Jno.  F.  Effinger, 
Isc.  Hardesty,  S.  Henry,  M.  H.  Effinger,  and  "S.  S."^ 

By  an  Act  of  March  16, 1849,  the  boundaries  of  Harrison- 
burg were  defined  as  follows: 

Beginning  at  a  point  on  the  old  Valley  road,  beyond  the  gate  leading 

'•■  "The  old  Methodist  church  on  the  hill"  stood  where  the  church  of 
the  Brethren  now  stands;  the  Catholic  church  referred  to  stood  (1876) 
opposite  the  passenger  station,  on  the  site  now  occupied  by  the  large 
Snell  building;  the  Presbyterian  church  in  1826  was  on  E.  Market  Street. 

8.  This  old  book  was  placed  at  my  disposal  through  the  courtesy  of 
Messrs.  Sipe  &  Harris,  Harrisonburg. 



to  Mr.  A.  C.  Bryan's  farm,  and  in  a  line  with  the  land  of  J.  Hardesty 
and  others;  thence  westwardly,  on  a  line  with  the  said  land,  to  the  head 
of  a  lane  which  intersects  with  the  road  leading  to  Antioch;  thence  from 
the  head  of  said  lane,  in  a  southern  direction,  in  a  line  parallel  with  the 
present  western  limits  of  said  town,  to  a  point  in  the  Warm  Springs  Pike, 
at  or  near  the  old  brewery,  and  on  a  line  with  the  lands  of  Mrs.  P.  Kyle 
Liggett  and  others;  thence  east,  in  aline  with  said  lands,  to  a  point  in  the 
lots  of  Mrs.  E.  Stevens;  thence  northwardly,  in  a  straight  line,  to  the  be- 
ginning, shall  be  and  continue  to  constitute  the  area  of  the  town  hereto- 
fore known  as  the  town  of  Harrisonburg,  in  the  County  of  Rockingham. 

The  boundaries  of  the  town  have  been  rearranged  at  var- 
ious times  since  the  above  date;  for  example,  in  1868,  1877, 
1894,  etc.  On  February  14  and  15, 1868,  J.  H.  Ralston,  county 
surveyor,  made  a  survey  which  was  defined  in  the  next  issue 
of  the  Register  as  follows : 

The  survey  commenced  at  a  point  near  Swanson's  residence,  about  1 
mile  East  of  the  Court  House.  It  ran  thence  in  a  Northern  direction, 
passing  east  of  Hilltop,  R.  A.  Gray's  property,  to  a  point  in  the  line 
between  Gray  &  P.  Liggett,  thence  in  a  North-western  direction, 
crossing  the  Valley  Turnpike  to  the  North  of  David  Yeakel's  lane, 
on  the  Kratzer  road.  Thence  with  the  Kratzer  road,  crossing  the 
0.,  Alexandria  and  Manassas  Gap  Railroad,  to  a  point  near  Capt.  D.  S. 
Jones'  pond,  thence  crossing  the  lands  of  D.  S.  Jones  to  a  point  West  of 
the  Waterman  house,  thence  passing  West  of  Jackson  Miller's  house,  to 
a'spring  in  Kyle's  field.  West  of  the  brick  dwelling  house,  thence  cross- 
ing the  H.  &  W.  S.  pike  to  the  Toll-gate  on  the  Valley  pike,  thence  with 
the  Port  Republic  road,  to  a  white  oak  tree  on  the  top  of  the  hill,  (not 
far  from  where  Gen.  Ashby  was  killed,)  thence  in  a  Northeastern  direc- 
tion to  the  beginning. 

The  Woodbine  Cemetery  Company  was  chartered  by  the 
legislature  in  March,  1850,  John  Kinney,  Ab.  Smith,  and 
fourteen  others  being  named  in  the  Act,  and  given  the  right 
to  purchase  and  hold,  in  or  near  the  town,  not  more  than  15 
acres  of  ground  for  the  purposes  specified. 

In  1868  the  amount  of  taxes  levied  in  Harrisonburg  on 
personal  property  was  $1659.57,  and  on  real  estate,  $2885.82; 
on  both,  $4545.39.  In  1911  the  total  amount,  on  real  and 
personal  property,  at  a  rate  of  65  cents  on  the  $100,  was 
$22,083.80.  In  1870  the  population  of  the  town  was  stated  as 
2828;  at  present  (1912)  it  is,  almost  exactly,  5000. 



The  "boom"  period  was  marked  by  dedded  "plants" 
and  prophecies  in  Harrisonburg,  not  all  of  which  grew  or 
came  true;  but,  as  already  indicated,  the  town  has  had  a  con- 
stant and  healthy  growth.  It  is  noted  as  the  best  horse 
market  in  the  Valley.  In  1899  Harrisonburg  voting  precinct 
was  divided  into  East  Harrisonburg  and  West  Harrisonburg. 
In  August,  1873,  Judge  James  Kenney  wrote  in  his  diary: 
"The  necessity  of  pure  water  is  now  felt  in  our  tov/n";  and 
the  question  of  a  good  water  supply  was  agitated  for  a  num- 
ber of  years  following.  In  1883  the  city  fathers  put  in  a 
water  system,  on  a  small  scale,  apparently  for  protection 
against  fire.  In  1886  the  artesian  well  which  was  to  supply 
the  town  had  been  put  down  455  feet.  In  1889  the  well  of 
J.  P.  Houck  had  been  bored  to  a  depth  of  600  feet.  The 
same  year  a  system  of  water  works  was  completed  and  ac- 
cepted by  the  council.  In  1890  the  town  had  a  water  supply 
from  an  artesian  well  600  feet  deep  (presumably  Mr.  Houck's) ; 
and  the  Houck  Tanning  Company  was  putting  in  an  electric 
light  plant.  On  December  22  (1890)  the  electric  lights  were 
turned  on  for  the  first  time.  In  1895  the  town  took  up  a 
proposition  for  a  better  water  supply,  and  in  1898  the  present 
splendid  system,  bringing  an  abundant  supply  by  gravity 
from  Riven  Rock,  near  Rawley  Springs,  was  installed  under 
the  direction  of  N.  Wilson  Davis,  engineer.  In  1904  the 
town  issued  $60,000  in  bonds  for  the  construction  of  a  muni- 
cipal light  and  power  plant,  which  has  been  in  successful 
operation  for  a  number  of  years  past. 

On  Christmas  day,  1870,  about  4  o'clock  in  the  morning, 
fire  broke  out  on  the  south  side  of  the  public  square,  and 
burned  all  the  buildings  over  to  the  old  stone  Waterman 
house.     The  loss  totaled  $50,000  or  $60,000. 

In  1875  the  first  town  clock  for  Harrisonburg  was  put  in 
the  court  house  tower. 

In  1887,  and  thereabout,  Harrisonburg  had  no  saloons. 

In  1902  the  Big  Spring,  so  long  a  landmark  of  the  town, 
was  covered  over. 

Among  the  historic  houses  of  the  town  are  the  Harrison 



house,  now  Gen.  John  E.  Roller's  office;  the  Waterman  house, 
south  side  of  the  public  square;  and  Collicello,  west  of  the 
freight  station, 

Collicello  was  built  about  1812  by  the  eminent  lav/yer, 
Robert  Gray;  and  there  his  3  children,  one  of  whom  became 
the  distinguished  Col.  Algernon  Gray,  were  born. 

The  Waterman  house,  a  low  stone  structure  with  dormer 
windov/s,  was  the  residence  of  Dr.  Asher  Waterman,  who 
built  it  prior  to  1799.  Later,  it  was  the  home  of  Sen.  Isaac 
S.  Penny  backer  (born  1805,  died  1847).  In  1854  it  was  the 
original  home  of  the  Bank  of  Rockingham,  the  first  bank  in 
the  county.  From  1860  to  1905  it  was  the  residence  of  Hon. 
D.  M.  Switzer.  When  Mr.  Switzer  came  to  Harrisonburg  in 
1843  this  house  was  occupied  by  the  Rev.  Henry  Brown, 
pastor  of  the  Presbyterian  church.  At  that  time  there  was 
but  one  pavement  in  the  town:  that  one  was  of  stone,  and 
lay  on  the  north  and  east  sides  of  the  Waterman  house,  which 
then,  and  until  the  fire  of  1870,  stood  more  than  20  feet  in 
advance  of  the  other  buildings  on  the  south  side  of  the  public 

The  Harrison  house  is  mentioned  in  this  volume  in  so 
many  connections  that  no  special  sketch  is  deemed  necessary 

Harrisonburg  has  had  an  organized  military  company 
throughout  many  years  of  its  history;  and,  as  already  indi- 
cated, the  beginning  of  its  fire  companies  must  be  dated 
more  than  a  century  ago.  The  Harrisonburg  fire  companies 
in  recent  years  have  been  conspicuous  in  the  State  conventions 
and  contests,  winning  notable  honors  at  Staunton  in  1893,  at 
Portsmouth  in  1894,  at  Roanoke  in  1912,  and  at  other  places 
at  other  times.  They  are  doing  a  fine  service  in  Harrison- 
burg, and  occasionally  in  neighboring  towms. 

In  July,  1897,  shortly  after  the  fire  laddies  of  Harrison- 
burg had  distinguished  themselves  at  Winchester,  the  follow- 
ing lines  by  M.  J.  McGinty,  of  New  York,  appeared  in  the 


The  Chinkapin  Tree 
IPajre  t(i6] 

Old  Town  Hall.    Miid.tjt'watiT 
It'anelitHl        I'lioto  by  Furry 

Fertile  Farm  I.aiirls  on  f'ook  s  ("reek 


All  hail  to  the  laddies,  those  knights  of  the  reel, 

The  quick-sprinting  victors,  with  hearts   true   as   steel; 

All  hail  to  the  firemen,  victorious  and  brave, 

Slaves  only  to  duty— their  mission  to  save. 


All  hail  to  the  champions!    Our  hats  off  to  you; 
O,  here's  to  the  invincible  wing-footed  crew! 
We  drink  to  your  health!  may  your  record  remain 
As  a  shaft  for  all  time  to  your  worth  and  your  fame. 

The  present  municipal  officers  of  Harrisonburg  are: 

Mayor — John  H.  Downing. 

Recorder— John  G.  Yancey,  Jr. 

Assessor — R.  Lee  Woodson. 

Treasurer — Henry  A.  Sprinkel. 

Sergeant— J.  E.  Altaffer. 

Councilmen— J.  S.  Bradley,  A.  M.  Loewner,  T.  E.  Se- 
brell,  R.  Lee  Allen,  T.  N.  Thompson,  D.  C.  Devier,  V.  R. 
Slater,  F.  F.  Nicholas,  J.  M.  Snell. 

Keezletown,  or,  as  it  was  first  written,  Keisell's-Town, 
was  laid  off  on  100  acres  of  land  belonging  to  George  Keisell, 
and  established  by  law  under  an  Act  of  Assembly  passed 
December  7,  1791.  Seven  gentlemen,  George  Houston, 
George  Carpinter,  Martin  Earhart,  Peter  Nicholass,  John 
Snapp,  John  Swisher,  and  John  Pierce,  were  made  trustees.^ 
It  is  said  that  a  good  deal  of  rivalry  had  developed  between 
Thomas  Harrison  and  Mr.  Keisell  in  the  effort  to  locate  per- 
manently the  county-seat,  the  former  championing  Harrison- 
burg, the  latter  Keisell's-Town.  In  fact,  a  rather  entertain- 
ing story  is  told  of  how,  on  one  occasion,  the  two  gentlemen 
ran  (more  exactly,  rode)  a  race  to  Richmond  in  the  interests 
of  their  respective  enterprises,  in  which,  by  the  merest 
chance,  Mr.  Keisell  was  outdistanced  by  his  rival. 

In  1844  Houck,  Hosier  &  Co.  were  advertising  the  open- 
ing of  a  general  store  at  "Huffman's  Tavern  establishment 
in  Keezletown."    Shepp's  spring,  near  the  village,  is  said  to 

9.  Hening's  Statutes,  Vol.  13,  page  297. 




supply  fine  mineral  water.  The  people  of  the  community  are 
intelligent  and  enterprising,  and  give  good  support  to  their 
schools  and  churches.  The  population  of  Keezletown  is  about 

The  following  interesting  account  of  McGaheysville  and 
the  man  for  whom  it  was  named  has  been  supplied,  upon 
special  request,  by  Mr.  Richard  Mauzy. 

McGaheysville  is  located  eleven  miles  east  of  Harrisonburg  on  the 
Stanardsville  turnpike,  and  on  "Stony  Run,"  appropriately  named, which 
has  its  source  between  the  main  longitudinal  ranges  of  the  Massanutten 
mountain,  locally  called  "The  Kettle,"  and  flows  through  the  center  of 
the  village,  and,  two  miles  below,  empties  into  the  Shenandoah  River. 

This  village  is,  as  the  Irishman  said  of  his  pig,  "Little,  but  ould. " 

Its  name  dates  from  1801  when  the  first  postoffice  was  established 
there  with  Tobias  Randolph  McGahey  as  Postmaster,  for  whom  the  village 
was  named. 

Among  the  first,  if  not  the  first  to  settle  there,  was  Thos.  Mauzy, 
(the  eldest  son  of  Henry  Mauzy  of  Fauquier  Co. ,  Va. ,  by  his  second 
marriage,)  who  settled  there  in  the  latter  part  of  the  18th  century,  and 
owned  the  property  which  he  sold  in  1805  to  his  youngest  brother  Joseph, 
where  the  latter  did  business  and  reared  his  family  and  lived  till  his 
death  in  December,  1863,  and  where  his  son  Richard  now  resides,  having 
been  owned  by  the  Mauzys  for  115  years  consecutively. 

Thos.  Mauzy  also  owned  the  farm  and  mill  on  the  Shenandoah  River 
where  the  Harrisonburg  Electric  plant  is  now  located,  which  he  sold  in 

Though  the  population  has  increased  slowly  with  time,  the  number 
and  variety  of  industries  have  decreased,  owing  to  the  combination  of 
capital  and  to  the  establishment  of  factories  which  made  private  enter- 
prises unprofitable. 

About  75  years  ago  there  were  in  the  village  several  tailor  shops, 
shoemaker  shops,  cabinet  and  carpenter  shops,  hatter  shops,  wheel- 
wright-shop, blacksmith  shops,  a  tannery,  and  one  store  of  general 

The  following  are  the  names  of  some  of  the  citizens  who  lived  there 
about  that  time: 

Dr.  Darwin  Bashaw,  Dr.  Hitt,  Joseph  Mauzy,  Christopher  Wetzel, 
Peter  Bolinger,  A.  J.  O.  Bader,  Philip  Rimel,  John  Garrett,  John  and 
Jacob  Leap,  Solomon  and  Jacob  Pirkey,  John  and  Augustus  Shumate, 
Zebulon  and  David  Gilmore,  David  Irick,  Allison  Breeden,  Jacob  Fultz, 
and  Geo.  Brill. 

The  following  with  reference  to  the  man  for  whom  the  village  was 



named,  furnished  by  his  granddaughter,  Miss  Alice  McGahey,  will  be  of 

Tobias  Randolph  McGahey  was  born  in  Dover,  Delaware,  March  24, 
1765.  He  came  to  this  valley  with  a  Scotch-Irish  colony  when  a  young 
man.  In  1801,  when  a  postoffice  was  established  there,  he  was  appointed 
postmaster,  and  the  office  was  called  McGaheysville.  In  1802  he  married 
Mrs.  Eva  Conrad,  a  wealthy  widow  of  one  of  the  first  settlers  in  the 
Valley,  and  a  resident  of  McGaheysville.  They  remained  19  years  at  this 
place,  when  his  wife  died. 

His  occupation,  when  he  first  came  to  the  Valley,  was  surveying.  He 
also  built  flouring  mills  in  Shenandoah,  Page,  Rockingham,  and  Augusta 
counties,  and  afterwards,  in  1827,  engaged  in  the  mercantile  business  at 
Bonny  Brook,  on  a  farm  he  owned  there,  one  mile  northeast  of  McGa- 

His  mother  (Mrs.  Barnes)  was  a  notable  character  in  the  village. 
She  taught  school,  and  not  only  taught  the  girls  to  read,  write,  and 
cipher,  but  to  sew,  knit,  and  paint.  She  lived  to  an  old  age  and  did  much 
good  in  her  journey  of  life. 

During  his  first  wife's  time,  Mr.  McGahey  lived  where  A.  S.  Bader 
now  resides,  and  reared  three  nieces  and  two  nephews. 

It  is  said  that  McGaheysville  was  first  called  "Ursulas- 
burg,"  in  honor  of  a  Mrs.  Long,  a  native  of  Switzerland,  who 
lived  near.^o  The  present  population  of  the  village  is  about 
350.     It  has  one  of  the  best  schools  in  the  county. 

Port  Republic  is  one  of  the  oldest  towns  in  Rockingham, 
and  in  the  20's  and  30's,  after  the  South  Shenandoah  had  been 
made  navigable  for  floatboats,  was,  in  the  happy  phrase  of 
Mr.  Richard  Mauzy,  a  place  of  great  expectations.  The  fol- 
lowing paragraph,  from  an  Act  of  Assembly  passed  January 
14,  1802,  gets  us  back  to  formal  beginnings: 

Be  it  enacted  by  the  general  assembly.  That  twenty-three  acres  of 
land,  the  property  of  John  McCarthrey,  junior,  lying  between  the  north 
and  south  branches  of  the  south  fork  of  Shenandoah  river  in  the  county 
of  Rockingham,  shall  be,  and  they  are  hereby  vested  in  George  Gilmer, 
Benjamin  Lewis,  Matthias  Aman,  John  Givens,  and  Henry  Perkey,  gen- 
tlemen trustees,  to  be  by  them,  or  a  majority  of  them,  laid  off  into  lots 
of  half  an  acre  each,  with  convenient  streets,  and  established  a  town  by 
the  name  of  Port  Republic. 

Lots  were  to  be  sold  at  auction,  the  purchaser  in  each 

10.  See  Rockingham  Register,  May  13,  1898. 



case  being  required,  upon  forfeit,  tc  erect  "a  dwelling  house 
sixteen  feet  square  at  least,  with  a  brick  or  stone  chimney 
to  be  finished  fit  for  habitation  within  ten  years  from  the  day 
of  sale." 

January  26,  1866,  an  Act  was  passed  incorporating  Port 
Republic,  and  on  March  31,  following,  the  first  election  under 
the  new  charter  was  held.  John  Harper  was  chosen  mayor, 
and  Tobias  M.  Grove  sergeant. 

In  olden  days  "Port"  was  noted  for  its  fights — personal 
encounters — but  in  latter  times  it  is  as  peaceable  and  law- 
abiding  as  other  places. 

The  bridges  at  Port  Republic,  specially  those  across  the 
North  River,  have  had  an  interesting  history.  The  first  one, 
or  one  of  the  first,  was  burned  in  June,  1862,  by  Stonewall 
Jackson,  to  prevent  Fremont  from  following  him  across  the 
river.  The  next  one  was  built  in  1866,  by  citizens  of  the  com- 
munity, at  a  cost  of  about  $3000.  This  washed  away  in  the 
great  flood  of  1870.  In  January,  1874,  the  county  court  ap- 
propriated $600  to  aid  in  rebuilding  this  bridge.  The  next 
bridge  was  washed  away  in  1877,  and  was  not  rebuilt  for  two 
or  three  years.  The  present  bridge  is  a  single-track  iron 

Mr.  Richard  Mauzy  says  that  Holbrook,  a  citizen  of  Port, 
is  entitled  to  the  credit  of  making  the  original  McCormick 
reaper  a  success,  by  devising  the  sickle  as  it  has  since  been 
generally  adopted  on  all  reapers. 

The  population  of  Port  Republic  is  about  200. 

In  January,  1804,  an  Act  of  Assembly  was  passed  estab- 
lishing the  town  of  Newhaven  on  the  land  of  Gideon  Morgan 
and  William  Lewis,  and  appointing  Edwin  Nicholas,  Asher 
Waterman,  George  Huston,  George  Gilmore,  Mathias  Amon, 
Benj.  Lewis,  Henry  Perkey,  and  Henry  J.  Gambillas  trustees. 
The  site  of  New  Haven  is  on  the  north  side  of  the  rivers,  op- 
posite or  a  little  below  Port  Republic.  It  will  be  observed 
that  the  two  places  had  several  trustees  in  common,  and  their 
names  indicate  the  importance  that  was  attached  to  their  lo- 
cation upon  navigable  water.    We  can  readily  imagine  them 



upon  a  "boom"  in  1804,  and  thereabouts,  but  New  Haven 
seems  never  to  have  reached  the  actual  proportions  of  a  town. 
The  name  is  by  this  time  remembered  by  only  a  few  persons. 

One  of  the  most  progressive  towns  of  East  Rockingham 
is  Elkton,  known  until  1881  as  Conrad's  Store.  Near  the 
town  stood  until  recently  Elk  Run  church,  one  of  the  oldest 
churches  in  the  county;  and  the  town  is  built  where  Elk  Run 
flows  into  the  Shenandoah  River.  The  origin  of  the  name 
Elkton,  therefore,  is  obvious.  Conrad's  old  store  building 
still  remains  as  one  of  the  landmarks.  Another  place  of 
historic  interest  is  the  old  Kite  homestead,  where  Stonewall 
Jackson  had  his  headquarters  in  1862. 

In  1867  the  postoffice  at  Conrad's  Store  was  moved  out  a 
mile  or  two  to  Geo.  W.  San  ford's  shoemaker  shop,  and  named 
Roadside,  In  1881  Elkton  postoffice  was  established,  with 
Jas.  H.  Shipp  as  postmaster.  One  of  the  promoters  of  Elk- 
ton in  "boom"  times  (1889-90)  was  Dr.  S.  P.  H.  Miller  (1835- 
1895).  In  March,  1908,  the  town  was  incorporated,  and  J.  A. 
S,  Kyger  was  chosen  mayor.  The  councilmen  were  J.  R. 
Cover,  J.  T.  Heard,  J.  E  Leebrick,  V.  C.  Miller,  W.  A.  Gor- 
don, and  I.  L.  Flory.  Since  1881,  when  the  Norfolk  &  West- 
ern Railway  was  opened,  and  especially  since  1896,  when  the 
Chesapeake- Western  was  completed  to  Bridgewater,  Elkton 
has  been  a  railroad  center  of  growing  importance. 

The  river  bridges  at  Conrad's  Store  and  Elkton,  like  those 
at  Port,  have  had  an  interesting,  though  expensive,  history. 
On  June  3,  1862,  the  Conrad's  Store  bridge  was  burned  by 
Co.  D,  7th  Va.  Cavalry,  S.  B.  Coyner,  captain,  to  keep  the 
Federal  general  Shields  from  coming  across  to  join  Fremont 
against  Jackson.  In  June,  1868,  proposals  were  solicited  by 
J.  H.  Kite,  president  of  board,  for  building  the  island  bridges 
across  the  Shenandoah,  near  Conrad's  Store.  The  bridges 
were  carried  away  by  the  flood  of  1870.  In  1872  a  bridge  200  feet 
long,  across  the  river,  and  one  100  feet  long,  across  the  race, 
were  built  by  John  W.  Woods.  These  probably  corresponded 
to  the  "island  bridges"  of  1868.  The  Conrad's  Store  bridge 
fell  again  in  the  flood  of  1877;  was  rebuilt  in  1878-9  (by  John 



Woods)  and  again  washed  away  in  September,  1896.  In  May, 
1897,  part  of  the  new  iron  bridge  that  was  being  erected  was 
washed  down. 

The  population  of  Elkton  at  present  (1912)  is  about  1000, 
and  the  town  officers  are  the  following: 

Mayor— J.  A.  S.  Kyger. 

Treasurer — W.  H.  McVeigh. 

Sergeant — W.  E.  Lucas. 

Councilmen — R.  B.  Wilson,  J.  F.  Taylor,  J.  R.  Cover, 
J.  T.  Heard,  L.  F.  Yeager,  W.  E.  Deal. 

Dayton  is  likely  one  of  the  oldest  "inland"  towns  in  the 
county.  Probably  the  first  house  was  the  one  built  of  stone 
by  the  Harrisons,  and  still  standing  in  fine  condition  at  the 
northeast  end  of  the  town,  on  the  west  side  of  the  Warm 
Springs  and  Harrisonburg  Pike.  It  is  now  occupied  by  the 
Burtner  family.  Capt.  John  A.  Herring,  whose  ancestors 
were  some  of  the  first  settlers  of  the  community,  says: 

It  was  once  surrounded  by  palisades,  and  in  times  of  Indian  invasion 
the  people  around  went  there  with  their  families  for  protection.  There 
is  a  tradition  that  there  was  an  underground  passage  dug  to  the  creek 
[Cook's  Creek]  nearby,  for  water,  in  case  of  a  siege. 

A  writer  in  the  Rockingham  Register  of  January  5,  1894, 
says  that  this  old  house  was  sold  early  in  the  19th  century  by 
Dr.  Peachy  Harrison  to  Maj.  John  Allebaugh. 

Prior  to  the  Revolution  there  was  an  Episcopal  chapel  in 
what  is  now  the  north  section  of  the  Dayton  cemetery;  and 
up  the  creek  a  short  distance,  on  the  ground  now  covered  by 
Silver  Lake,  was  "Old  Erection"  of  the  Presbyterians. 
In  March,  1833,  Dayton  was  established  by  law.  Rif eville  and 
Rifetown  were  earlier  names.  In  1854  John  Stinespring  was 
proprietor  of  Dayton  Hotel.  Dayton's  stirring  experiences  in 
1864  are  narrated  elsewhere.  In  1903  and  1911  the  town  was 
visited  by  destructive  fires,  but  the  enterprising  spirit  of  her 
people  seems  akin  to  the  phenix  essence.  Dayton  is  probably 
the  largest  town  south  of  Mason  and  Dixon's  line  without  a 
single  colored  citizen;  and  likely  has  the  largest  business  car- 
ried on  through  its  postoffice  of  any  town  of  its  size  in  the 



A      u     a     U     S     T     A 


country.     The  latter  condition  is  due  to  its  publishing  houses 
and  schools,  referred  to  elsewhere. 

The  present  (1912)  population  of  Dayton  is  about  600,  and 
its  municipal  officers  are  the  following: 

Mayor -J.  W.  Keiter. 

Clerk — Henry  Beery. 

Assessor — J.  H.  S.  Good. 

Sergeant— J.  A.  Shifflett. 

Councilmen— P.  X.  Heatwole,  J.  W.  Heatwole,  J.  H. 
Rhodes,  J.  W.  Rhodes,  J.  N.  Shrum,  J.  A.  Stone,  G.  P.  Arey. 

The  beautiful  town  on  the  North  River,  three  miles 
southwest  of  Dayton,  was  first  called  Dinkletown,  after  one 
of  the  first  families  in  the  community,  then  Bridgeport,  be- 
cause it  was  a  flatboat  port  at  a  bridge,  and  finally  Bridge- 
water,  because,  doubtless,  the  bridge  continued  to  be  a  neces- 
sity although  the  place  ceased  to  be  a  port. 

According  to  Mr.  S.  G.  Dinkle,  John  Dinkle  about  1810 
put  up  a  carding  machine,  a  sawmill,  and  a  grist  mill  on  the 
north  side  of  the  river,  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  below  the 
bridge.  The  grist  mill  was  replaced  by  a  flouring  mill  about 
1835.  According  to  Mr.  Dinkle  and  Mr.  S.  H.  W.  Byrd,  this 
flouring  mill  burned  in  1855,  and  was  replaced  immediately 
by  the  mill  now  standing  there.  On  February  7,  1835,  the 
town  was  established  by  law,  on  20  acres  of  land  belonging 
to  John  and  Jacob  Dinkle.  The  trustees  were  Jacob  Dinkle, 
Michael  Wise,  Jesse  Hoover,  John  Dinkle,  Sr.,  and  John  Du- 
more.  Quoting  from  the  Act:  "Liberty  st.  shall  be  laid  off 
&  established  20  ft;  Main  st.  55  ft.  wide:  Grove  st.  20  ft. 
wide  &  Center  alley  12  ft.  wide."  The  old  town  hall,  stand- 
ing on  the  west  side  of  Main  Street,  below  the  intersection  of 
Commerce  Street,  is  said  to  have  been  formerly  a  church. 
Mr.  S.  H.  W.  Byrd  calls  attention  to  the  fact  that  Bridge- 
water  was  established  by  law  the  same  year  as  Milwaukee, 
Wis.  In  1892  Capt.  Philander  Herring  testified  that  the  town 
had  had  no  barroom  or  liquor  saloon  of  any  kind  since  1854.  It 
has  had  none  since  1892.  In  1868  a  company  was  formed  and 
chartered  to  build  an  observatory  on  Round  Hill,  just  west  of 



town;  but  this  splendid  project  seems  to  have  failed.  In  1873, 
the  period  of  railroad  fevers,  Bridgewater  and  vicinity  were 
on  a  "boom."  In  the  Register  of  May  9  (1873)  it  was  re- 
ported that  no  less  than  33  flouring  mills,  2  wool  mills,  and  a 
number  of  sawmills  were  to  be  found  within  a  radius  of  five 
miles  of  the  place.  On  February  23, 1880,  a  considerable  sec- 
tion of  the  town  was  laid  waste  by  fire.  In  1904  the  corpor- 
ate limits  of  the  town  were  extended  to  their  present  ample 

Now,  a  word  concerning  the  Bridgewater  bridges.  For 
most  of  this  acknowledgement  is  made  to  Mr.  S.  H.  W. 
Byrd.  First,  there  was  an  old  bridge  on  posts,  low,  near  the 
water.  In  1853  another  bridge  was  built  by  Abram  S.  Wil- 
liams. This  was  burned  by  the  Confederates  in  1862.  The 
third  bridge  was  erected  in  1866 — completed  in  October — by 
John  W.  Woods.  It  had  a  support  in  the  middle.  On  Sep- 
tember 29,  1870,  the  northern  half  of  this  bridge  was  swept 
away  by  the  great  flood.  The  fourth  bridge  was  completed 
in  December,  1870,  by  Col.  Wm.  F.  Pifer.  This,  too,  had  a 
center  support.  It  was  washed  away  November  24,  1877. 
The  present  bridge  was  finished  by  Wm.  H.  Grove  in  April, 
1878.  It  crosses  at  a  single  colossal  leap  of  240  feet  or  more,  and 
is  said  to  be  the  longest  single-span  wooden  bridge  in  the  world. 

The  population  of  Bridgewater  (1912)  is  about  1000.  The 
town  officers  are  the  following: 

Mayor— H.  C.  Hale. 

Recorder— S.  H.  W.  Byrd. 

Treasurer — 0.  W.  Miller. 

Assessor — E.  A.  Dinkle. 

Sergeant — J.  W.  Walters. 

Councilmen— J.  H.  Wine,  W.  H.  Miller,  C.  B.  Riser,  L. 
V.  Miller,  0.  W.  Wine,  B.  H.  Beydler. 

When  the  above  officers  were  elected,  June  11,  1912,  the 
town  voted  a  bond  issue  of  $25,000  for  a  water  and  sewer 

It  is  said  that  Mt.  Crawford  was  established  by  law  in 
1825.     In  1835  an  Act  of  Assembly  was  passed  incorporating 



the  Mt.  Crawford  Water  Company.  In  earlier  days  the  place 
was  known  as  Mt.  Pleasant,  and  perhaps  also  as  Mt.  Stevens. 
In  the  Rockingham  Register  of  October  5,  1822,  Dr.  Wm. 
Frey  respectfully  acquainted  his  friends  and  the  public  gen- 
erally that  he  had  removed  from  his  former  residence  to  the 
house  of  Fred.  Hoffman  in  the  village  of  Mt.  Pleasant  on  the 
Staunton  road,  17  miles  from  the  latter  place  and  8  miles 
from  Harrisonburg.  In  Martin's  Gazetteer  of  Virginia,  for 
1835,  this  is  said  concerning  Mt.  Crawford: 

It  contains  25  dwelling  houses,  1  house  of  public  worship  free  for  all 
denominations,  2  common  schools,  2  taverns,  3  mercantile  stores,  2  tailors, 
2  saddlers,  2  boot  and  shoe  factories,  1  smith  shop,  1  tin  plate  worker, 
1  cabinet  maker,  1  wheelwright,  1  cooper,  1  pottery,  2  milliner  and  man- 
tua  makers,  1  gun  smith,  1  wagon  maker,  1  manufacturing  flour  mill,  and 
1  saw  mill.  The  North  river  is  navigable  for  flat  boats  about  three 
miles  above  this  village. 

The  bridges  at  Mt.  Crawford  suffered  by  the  war  and  by 
the  floods  of  1870  and  1877,  and  their  history  would  make  an 
interesting  chapter.  In  1895  the  town  received  its  present 
charter.  The  population  (1912)  is  about  400,  with  the  fol- 
lowing municipal  officers: 

Mayor — 0,  A.  Layman. 

Councilmen— J.  H.  Funkhouser,  F.  H.  Lago,  A.  M.  Pifer, 
J.  C.  Wise,  M.  Dean,  W.  F.  Moyerhoeffer. 

Among  the  various  things  to  the  credit  of  Mt.  Crawford, 
not  the  least  is  the  reputation  it  has  won  for  enforcing  law— 
particularly  against  reckless  joy-riders. 

The  city  of  Sparta  (Spartapolis)  is  ancient  and  honorable, 
whether  in  Laconia  or  in  Rockingham.  In  1831  our  Sparta 
was  established  by  law;  it  was  a  city  8  years  later;  that  is  to 
say,  by  an  Act  of  the  Assembly  in  1839  its  name  was  ex- 
panded to  Spartapolis.  In  1842,  perhaps  earlier,  it  was  one 
of  the  county  voting  places.  In  the  years  leading  up  to  and 
into  the  civil  war  it  was  frequently  a  place  of  muster.  The 
present  name  is  Mauzy,  and  the  population  is  put  down 
as  12. 

A  mile  or  two  southwest  of  Mauzy,  on  the  Valley  Pike,  is 
the  village  of  Lacey  Spring.      Mrs.  Maria  Graham  Carr  says 



that  her  grandfather,  John  Koontz,  built  a  house  at  Lacey 
Spring,  in  1815,  that  was  afterwards  occupied  by  the  Lincoln 
family:  that  he  had  a  tanyard,  operated  by  Isaac  Hite;  and 
that  he  also  had  a  sawmill,  not  far  from  his  house.  The  great 
spring  that  gushes  out  from  the  rocky  hillside  would  certainly 
have  afforded  an  abundant  water  supply  for  such  establish- 
ments. Mrs.  Carr  also  mentions  a  house  of  entertainment, 
first  occupied  by  a  Mrs.  Patten,  later  in  the  hands  of  the 
Lincolns.  In  February,  1898,  an  old  two-story  log  house  at 
Lacey  burned,  which,  according  to  the  report  then  published, 
had  been  erected  in  colonial  times,  and  had  been  kept  by 
David  Lincoln  as  an  inn  during  the  early  part  of  the  last  cen- 
tury. The  100  people  who  live  at  Lacey  Spring  are  among 
the  most  intelligent  and  enterprising  in  the  county. 

The  statements  regarding  the  beginnings  of  TimbervUIe 
are  somewhat  complicated.    In  1814,  when  John  Zigler  located 
there,  a  log  house,  then  old,  stood  on  the  west  bank  of  the 
river.     In  the  year  mentioned  Mr.  Zigler  opened  a  tannery, 
which,  at  his  death  in  1856,  was  said  to  be  the  largest  in  the 
county.      He  started  a  pottery  in  1830,  and  also  operated  a 
hemp  mill.     It  is  said  that  Tobias  Shull  opened  a  blacksmith 
shop  in  1830  at  B.  F.  Grist's  present  stand,  and  that  a  Mr. 
Carnes  started  a  mill  in  1831.      Early  in  the  century,  per- 
haps before  1820,  Abraham  Williamson,  a  brother  of  Dr.  J. 
D.  Williamson  of  Hardscrabble  (above  New  Market),  opened 
the  first  store,  and  the  place  was  known  as  Williamsport. 
This  name  would  indicate  that  the  river  was  being  utilized  for 
transportation.     Another  tradition  says  that  Wm.  G.  Thomp- 
son founded  Timberville.     He  was  a  prominent  resident  of 
the  community  as  early  as  1833,  when  he,  John  Zigler,   and 
others  were  trying  to  get  a  free  bridge  across  the  river.  The 
place  was  then  called  Thompson's  Store.      It  is   said  that 
Thompson,  in  1837,  built  the  house  now  or  recently  owned  by 
C.  Fahrney.     About  1850  the  place  was  known  as  Riddle's 
Tavern.     For  many  years,  however,  Timberville  has  been  the 
accepted  name,  and  the  town  was  thus  incorporated  in  1884, 



with  Jacob  Garber,  Chas.  E.  Fahrney,  Wm.  A.  Pierce,  John 
A.  Roller,  and  Saml,  C.  Smucker  as  trustees. 

It  is  said  that  one  day  in  early  times,  a  four-horse  team 
and  wagon  broke  down  the  bridge,  at  Timberville,  with  more 
serious  results  to  the  bridge  than  to  the  team.  The  third 
bridge,  erected  in  1840,  washed  away  in  1842  or  1843.  Then 
the  river  was  forded  till  1884,  when  the  present  bridge  was 

The  population  of  Timberville  (1912)  is  about  400.  C.  J. 
Smucker  is  mayor;  Milton  Whitener,  clerk;  B.  F.  Zirkle, 
treasurer;  S.  A.  Henkel,  sergeant;  with  J.  A.  Garber,  W.  B. 
Fahrney,  D.  S.  Wampler,  F.  M.  Bowman,  F.  H.  Driver,  and 
R.  S.  Bowers,  councilmen. 

May  22,  1909,  the  Harrisonburg  Daily  News  printed  an 
elegant  illustrated  supplement  on  Timberville. 

The  town  of  Broadway,  at  the  junction  of  Linville  Creek 
with  the  North  Shenandoah  River,  and  at  the  mouth  of 
Brock's  Gap,  occupies  a  strategic  point  for  trade.  The  be- 
ginnings of  settlement  and  industry  were  probably  made  on 
the  point  of  land  between  the  creek  and  the  river,  at  or  near 
the  Winfield  residence.  As  early  as  1808  the  Custers  had  a 
mill  there,  and  they  were  probably  at  the  same  time  operating 
the  store  that  for  many  years  was  kept  in  the  old  stone 
building  adjacent  to  the  Winfield  house.  The  mill  that  Sher- 
idan burned  in  1864  was  stone,  and  was  likely  the  original 
one.  During  the  period  of  Reconstruction  the  brick  buildings, 
now  occupying  the  site,  were  erected  for  machine  shops. 

According  to  tradition,  the  name  Broadway  was  adopted 
from  the  habit  of  the  merry  daredevils,  who  were  accustomed 
to  assemble  at  the  place  for  carousals,  of  referring  to  them- 
selves as  on  the  "broad  way." 

In  March,  1880,  Broadway  was  incorporated  with  Saml. 
C.  Williams,  P.  W.  Pugh,  J.  W.  Basore,  Michael  Zigler,  and 
M.  B.  E.  Cline  as  trustees.  Various  changes  in  the  charter 
and  boundaries  have  been  made  since.  The  present  (1912) 
population  is  about  700,  and  the  town  officers  are  the  follow- 



Mayor— J.  H.  Nave. 

Clerk— C.  R.  Whitmore. 

Sergeant— G.  W.  Beaver. 

Councilmen— C.  R.  Winfield,  G.  S.  Fultz,  Claude  Knupp, 
W.  N.  Williams,  C.  E.  Miller,  Oscar  Orebaugh. 

Cootes'  Store  stands  above  Broadway,  at  the  actual  mouth 
of  Brock's  Gap.  The  place  bears  its  name  from  Mr.  Samuel 
Cootes  (1792-1882),  for  many  years  a  prominent  citizen  of 
the  county.  In  1858  the  place  was  made  a  voting  precinct. 
For  many  years  past  it  has  been  a  postoffice.  The  population 
is  about  30. 

A  short  distance  southwest  of  Cootes'  Store  is  the  village 
of  Turleytown,  said  to  have  been  founded  by  Giles  Turley, 
who  stopped  there  on  his  way  to  Kentucky — and  remained 
there.  In  1903  Dr.  John  S.  Flory,  of  Bridgewater,  published 
an  interesting  description  of  the  old  Turleytown  blockhouse, 
which  was  erected  in  early  times.  The  Turleytown  Baptist 
church  also  has  an  interesting  history.  The  population  is 
about  40. 

In  1860  a  postoffice  was  established  at  Mountain  Valley, 
and  the  name  was  changed  to  Singer's  Glen.  Mountain  Val- 
ley had  already  become  famous  as  the  home  of  Joseph  Funk, 
father  of  song  in  Northern  Virginia,  as  the  place  of  his 
school,  and  as  the  place  where  he  and  his  sons  printed  and 
bound  the  music  books  and  other  publications  that  were  being 
sent  all  over  the  country.  The  appropriateness  of  the  pres- 
ent name  has  been  proved  by  both  the  nature  of  the  work  that 
Joseph  Funk  &  Sons  kept  up  there  till  the  later  70' s,  and  the 
character  of  the  people  who  still  live  there.  In  March,  1894, 
Singer's  Glen  was  incorporated,  with  B.  H.  Franklin  mayor; 
and  S.  H.  Swank,  G.  W.  Shaffer,  Jos.  R.  Funk,  S.  W.  Brewer, 
D.  M.  Hollar,  and  C.  F.  Shank,  councilmen.  The  present 
(1912)  population  is  about  180,  and  the  town  officers  are:  B. 
H.  Franklin,  mayor;  J.  F.  Moubray,  sergeant;  S.  H.  Swank, 
P.  H.  Donovan,  W.  C.  Funk,  G.  W.  Hedrick,  D.  S.  VanPelt, 
and  D.  M.  Hollar,  councilmen. 

The  name  of  Edom  appears  as  early  as  1844,  perhaps 



earlier.  In  1835  Joseph  Martin,  in  his  Gazetteer  of  Virginia, 
mentions  Linville  Creek  P.  0.,  which  may  be  identical  with 
Edom.  Henry  Howe,  a  decade  or  more  later,  speaks  of  Edom 
Mills.     The  population  of  this  beautiful  village  is  about  140. 

Another  Rockingham  village,  similar  in  situation  to  Edom, 
built  upon  a  never-failing  stream  and  surrounded  by  sloping 
hillsides,  is  Mt.  Clinton.  According  to  an  article  printed  in 
the  Register,  October  11,  1883,  this  place  got  its  name  about 
1833,  by  a  vote  of  the  people  of  the  community  registered  at 
the  store  of  Bowman  &  Devier.  Several  names  were  under 
consideration,  but  a  certain  gentleman  authorized  Bowman  & 
Devier  to  give  a  horn  of  apple-jack  to  every  man  who  said 
"Mt.  Clinton."  And  so  Mt.  Clinton  it  came  to  be.  Before 
this  the  place  was  referred  to  as  Muddy  Creek,  and  was  al- 
ready the  site  of  a  mill,  a  tilt  hammer,  a  cooper  shop,  etc. 
The  meeting-house  nearby  was  known  as  Gospel  Hill.  Hen- 
ton  &'  Burkholder  were  general  merchants  at  Mt.  Clinton 
as  early  as  1833,  perhaps  earlier.  About  1895  the  village 
came  into  prominence  as  the  seat  of  West  Central  Academy, 
mentioned  in  Chapter  XV.  The  population  is  (1912)  about 

Cross  Keys  is  an  ancient  village,  being  mentioned  by 
Martin  in  1835  as  a  postoffice.  There  have  been  a  church  and 
a  store  at  Cross  Keys  for  several  generations,  and  the  place 
was  made  famous  by  the  battle  fought  there  June  8,  1862,  be- 
tween Fremont  and  Ewell.     The  population  is  about  50. 

Spring  Creek  is  a  village  of  about  200  people,  situated  in 
a  prosperous  farming  section  of  western  Rockingham.  It 
maintains  various  local  enterprises,  and  should  be  remem- 
bered as  the  place  where  Bridgewater  College  had  its  begin- 
nings in  1880. 

Ottobine,  or  Paul's  Mill,  on  Beaver  Creek,  the  site  of  a 
mill,  a  church,  a  postoffice,  etc.,  has  been  well  known  for 
many  years.  For  example,  as  early  as  1838,  possibly  before, 
it  was  a  place  of  muster.     The  population  is  about  60. 

Another  village  of  western  Rockingham,  surrounded  by 
beautiful  farms,  is  Clover  Hill,  with  a  population  of  about  70. 



Rushville,  at  the  confluence  of  Muddy  Creek  and  Dry- 
River,  with  a  population  of  about  60,  has  been  well  known  in 
the  county  for  many  years. 

Stemphleytown,  between  Dayton  and  Bridgewater,  has 
borne  its  name  since  the  40's  or  50's  from  David  Stemphley, 
the  first  resident.     The  population  is  about  40. 

In  December,  1866,  Jacob  Funkhouser,  C.  E.,  was  laying 
off  a  town  at  Kratzer's  Spring,  on  the  Middle  Road.  This 
was  evidently  the  village  now  called  Linville,  located  a  short 
distance  south  of  Linville  Depot.  About  1870  the  name  Etna 
was  applied  to  a  certain  part  of  Linville.  The  present  popu- 
lation (1912)  is  about  250. 

River  Bank,  near  McGaheysville,  should  receive  special 
notice,  in  addition  to  other  things,  for  the  mere  fact  of  its  ex- 
istence, since  it  has  probably  been  washed  away  of  tener  than 
any  other  place  in  the  county.  The  bridge  built  at  River 
Bank  soon  after  the  war  was  swept  away  in  1870.  In  1873  a 
mill  was  erected  and  plans  perfected  for  the  rebuilding  of  the 
bridge.  The  leaders  of  River  Bank  industry  at  that  time 
were  J.  H.  Larkins,  W.  B.  Yancey,  R.  A.  Gibbons,  and  Henry 
E.  Sipe.  In  January,  1874,  three  spans  of  the  new  bridge 
were  swept  away  by  a  freshet;  and  in  the  big  flood  of  1877 
not  only  the  bridge,  but  also  the  grist  mill  and  saw  mill,  went 
down  in  the  waters.  In  1874  a  postoffice  was  established  at 
River  Bank,  with  E.  L.  Lambert,  postmaster. 

Grottoes,  whilom  Shendun,  owes  its  meteoric  phases  to 
the  "booms"  of  1890,  its  permanent  character  to  the  fertility 
in  the  soils,  the  caves  in  the  hills,  and  the  ores  in  the  moun- 
tains about  it.  Mt.  Vernon  Forge  had  marked  the  place  of 
old.  In  March,  1891,  it  was  alive  with  industries.  Males 
430,  with  females  279,  made  a  total  population  of  709,  show- 
ing an  increase  of  100^^  in  about  five  months.  In  February, 
1892,  an  Act  of  Assembly  was  passed  incorporating  the  town 
of  Shendun;  W.  I.  Harnsberger  was  elected  mayor,  R.  T. 
Miller,  E.  R.  Armentrout,  J.  W.  Rumple,  J.  G.  Hall,  J.  M. 
Pirkey,  L.  D.  Patterson  councilmen.  In  March,  1893,  re- 
ceivers were  appointed  for  the  Grottoes  Company,  at  Shen- 



dun.  This  year  (1912)  another  Act  was  passed  changing  the 
name  of  the  town  from  Shendun  to  Grottoes.  The  present 
population  is  about  400.  C.  D.  Harnsberger  is  mayor;  J.  E. 
Graves,  assessor;  R.  D.  Melhorn,  treasurer;  S.  F.  Newman, 
sergeant;  J.  M.  Pirkey,  J.  W.  Lemon,  M.  D.  Eutsler,  W.  I. 
Harnsberger,  J.  M.  Bell,  and  J.  L.  Leeth,  councilmen. 

In  1893  street  cars  were  running  in  Shendun.  This,  so 
far  as  is  known,  gives  the  place  a  unique  distinction  among 
the  towns  of  Rockingham.  In  the  Rockingham  Register  of 
January  30,  1891,  the  following  item  of  interest  appeared: 

"The  first  child  born  in  Shendun  was  a  daughter  to  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  W.  I.  Harnsberger,  and  granddaughter  of  Hon.  H. 
B.  Harnsberger,  of  Port  Republic.  It  was  named  Shendun 
Bell,  the  latter  name  in  compliment  of  Maj.  H.  M.  Bell,  of 
Staunton,  one  of  the  principal  promoters  of  Shendun." 

In  the  following  table  are  given  the  names  of  villages, 
postoffices,  etc.,  of  Rockingham  not  already  mentioned, 
grouped  by  districts.  In  column  (1)  are  names  that  appeared 
in  Lake's  atlas  of  1885;  in  column  (2)  are  the  names  that  now 
appear  in  Rand  McNally's  map  of  Virginia;  in  column  (3) 
are  given  figures  of  present  population,  as  nearly  as  these 
can  be  approximated;  in  column  (4)  are  given  the  years  in 
which  postoffices  were  established  at  some  of  these  places; 
and  in  column  (5)  the  names  of  first  postmasters. 

Ashby  District 



(3)            (4) 


j  Meyerhoef- 

j  Meyerhoef- 

(  fers  Store 

(  fers  Store 


Goods  Mill 

Goods  Mill 

25           1871 

Saml.  Good 

Scotts  Ford 

Scotts  Ford 


North  River 

North  River 

25            1874 

J.  J.  Roller 




J  Pleasant 
1    Valley 

j  Pleasant 

(  Valley 

80  LRockinghamP.O. 













W.   H.  Sipe 

j  Spring  Creek 
(       Station 



Central  District 






Peach  Grove 


Dale  Enterprise  D.  Enterprise 



C.  H.  Brunk 








W.  E.  Long 


Penn  Laird 


Chestnut  Ridge 


John  Miller 


Pleasant  Hill 











Mt.  Tabor 





R.  Arnientrout 

Cherry  Grove 

Ch.  Grove 








Ft.  Hoover" 







11-  Ft.  Hoover,  a  small  structure  mainly  of  stone,  used  in  later  times 
(and  likely  in  earlier  times  also)  as  a  dwelling,  stood  at  the  west  foot  of 
Green  Hill,  on  the  north  bank  of  Joe's  Creek,  a  mile  below  Singer's  Glen. 
A  low  mound,  with  a  few  scattered  bits  of  stone,  now  marks  the  place. 


Elk  ton  Hotel 

Mountain  Valle.\ — SinRers  Glen.     An  Artist's  Dream -Home  of  the     "Harnnnia  Sacra" 

I,oe  Hmisc  in  C.  titer.  I'iisi   I'ostollu'e  in  Rockineliam     (Paire  I'l'.' i 

Stonewall  Jack.sons  nea<iiiuarters  at  Klkton-     Blue  Riilvre  Mountains  in  Hai-k)fr<uinil 

(F'atre  I'.i?) 


Plains  District 




(4)         (5) 










Tenth  Legion 

Tenth  Legion 






Bakers  Mill 

Bakers  Mill 


Fulks  Run 

Fulks  Run 



G.  W.  Fawley 






W.  R.  Crider 









Stonewall  District. 




(4)         (5) 

Swift  Run 

Swift  Run 










W.  H.  Marshall 




C.  W.  Shepp 









C.  M.  Killian 





A.  L.  Wagner 


1872  S.B.  McCommon 


Island  Ford 











In  addition  to  the  foregoing,  the  following  notes  may  be 
of  interest. 

In  1840  Nicholas'  Tavern  was  a  well  known  place  in  East 

In  1842  there  was  a  place,  evidently  in  Rockingham, 
called  Libertyville. 

In  1863  Burke's  Mill  was  a  postofRce  in  Rockingham. 

In  1870  a  postofRce  was  established  at  Mt.  Vernon  Forge, 
D.  F.  Haynes,  P.  M. 

In  1873  a  postoffice  was  established  at  Belton,  Rocking- 
ham County. 

The  postoffice  at  Melrose  was  re-established  in  1873. 

In  1879  there  was  a  place  in  northwest  Rockingham 
called  "Yankeetown," 

In  1890  Mt.  Hermon  P.  0.  was  established,  with  J.  M. 
Lam  postmaster. 

In  1891  Amberly  P.  0.  was  established,  with  J.  W.  Tate 

In  1893  a  postoffice  was  established  at  Bear  Lithia,  J.  T. 
Taylor,  P.  M.'^ 

13.  In  addition  to  those  already  named,  Mrs.  Thos.  Kille  of  Harrison- 
burg, Mr.  J.  A.  Garber  of  Timberville,  MissiPaulinalWinfield  of  Broad- 
way, and  Mr.  J.  R.  Shipman  of  Bridgewater  have  given  aid  on  this  chap- 
ter, and  to  them  grateful  acknowledgement  is  made. 


Nothing  is  of  more  importance  in  the  economic  history 
of  any  county  or  country  than  the  development  of  faciUties 
for  travel,  transportation,  and  communication.  In  this  chap- 
ter an  attempt  is  made  to  chronicle  some  of  the  more  impor- 
tant steps  in  the  building  and  supervision  of  roads  and  rail- 
roads in  Rockingham  County,  together  with  certain  particulars 
regarding  telegraphs  and  telephones. 

In  February,  1744,  Peter  Scholl  and  others  living  on 
Smith's  Creek  petitioned  the  court  (of  Augusta  County)  for 
a  road.  They  said  they  had  to  v^^ork  on  a  road  30  miles  dis- 
tant from  their  plantations.  This  sounds  as  if  there  were  no 
legally  established  roads  in  this  part  of  the  Valley  at  that 
time.  A  year  later  James  Patton  and  John  Buchanan  re- 
ported that  they  had  viewed  a  way  from  the  Frederick 
County  line,  and  the  court  ordered  it  established  as  a  public 
road. '  Whether  this  road  was  east  or  west  of  the  Massa- 
nutten  Mountain  cannot,  perhaps,  be  determined,  but  it  must 
in  either  case  have  been  much  nearer  than  30  miles  to  Smith's 

In  1753  when  the  Moravian  Brethren  came  up  the  Valley 
with  a  wagon  there  were  some  passable  roads  west  of  the 
Massanutten,  along  by  the  places  where  New  Market,  Lacey 
Springs,  and  Harrisonburg  now  are;  but  these  roads  were 
not  in  good  order.  It  is  possible  that  the  main  thoroughfare 
at  this  time  and  for  some  years  afterward  passed,  not  by 
Harrisonburg,  but  by  Keezletown.  There  is  an  old  ford 
across  Middle  River,  about  four  miles  above  Port  Republic, 
known  as  Pennsylvania  Ford.  This  seems  to  indicate  that 
travelers  and  immigrants  from  Pennsylvania  crossed  at  that 

1.  Waddell's  Annals  of  Augusta,  pp.  47,  48. 


point;  and  it  may  be  that  this  ford  was  on  the  main  road  up 
the  Valley  in  very  early  times. 

Bishop  L.  J.  Heatwole  tells  me  that  there  was  a  very  old 
trail  from  the  Old  Fields,  in  Hardy  County,  W.  Va.,  to  Wil- 
liamsburg, that  came  through  Brock's  Gap,  past  Joe's  Spring 
at  Singer's  Glen,  past  Greenmount,  and  past  the  Big  Spring 
at  Harrisonburg,  and  so  on  across  the  Valley  just  above  the 
Peaked  Mountain,  crossing  the  Blue  Ridge  by  Brown's  Gap.^ 
In  March,  1910,  or  thereabout,  Mr.  Heatwole  contributed  an 
interesting  article  to  the  Harrisonburg  Daily  News  on  the 
first  postoffice  in  Rockingham  County,  in  which  he  made 
reference  to  this  old  trail.  The  postoffice,  which  was  likely 
such  only  by  common  agreement  of  residents,  messengers, 
and  travelers,  was  at  the  Liskey  farm,  a  mile  and  a  half 
northwest  of  Harrisonburg,  probably  in  the  old  log  house  still 
standing  over  the  spring.  It  stood  by  or  near  the  old  Wil- 
liamsburg trail. 

At  a  court  held  for  Rockingham  County  on  Tuesday, 
May  26,  1778,  and  continued  from  the  preceding  day,  the  fol- 
lowing road  overseers  were  appointed: 

Henry  Lung  of  the  road  "from  the  big  hill  to  the  Line  of 
Shanandoe  County"; 

George  Huffman  of  the  road  '  'from  the  big  hill  to  Henry 

Henry  Miller  of  the  road  "from  his  own  house  to  the 
Top  of  the  Mountain  over  Swift  Run  Gap"; 

Paul  Ingle  of  the  road  "from  the  fork  of  the  road  lead- 
ing to  Swift  Run  Gap  to  Casper  Haines  Shop"; 

Casper  Haines  of  the  road  "from  his  Shop  to  the  main 
road  leading  from  Staunton  to  Winchester"; 

Stephen  Conrad  of  the  road  "in  the  room  of  Frederick 

2.  Brown's  Gap  was  formerly  known  as  Madison's  Gap.  The  stream 
flowing  out  of  it  is  still  called  Madison  Run.  The  Madisons,  it  will  be  re- 
called, lived  just  above  Port  Republic. 



John  Frazier  of  the  road  "from  the  Augusta  Line  to 
John  Stephensons  run"; 

Jacob  Perkie  of  the  road  "from  Stephensons  run  to  John 
Keplingers  place  formerly  Samples"; 

David  Harnett  of  the  road  *  'from  John  Keplingers  form- 
erly Samples  to  Zeb  Harrisons  ford  on  Smiths  Creek"; 

John  Philips  of  the  road  "from  Zebulon  Harrisons  ford 
to  the  Line  of  Shanandoe"; 

Jacob  Woodley  of  the  road  "from  the  ford  on  this  side  of 

Sebastian  Marts  to  Reuben  Harrisons"; 

Jeremiah  Harrison  of  the  road  "from  Reuben  Harrisons 
toDanl.  Smiths  Gent"; 

Jeremiah  Reagan  of  the  road  "from  Danl.  Smiths  to  the 
run  that  comes  from  Geo.  Seawrights  field"; 

Joseph  Dictam  of  the  road  "from  the  run  that  comes 
from  Geo.  Seawrights  field  to  the  line  of  Augusta"; 

John  Pence  of  the  road  *  'from  the  ford  of  the  river  at 
Gabl.  Jones's  to  Felix  Gilbert's"; 

Robt.  Elliot  of  the  road  "from  Felix  Gilberts  to  Danl. 
Smiths  house"; 

Joseph  Lear  of  the  road  "from  Danl.  Smiths  to  the  ford 
of  Lin  veils  Creek  at  Thos.  Brian's"; 

Marten  Gum  of  the  road  "from  the  ford  of  Lin  veils 
Creek  at  Thoms.  Bryans  to  the  fork  of  the  Road  on  this  Side 
of  Jno.  Thomas's  mill"; 

John  Ruddell  of  the  road  "from  Chas.  Daillys  Ford  to 
the  upper  Ford  of  Michael  Baker"; 

Paul  Gustard  of  the  road  "from  Michael  Bakers  upper 
ford  to  the  County  Line  on  Cacapon"; 

Marten  Witsel  of  the  road  "from  the  fork  of  the  Cacapon 
road  to  the  top  of  the  mountain  by  Weatherholts"; 

John  Bear  of  the  road  "from  Daillys  ford  down  the  River 
to  the  Line  of  Shanandoe  County"; 

Andrew  Andes  of  the  road  "from  Chas.  Daillys  ford 
under  the  No.  Mountain  to  the  line  of  Shanandoe"; 



Rees  Thomas  of  the  road  "from  Daillys  ford  to  Thos. 

Thomas  Fulton  of  the  road  "from  Thos.  Gordons  to  the 
Line  of  Augusta"; 

Thomas  Bowen  of  the  road  "from  the  fork  of  the  road 
above  Thomas's  Mill  to  the  Pine  Tree  between  Francis  Greens 
&Thos.  Campbells"; 

John  Herdman  of  the  road  "from  the  sd.  pine  tree  to 
Harrisons  Mill  pond"; 

William  Herring  of  the  road  "from  Harrison's  Mill  pond 
to  the  forks  of  the  road  below  Jno.  Fowlers"; 

Gawin  Hamilton  of  the  road  '  'from  Rices  Cabin  in  dry 
river  Gap  to  Ben j.  Harrisons." 

In  each  case  above  it  was  provided  that  '  'the  usual  tith- 
ables  work  thereon. ' '  The  minutes  of  subsequent  courts  show 
that  numerous  changes  were  made  from  time  to  time  in  the 
personnel  of  the  road  masters. 

At  a  court  held  November  24,  1778,  '  'On  the  petition  of 
Sundry  Inhabitants  in  the  forest  for  turning  the  road  leading 
from  Brocks  Gap  to  Massenutting,  Ordered  that  Maths. 
Reader,  Jno.  More  &  Nicolas  Cairn  do  view  the  Conveniencies 
&  Inconveniencies  attending  turning  the  road  as  prayed  by 
the  petitioners  &  report  the  same." 

March  23,  1779. 

Benj.  Harrison,  Joseph  Dictam,  Danl.  Smith,  and  Jere- 
miah Reagen  were  appointed  to  view  a  road  from  Danl. 
Smith's  plantation  to  James  Magill's  ford  on  the  North  River, 
and  report  pro  and  con  on  the  same. 

Christopher  Our  was  appointed  overseer  of  the  road  from 
Danl.  Smith's  to  the  dry  fork  in  place  of  Jeremiah  Harrison. 

William  Chesnut  was  appointed  overseer  of  the  road  from 
Thos.  Gordon's  to  Dry  River,  the  tithables  within  3  miles  of 
the  said  road  to  work  thereon. 

G.  Hamilton  and  Jno.  Rice  were  appointed  to  view  the 
Brock's  Gap  Road  that  crosses  Dry  River  and  make  report. 



Saml.  Skidmore  was  appointed  overseer  of  the  road  from 
Hampshire  Line  to  Joseph  Skidmore's. 

April  27,  1779. 
On  favorable  report  of  viewers  previously  appointed,  the 
court  ordered  a  road  opened  from  Danl.  Smith's  to  the  ford  of 
the  North  River,  by  James  McGill's;  Richd.  Reagan  was  ap- 
pointed overseer  of  the  same  from  Smith's  to  where  the  new 
road  would  cross  the  Butler  Road;  Nehemiah  Harrison,  from 
the  Butler  Road  to  Coll.  Benja.  Harrison's;  William  McGill, 
from  Harrison's  to  the  ford  of  the  river:  all  the  tithables 
within  3  miles  to  work  on  their  respective  portions. 

May  25,  1779. 

James  McVey  was  appointed  overseer  of  the  road  from 
Archd.  Hopkins'  milP  to  Nehemiah  Harrison's. 

November  23,  1779. 

Robt.  Rutherford,  Michl.  Warren,  and  James  Reagan  were 
appointed  to  view  and  mark  the  nearest  and  best  ground  for 
a  road  from  mill  at  the  plains  to  the  courthouse  at  Thos.  Har- 

Joseph  Dictam,  Ezekiel  Harrison,  and  John  Huston  were 
appointed  to  view  and  mark  the  nearest  and  best  ground  for 
a  road  from  the  courthouse  to  George  Huston's. 

Nehemiah  Harrison,  John  Rice,  and  Gawen  Hamilton  were 
appointed  to  view  and  mark  roads  from  Briary  Branch  Gap 
and  Dry  River  Gap  to  the  courthouse. 

Joseph  Smith  was  made  overseer  of  the  road  from  Benj. 
Harrison's  to  Gawen  Hamilton's,  and  John  Rice  of  the  road 
from  Gawen  Hamilton's  to  the  feeding  trough  in  the  moun- 

March  27,  1780. 

Archbd.  Hopkins,  John  Hopkins,  and  John  Harrison  were 
appointed  to  view  the  route  for  a  road  petitioned  for  from 
Hopkins'  Mill  to  the  courthouse. 

3.  This  mill  was  likely  the  one  on  Muddy  Creek,  atChrisman,  now  oper- 
ated by  H.  L.  Burtner. 



March  28,  1780. 

Ab.  Hankie,  George  Teter,  and  Robt.  Minnis  were  ap- 
pointed to  view  and  mark  a  road  from  the  Augusta  Hne  to  the 
line  of  Hampshire,  down  the  No.  Fork. 

Jo.  Dictam,  Saml.  Hemphill,  and  William  Cravens  were 
appointed  to  view  and  mark  a  road  from  Ezekiel  Harrison's 
to  the  Walnut  Bottom— "the  nearest  and  best  Way." 

April  24,  1780. 

William  Campbell  was  made  overseer  of  the  Rockfish  road, 
from  James  Bairet's  to  Jacob  Whitmore's,  the  tithables  within 
two  miles  on  each  side  of  the  road  to  work  thereon. 

It  was  ordered  that  the  tithables  within  four  miles  on  each 
side  of  the  road  from  the  run  at  Robt.  Rutherford's  to  the 
Plains  Mill  work  under  Ezekiel  Harrison,  overseer  thereof. 

Aug.  29,  1780. 

Upon  report  of  the  viewers,  it  was  ordered  that  the  roads 
from  Briery  Branch  and  Dry  River  gaps  be  opened.  Joseph 
Hinton  was  appointed  overseer  from  the  Briery  Branch  road 
in  Collo.  Smith's  land  to  where  it  crosses  the  first  fork  of  the 
Mole  Hill  draught;  Alex.  Miller,  Jr.,  from  the  said  fork  to 
the  courthouse. 

March  26,  1781. 

John  Hopkens,  Jesse  Harrison  [?],  and  Rees  Thomas  were 
appointed  to  view  a  road  from  Geo.  Baxters,  leading  to  Brock's 
Gap,  to  the  lower  end  of  Josiah  Davison's  land. 

May  28,  1781. 
On  its  being  represented  to  the  Court  that  the  Court  of  hampshire 
have  order'd  persons  to  view  the  Ground  from  Leonard  Stumps  to  the 
deviding  Line  between  that  County  &  this  for  a  Road  to  lead  from  the 
Courtho  of  sd  County  to  the  Seat  of  Government,  &  praymg  this  Court 
to  appoint  viewers  from  this  County  Line  to  the  foot  of  the  Mountain  on 
this  Side  in  order  to  effect  such  a  necessary  Design,  it  is  ordered  that 
Jno  Fitzwater  Conrod  Humble  Martin  Witsell  &  Henry  Witsell  or  any 
three  of  them  being  first  sworn  do  view  the  Ground  from  the  County 
Line  to  the  foot  of  the  Mountain  leading  to  the  head  waters  of  Cacapon  or 
the  Gap  Waters  as  the  Ground  will  best  Suit  and  report  the  Conveniences 



&  Inconveniences  attending  the  making  of  the  sd  Road  &  in  particular 
what  Labour  &  Expense  may  attend  the  Digging  bridging  &c  of  the 

August  27,  1781. 

On  the  petition  of  the  Inhabitants  of  Brocks  that  a  convenient  Road 
may  be  opened  to  the  Courtho  O  that  John  Thomas  Rees  Thomas  Peter 
Hog  &  George  Spiers  or  any  three  being  first  sworn  do  view  the  nearest 
&  best  Way  from  the  Gap  to  the  road  at  Michl.  Warens. 

November  27,  1781. 

Capt.  James  Magill  was  appointed  overseer  of  the  road 
from  Capt.  Ben.  Harrison's  to  the  county  Hne,  "leading  to 
the  Iron  Works." 

O  that  the  Tiths.  from  the  picked  Mountain  on  one  side  &  two  miles 
on  the  other  side  of  the  road  work  under  Jacob  Woodly  overseer  of  the 
road  from  the  forks  to  the  big  Spring. 

April  1,  1782. 

Ordered  that  Nicholas  Karn  be  appointed  overseer  of  the 
road  in. the  room  of  Ezekiel  Harrison  "from  the  Plain  Mills  to 
opposite  Val.  Seveyors  old  House  in  the  Long  Meadow  includ- 
ing the  Branch  or  Creek." 

May  28,  1782. 

It  was  ordered  that  Felix  Gilbert,  John  Harrison,  and 
Henry  Ewin,  being  first  sworn,  should  view  "the  Nearest  and 
Best  Way  from  the  Courthouse  [to]  The  ford  of  Cub  run  By 
Wm.  Young  and  Mark  ye  Same  and  Make  Return  of  their 
proceedings  To  Next  Crt" 

May  27,   1783. 

Robt.  Dunlap  was  appointed  overseer  of  the  road  in  place 
of  Henry  Ewin,  the  tithables  "This  Side  of  Gap  Road"  to 
work  thereon  '  'As  far  as  a  Crooked  Locust  where  Blain's  Road 
Crosses  the  sd.  Road";  and  David  Bery  was  appointed  over- 
seer from  Hopkins'  Mill  to  the  said  locust  on  the  said  road. 

James  Devier  was  appointed  overseer  to  open  the  road 
from  Harrisonburg  "To  Where  the  sd.  Road  Will  fall  Into  the 
path  Crossing  the  big  Hill  and  That  all  Tithables  within  three 



miles  on  each  side  Work  thereon";  and  Felix  Gilbert  was 
made  overseer  from  Cub  Run  to  the  said  place  on  the  hill. 

In  June,  1784,  a  petition  was  presented  to  the  court  by 
sundry  inhabitants  of  the  county  for  a  road  from  the  county 
line,  by  Plain  Mills,  to  Harrisonburg.  Brewer  Reeves,  Ezekiel 
Harrison,  Jeremiah  Ragan,  and  Robert  Rutherford,  or  any 
three  of  them,  were  appointed  to  view  the  proposed  road  and 
make  report.  At  the  next  court,  July  26,  Reeves,  Harrison, 
and  Ragan  reported  that  they  had  laid  off  the  road  as  follows: 

Beginning  at  the  county  line,  running  thence  near  by 
George  Ruddel's,  thence  near  to  John  Moor's,  thence  crossing 
the  river  opposite  Moor's  house,  thence  to  Michael  Holsinger's, 
thence  into  the  former  road  near  John  Reeves's,  it  was  to 
continue  thence  with  the  said  former  road  to  Harrisonburg. 
Nicolas  Carn  was  appointed  overseer  of  the  new  road  from  the 
county  line  to  Cam's  (or  Carr's)  Spring.  Jacob  Lincoln  was 
to  be  overseer  from  the  said  spring  to  Michael  Warrin's,  and 
Benj.  Smith  from  Warrin's  to  Harrisonburg. 

At  the  August  court,  1784,  Joseph  Dictum,  William  Fow- 
ler, and  George  Snodding  reported  that  they  had  laid  off  a 
road  from  Harrisonburg  to  the  line  of  Augusta,  toward 
Staunton,  as  follows: 

Keeping  the  old  [road]  past  Edwd.  Shanklins  and  from  thence  Cross- 
ing the  North  River  below  Fowlers  Still  house  from  thence  past  Hugh 
Campbell  and  past  the  three  Springs  leads  to  a  place  called  the  read  Banks 
near  the  County  line. 

In  an  old  almanac,  for  the  year  1788,  published  at  Phila- 
delphia or  Baltimore,  is  found  the  following  table  of  dis- 
tances on  the  road  from  Philadelphia  to  the  Falls  of  the  Ohio^ 


Winchester  20  miles 

Newtown  8      ' ' 

Stover's  town        10    " 




Woodstock  12  miles 

Shanandoah  river  15     " 

North  branch        29     " 

Stanton  15    " 

North  fork  J.  riv.  15     " 

James  river  18    " 

Botetort  C.  H.       12     " 

A  corresponding  table  of  distances,  from  Winchester  to 
the  Falls  of  the  Ohio,  is  found  in  "The  Virginia  and  Farm- 
er's Almanac"  for  1792,  printed  and  published  at  Winchester 
by  Richard  Bowen.  The  name  "Stephensburg"  appears  in 
Bowen's  table  in  place  of  "Newtown."  Bowen  styles  him- 
self "The  North  Mountain  Philosopher." 

In  Benjamin  Banneker's  Pennsylvania,  Delaware,  Mary- 
land, and  Virginia  Almanac  for  1794,  printed  at  Baltimore,  is 
a  table  of  places  and  distances  on  the  road  from  Baltimore  to 
Knoxville,  containing  the  following: 

Harper's  Ferry  to  Charles-Town  12 

to  Stone's  Tavern 


to  Winchester 


to  New-Town 


to  Stover's-Town 


to  Woodstock 


to  Newmarket 


to  Harnet's 


to  Keesletown 


to  Ten-Mile  Stage 


to  Staunton 





to  Miller's  12 

to  Steel's  Mill  6^ 

It  will  be  observed  that  the  route  indicated  in  the  table 
just  above  goes  east  of  Harrisonburg,  past  Keezletown,  to 
Staunton  and  places  further  on.  "Harnet"  was  probably 
David  Harnet,  who  is  frequently  mentioned  in  the  old  records 
of  the  county.  Evidently  he  lived  two  or  three  miles  east  or 
northeast  of  Harrisonburg. 

As  early  as  1789  an  Act  of  Assembly  was  passed  for  re- 
pairing the  Swift  Run  Gap  road.  In  1809-10  an  Act  was 
passed  to  incorporate  it. 

The  late  Capt.  J.  S.  Harnsberger  informed  me  that  one 
of  the  first  roads  built  into  Rockingham  County  came  down 
from  Staunton  to  Port  Republic,  and  passed  thence  on  the 
east  side  of  the  river  down  to  Swift  Run  Gap. 

Mr.  Geo.  F.  Compton,  in  his  chapters  on  the  early  history 
of  Rockingham,  says; 

From  1790  to  1800  about  $3,000  was  appropriated  to  putting  the 
Swift  Run  Gap  Road  in  order,  and  this  was  at  that  time  the  main  road  of 
the  county. 

The  road  to  which  Mr.  Compton  refers  was  doubtless  the 
one  going  eastward  from  Harrisonburg,  through  Swift  Run 

A  map  of  the  Waterman  lands,  made  in  1795  (and  amended 
in  1811)  shows  an  old  "Road  from Frankline  to  Winchester." 
It  came  across  the  Shenandoah  Mountain  between  Tomahawk 
Mountain  and  Brush  Ridge,  and,  after  coming  on  eastward  to 
or  toward  Little  North  Mountain,  went  down  on  the  west 
side  of  Little  North  Mountain,  through  or  past  Brock's 
Gap.  5 

4-  I  am  indebted  to  the  kindness  of  Hon.  Geo.  N.  Conrad,  of  Harris- 
burg,  for  the  loan  of  the  above  almanacs. 

5.  At  the  time  referred  to  Dr.  Asher  Waterman  of  Harrisonburg 
owned  93,000  acres  in  what  is  now  West  Rockingham  and  Pendleton.  I 
was  allowed  to  examine  the  old  map  above  mentioned  through  the  kind- 
ness of  Mr.  A.  G.  Waterman,  of  New  York,  and  Mr.  Ed.  C.  Martz  of 



In  the  Rockingham  Register  of  October  5,  1876,  I  find  a 
statement  that  in  1826,  and  thereabouts,  the  Keezletown 
Road  was  the  principal  thoroughfare  of  this  part  of  the 

In  1827-8  and  in  1836-7  Acts  were  passed  by  the  Assembly 
authorizing  the  Rockingham  County  court  to  make  contracts 
for  repairing  the  Dry  River  Gap  road. 

In  1829-30  an  Act  was  passed  to  incorporate  the  Warm 
Springs  and  Harrisonburg  Turnpike  Company;  the  next  year 
the  Harrisonburg  and  Thornton's  Gap  Turnpike  Company 
was  incorporated;  and  in  1832-3  the  powers  of  the  court  were 
enlarged  for  the  purpose  of  opening  roads  from  Harrison- 
burg to  Charlottesville. 

In  March,  1834.  an  Act  was  passed  providing  for  the  con- 
struction of  a  road  from  Skidmore's  Fork,  in  Rockingham,  to 
South  Fork,  in  Pendleton. 

In  the  same  month  and  year  the  Act  was  passed  author- 
izing the  construction  of  the  Valley  Turnpike,  from  Winches- 
ter to  Harrisonburg;  and  about  two  years  later  another  Act 
was  passed  granting  a  charter  for  the  Harrisonburg  and 
Staunton  Turnpike.  These  two  roads,  which  soon  became 
one,  have  since  become  celebrated,  and  for  two  or  three  gen- 
erations have  constituted  the  main  highway  of  the  Valley. 
Trotter's  stages,  Jackson's  Foot  Cavalry,  and  Miss  Mary 
Johnston's  "Long  Roll,"  as  well  as  the  pathfinders  of  the 
national  automobile  highway,  have  found  it  good  and  have 
left  it  more  famous.  ^ 

In  1849  an  Act  of  Assembly  authorized  the  spending  of 
a  sum  of  money,  not  to  exceed  $333,  for  the  purpose  of  fin- 
ishing and  improving  the  mountain  part  of  the  road  from 
Harrisonburg,  through  Brock's  Gap,  to  Moorefield. 

In  1850  the  Rockingham  Turnpike  Company  was  author- 
ized to  build  a  macadamized  road  from  some  point  at  or 
near  Stanardsville,  via  Swift  Run  Gap,  to  some  point  on  the 
Valley  Turnpike.     The  point  chosen  was  Harrisonburg,  and 

6.  For  more  particulars  concerning  this  road  see   Wayland's  "German 
Element,"  pp.  209-212. 



the  road  has  been  an  important  highway  across  the  eastern 
part  of  the  Valley  ever  since.  It  has  been  out  of  private 
control  for  a  number  of  years. 

In  March,  1851,  the  Harrisonburg  and  Franklin  Turnpike 
Company  was  incorporated. 

January  15,  1867,  an  act  was  passed  authorizing  the 
Warm  Springs  and  Harrisonburg  Turnpike  Company  to  charge 
a  toll  of  three  cents  on  all  persons  walking  over  the  bridge 
at  Bridgewater.  The  writer  well  remembers  the  first  infor- 
mation he  had  of  this  provision.  It  was  received  about 
nineteen  years  ago,  this  month  or  next,  shortly  after  he  had 
become  a  citizen  of  Rockingham  and  a  resident  of  Bridge- 
water.  But  he  has  a  shrewd  suspicion  that  some  of  the  older 
residents  of  the  town  have  not  known  of  it  until  this  day. 

In  the  Rockingham  Register  of  January  9,  1868,  the  fol- 
lowing notice  appeared  concerning  the  stage  lines  on  the 
Valley  Pike: 

The  old  and  well-known  stage  line  of  Trotter  &  Bro. ,  in  the  Shenan- 
doah Valley,   is  now  making  its  regular  trips  between    Staunton  and 

Winchester,   twice  daily,  (Sundays  excepted) the  stages  leave 

Staunton  and  Winchester  in  the  morning  as  well  as  in  the  evening.  .  .  . 

Jos.  Andrews,  Agt. 

Trotter  &  Bro.  co-operated  at  Staunton  with  Col.  M.  G. 
Harman,  who  was  also  a  famous  master  of  travel. 

In  February,  1868,  it  was  announced  that  Trotter  &  Co.'s 
daylight  line  between  Staunton  and  Winchester  had  been 
taken  off,  owing  to  a  decrease  in  travel;  and  that  the  night 
line  had  been  quickened.  In  1870,  after  the  railroad  had 
come  in  from  Strasburg  to  Harrisonburg,  the  Trotters  were 
still  operating  their  stages  as  connecting  links  between 
Staunton  and  Harrisonburg,  at  one  end,  and  between  Stras- 
burg and  Winchester,  at  the  other. 

In  March,  1868,  the  editor  of  the  Register,  evidently 
having  in  prospect  the  completion  of  the  railroad  to  Harrison- 
burg, advocated  a  wagon  road  from  Harrisonburg  to  Frank- 
Hn.     He  says: 

We  once  had  a  charter  for  a  road  from  this  place  to  Franklin,  but 



through  the  neglect  of  those  interested  and  squabbles  about  routes,  the 
whole  thing  went  down,  and  we  are  yet  without  this  necessary  and 
important  highway. 

At  the  June  court,  following,  Peter  Paul  was  appointed 
to  confer  with  the  authorities  of  Pendleton  regarding  the 
repairs  of  a  road  leading  across  the  Shenandoah  Mountain, 
into  Pendleton,  and  to  make  report.  From  time  to  time  the 
road  between  the  two  county-seats  (Harrisonburg  and  Frank- 
lin) has  been  improved,  and  Harrisonburg  has  been  the  chief 
depot  on  the  railroad  for  the  citizens  of  Pendleton  for  many 
years.  About  1907  the  road  across  the  mountain,  for  a 
distance  of  four  miles, — from  Dry  River  to  the  top  of  the 
Shenandoah  Mountain,— was  made  better  than  ever  before. 
Joseph  G.  Myers  was  surveyor.  Hoover  &  Andes  were  the 
contractors.  The  road  from  bottom  to  top  was  put  on  a 
grade  of  3|  degrees;  the  old  road  at  some  points  had  a  grade 
of  9  degrees. 

Attention  has  already  been  called  to  the  fact,  in  Chapter 
Vni,  that  the  great  material  revival  in  Rockingham  in  the 
half  dozen  or  more  years  following  1865  consisted  in  large 
measure  in  the  building  of  roads — opening  new  ones  and  im- 
proving old  ones.  Generally,  this  road-making  may  be  ac- 
counted for  as  part  and  parcel  of  economic  reconstruction; 
particularly,  it  is  explained  by  the  completion  of  the  railroad 
to  Harrisonburg  in  the  winter  of  1868-9.  The  coming  of  the 
railroad  stimulated  the  building  and  improving  of  wagon 

In  September,  1868,  a  new  road  from  Port  Republic  to 
Harrisonburg  was  surveyed  by  Harnsberger  &  Kemper,  who 
thus  reduced  the  distance  to  10^  miles, — Ih  miles  less  than 
by  any  old  road.  An  incident  of  the  enterprise  was  the  send- 
ing up  of  rockets  one  night  at  Harrisonburg,  to  enable  the 
engineers  to  get  the  exact  bearings  of  the  course.  But  let 
no  one  innocently  suppose  that  this  road  was  or  is  straight. 
The  Valley  Pike,  the  Keezletown  Road,  the  Middle  Road  (pass- 
ing Linville,  Timberville,  etc.),  and  other  roads  that  run  up 
and  down  the  Valley,  parallel  with  the  ranges  of  mountains 



and  the  ridges  of  hills,  follow  courses  generally  direct,  and 
are  quite  straight  for  considerable  stretches;  but  the  roads 
that  cross  the  Valley,  either  at  right  angles  or  obliquely,  are 
not  straight,  and  cannot  easily  be  made  so. 

In  July,  1869,  Bonds  &  Mauzy  began  to  advertise  a  new- 
stage  line,  running  from  Harrisonburg  to  Shenandoah  Iron 
Works  on  a  tri-weekly  schedule.  This  line  was  opened  largely 
as  a  result,  no  doubt,  of  the  completion  of  the  railroad  to 

January  22,  1870,  the  Harrisonburg  and  Rawley  Springs 
Turnpike  Company  organized,  making  Wm.  H.  Hamrick  presi- 
dent, and  David  A.  Heatwole'^  secretary  and  treasurer.  The 
directors  were  Abram  Andes,  Reuben  Swope,  Hugh  Svvope, 
John  Brunk,  and  Maj.  Thos.  Shumate.  The  same  day  a  road 
meeting  was  held  at  Mt.  Clinton,  looking  toward  the  con- 
struction of  a  turnpike.  The  pike  now  connecting  Mt.  Clin- 
ton with  Harrisonburg  is  a  much-used  road. 

In  February,  1871,  Robert  S.  Jones  began  building  (or 
rebuilding)  the  bridge  across  North  River,  on  the  Valley  Pike 
above  Mt.  Crawford.  The  flood  of  the  preceding  autumn  had 
destroyed  nearly  all  the  bridges  in  the  county.  The  rebuild- 
ing of  others  is  chronicled  in  other  connections. 

In  1871  the  Virginia  legislature  granted  a  charter  for  a 
graded  road  from  Rawley  Springs  to  Bridge  water;  but  one  of 
the  commissioners,  writing  in  1873,  intimated  that  his  board 
had  failed  to  carry  out  the  project  for  the  reason,  as  he  said, 
that  they  could  not  decide  where  to  locate  the  bridges  over 

7.  David  A.  Heatwole  was  born  in  Rockingham,  March  9,  1827.  He 
was  a  man  of  influence  and  enlightened  public  spirit.  He  served  a  term 
as  county  supervisor  for  Central  District,  and  frequently  as  assessor  of 
real  estate.  For  25  years  he  was  president  of  the  West  Rockingham 
Mutual  Fire  Insurance  Company  (organized  1872),  and  for  about  the  same 
period  was  president  of  the  Rawley  Springs  Turnpike  Company.  He  en- 
couraged the  young  men  of  his  community  in  educational  and  literary 
work,  and  was  himself  a  writer  and  investigator  of  no  mean  ability.  For 
further  particulars  see  Heatwole  Family  History,  page  200,  and  Hardesty's 
Encyclopedia,  Rockingham  edition,  pp.  409,  410.  He  died  at  his  home 
near  Dale  Enterprise,  March  29,  1911. 


Ccncial  \iew  of  Hai  ris(inljur>>:     (Lookintr  North) 

Mr.  I{.  Mauzy  at  site  of  halyards'  Sch< 
(Patre  -.'xii) 

?infrers  Glen  High  School 

Orphans'  Home,  Timbervile 
(Patjes  :<!.(.  .Ai) 

Ol-l  I-  Ik  Run  Church     (Patre  2i;ti. 
Phiiti)  hy  Hammers 

^                             ^i^ 



r  ii 



'  iff^  ""^ 


•'^•-.^'■•A    ♦, 



*                                              ■-/ 

The  Blosser  Hatchery,   Dayton     (I'm^e  :!r  ■.') 


Dry  River.  He  declared  that  the  river  so  often  changed  its 
channel  that  the  commissioners  were  fearful  lest  any  bridge 
they  might  erect  should  in  time  be  left  on  dry  land. 

In  February,  1872,  Acts  of  Assembly  were  passed  incor- 
porating the  Bridgewater  and  Mt.  Crawford  Turnpike  Com- 
pany and  the  Bridgewater  and  Rawley  Springs  Turnpike  Com- 
pany. Among  the  directors  of  these  companies  were  J.  W. 
F.  Allemong,  G.  W.  Berlin,  and  Dr.  J.  G.  Minor.  Neither  of 
the  turnpikes  contemplated  in  these  Acts  were  constructed. 

It  was  announced  in  May,  1873,  that  "a  new  and  com- 
fortable coach  called  the  Mountain  Rover"  had  been  put  upon 
the  stage  route  from  Harrisonburg  to  Shenandoah  Iron  Works. 
This  line  of  stages  was  still  in  operation  the  following  Au- 
gust. Whether  it  survived  the  financial  crash  of  September 
or  not  is  not  known.  In  July,  1874,  Jos.  B.  Moyers  was  ad- 
vertising a  new  stage  line,  on  a  tri-weekly  schedule,  from 
Harrisonburg  to  Roadside  and  Newman's  Cave,  at  the  base 
of  the  Blue  Ridge,  in  East  Rockingham, 

One  of  the  well-known  roads  of  Rockingham  is  the  "Law- 
yer Road,"  so  called  after  Gabriel  Jones,  the  famous  lawyer. 
He  had  it  cut  through  the  woods,  it  is  said,  as  a  "near  cut" 
to  the  county-seat  at  Harrisonburg.  It  begins  at  Bogota,  the 
Jones  homestead,  on  the  river  near  Lynnwood,  and  comes 
out  on  the  Rockingham  Turnpike  at  Roudabush's  Mill,  on  Cub 
Run.^  Crossing  the  Shenandoah  Mountain,  from  the  Feed 
Stone  on  Dry  River,  above  Skidmore's  Fork,  is  an  old  trail 
known  as  the  Lawyers'  Path.  This  is  probably  so  called 
because  the  lawyers  crossing  from  Harrisonburg  to  Franklin, 
and  vice  versa,  used  it. 

In  June,  1878,  the  bridge  on  the  Valley  Pike,  across  North 
River  above  Mt.  Crawford,  was  again  being  rebuilt.  It,  with 
a  number  of  other  bridges  in  the  county,  had  been  carried 
away  in  the  great  flood  of  the  preceding  November. 

In  1877-8  Judge  O'Ferrall  issued  orders  in  the  Rocking- 
ham County  court  directing  the  road  boards  of  Stonewall  and 

8.  For  interesting  sketches  of  the  Lawyer  Road,  see  Rockingham  Reg- 
ister, January  23,  1874,  and  May  3,  1888. 




Central  districts  to  take  charge  of,  repair,  and  keep  in  order 
the  Rockingham  Turnpike,  the  said  road  evidently  having 
been  abandoned  by  the  company. 

In  1891  a  bridge  was  being  erected  over  the  Shenandoah 
River  at  Island  Ford,  East  Rockingham. 

In  1911  or  1912  that  part  of  the  Harrisonburg  and  Warm 
Springs  Turnpike  lying  in  Rockingham  was  taken  over  by  the 

One  of  the  unmistakable  signs  of  progress  at  the  present 
is  to  be  found  in  the  construction  of  fine  macadamized  roads, 
by  co-operation  of  local  and  State  forces,  in  various  parts  of 
the  county.  It  costs  money  to  build  good  roads,  in  Rocking- 
ham as  well  as  elsewhere;  but  we  are  learning  that  they  are 
a  good  paying  investment,  worth  as  much  here  as  anywhere 

Referring  now  to  the  railroads  in  Rockingham  County, 
we  shall  take  up  first  those  that  have  actually  been  con- 
structed, namely,  (1)  the  one  coming  up  the  Valley  on  the 
west  side  of  the  Massanutten,  and  passing  through  Strasburg, 
Woodstock,  Broadway,  Harrisonburg,  and  Staunton;  (2)  the 
one  coming  up  the  Valley  on  the  east  side  of  the  Massanutten, 
and  passing  through  Shenandoah  City,  Elkton,  Grottoes,  and 
Basic  City;  (3)  the  one  crossing  the  Valley  from  Elkton, 
through  Harrisonburg,  Dayton,  and  Bridgewater.  Having 
spoken  of  these,  we  shall  next  present  a  few  facts  regarding 
certain  railroads  that  have  been  projected, but  not  constructed, 
as  yet. 

(1)  "Under  an  Act  of  the  Virginia  Legislature,  passed 
March  9,  1850,  which  provided  for  the  organization  of  a  cor- 
poration under  the  style  of  Manassas  Gap  Railroad  Company, 
'for  the  purpose  of  making  a  railroad  from  some  convenient 
point  on  the  Orange  and  Alexandria  Railroad,  through 
Manassas  Gap,  passing  near  the  town  of  Strasburg,  to  the 
town  of  Harrisonburg,  in  the  county  of  Rockingham, '  and 
subsequent  Acts,  construction  was  begun  at  a  connection 
with  the  Orange  &  Alexandria  at  Manassas,  and  the  line  was 
opened  from  Manassas  to  Strasburg  in  1854.      As  indicated 



above,  the  original  charter  of  the  Manassas  Gap  required  the 
company,  after  crossing  the  mountains,  to  extend  its  hne 
down  the  Valley  of  Virginia  to  Harrisonburg,  but  the  line  in 
the  direction  of  Harrisonburg  was  not  destined  to  be  opened 
until  after  the  war. ' ' 

In  1858  the  Manassas  Gap  road  had  already  been  sur- 
veyed past  Broadway,  to  Harrisonburg;  and  another  railroad 
had  been  surveyed  through  Brock's  Gap,  to  connect  Broad- 
way with  a  proposed  line  of  the  B.  &  0.  on  the  South  Branch 
of  the  Potomac.  In  February,  1861,  an  Act  of  Assembly  was 
passed  authorizing  the  county  of  Rockingham  to  issue  bonds 
for  a  sum  not  exceeding  $100, 000,  to  be  loaned  to  the  Manassas 
Gap  company  for  the  purpose  of  completing  the  road  to  Har- 

"During  the  Civil  War  the  Manassas  Gap  Railroad  was 
entirely  wrecked,  its  rails  and  rolling  stock  being  carried 
away  for  use  in  other  parts  of  Virginia,  where  they  could 
better  facilitate  military  movements.  The  Orange  &  Alex- 
andria, while  it  did  not  suffer  the  same  fate,  was,  however, 
left  in  a  condition  which  demanded  a  practical  reconstruction. 
It  was  accordingly  proposed  that  the  two  properties  should  be 
consolidated  the  better  to  carry  out  their  common  purpose, 
and  an  Act  passed  February  14,  1867,  which  recited  an 
agreement  negotiated  between  the  Manassas  Gap  Railroad 
Company  and  the  Orange  &  Alexandria  Railroad  Company 
for  consolidation,  upon  condition  that  the  Orange  &  Alexan- 
dria Railroad  Company  should  reconstruct  the  Manassas  Gap 
Railroad  within  two  years  from  February  14,  1867,  and 
should  assume  the  debts  of  the  Manassas  Gap  Railroad  Com- 
pany, authorized  such  consolidation  under  the  style  of  Orange, 
Alexandria  &  Manassas  Railroad  Company." 

Rockingham  County  took  $150,000  worth  of  stock  in  the 
Manassas  Gap  company,  which  was  turned  into  the  consoli- 
dation of  the  0.  &  A.  and  M.  G.  railroads  in  1867.-' 

On  December  11,  1868,  the  first  passenger  train  ran  into 

9-  The  Rockingham  Register,  February  28,  1867. 



Harrisonburg.  1"  From  that  date,  or  shortly  afterward,  regu- 
lar travel  and  traffic  began.  According  to  a  schedule  of  the 
0.,  A.  &  M.  railroad,  between  Harrisonburg  and  Alexandria, 
advertised  in  the  Register  of  October  14,  1869,  passengers 
could  leave  Harrisonburg  at  9:45  a.  m.,  daily,  except  Sunday. 
Samuel  Ruth  was  superintendent  of  transportation;  J.  B. 
Gentry,  general  ticket  agent. 

"Under  date  August  20,  1873,  the  Washington  City,  Vir- 
ginia Midland  &  the  Great  Southern  Railroad  Company  leased 
to  the  Baltimore  &  Ohio  Railroad  Company  the  line  between 
Strasburg  and  Harrisonburg,  and  the  Baltimore  &  Ohio  con- 
tinued in  possession  of  this  line  under  the  lease  referred  to 
until  after  the  reversionary  interest  therein  had  passed  to 
the  Southern  Railway  Company,  when  on  March  1,  1896,  de- 
fault was  made  in  the  payment  of  rental;  and  subsequently 
on  November  30,  1896,  the  receivers  of  the  Baltimore  &  Ohio 
surrendered  the  line  to  the  Southern  Railway  Company,  the 
successor  of  the  Virginia  Midland  Railway  Company  which 
had  acquired  the  property  of  the  Washington  City,  Virginia 
Midland  &  Great  Southern  Railroad  Company."^' 

April  4, 1866,  a  great  meeting  was  held  in  Staunton,  com- 
posed of  delegates  from  Roanoke,  Botetourt,  Rockbridge, 
Augusta,  Rockingham,  Shenandoah,  Berkeley,  and  Alleghany 
counties  and  Richmond  City,  to  organize  the  Valley  Railroad 
Company.  Col.  M.  G.  Harman  was  elected  president,  with 
eleven  directors.  ^^ 

The  Valley  Railroad  Company  was  chartered  in  1868,  to 
construct  a  railroad  from  Harrisonburg  to  Salem  (in  Roanoke 
County ).^^    In  1872  that  part  of  the  road  between  Harrison- 

10.  The  Old  Commonwealth,  December  16,  1868. 

11.  The  paragraphs  quoted  are  from  a  letter  written  to  the  author, 
October  14,  1911,  by  Pres.  W.  W.  Finley,  of  the  Southern  Railway  Com- 

12.  Rockingham  Register,  April  13,  1866. 

13.  From  letter  of  Sept.  2,  1911,  by  C.  W.  Woolford,  secretary,  Balti- 
more, Md. 



burg  and  Staunton  was  under  construction.  On  March  3, 
1874,  the  cars  went  from  Harrisonburg  to  Staunton  for  the 
first  time. '4  For  short  periods  in  1876  and  1877  traffic  was 
suspended  owing  to  the  lapsing  of  leases,  etc. 

The  present  status  of  the  road  (or  roads)  under  consid- 
eration is  this:  The  part  from  Harrisonburg  down  the  Valley, 
past  Woodstock  and  Strasburg,  is  in  the  hands  of  the  Southern 
Railway  Company;  the  part  from  Harrisonburg  up  the 
Valley  through  Staunton,  to  Lexington,  is  in  the  hands  of  the 
Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railway  Company. 

(2)  In  the  later  60's  there  was  in  evidence  much  organ- 
ized agitation  for  the  construction  of  a  railroad  through  Page 
County  and  East  Rockingham.  In  1870  Hon.  William  Milnes 
subscribed  $60,000  to  the  project. 

The  Shenandoah  Valley  Railroad  Company  was  chartered 
February  23,  1867,  and  the  work  of  construction  was  com- 
menced during  the  year  1870,  but  was  suspended  in  1873,  af- 
ter a  considerable  amount  of  grading  had  been  done. 

Work  was  not  resumed  until  the  spring  of  1879,  when  the 
construction  of  the  line  from  Shepherdstown  to  Waynesboro 
was  commenced.  The  progress  was  such  that  on  December 
15th,  1879,  the  contractors  having  the  work  in  hand  were  able 
to  run  trains  from  Shepherdstown  to  the  Shenandoah  River, 
a  distance  of  42  miles,  when  track  laying  was  suspended  to 
await  the  completion  of  the  bridge  at  Riverton.  The  North- 
ern Division,  then  known  as  the  Maryland  Division,  from 
Hagerstown  to  Shepherdstown,  including  the  Potomac  River 
Bridge,  was  commenced  in  February,  1880,  and  finished  in 
August  of  1880.  In  May,  1880,  work  was  begun  at  Waynes- 
boro also,  and  track-laying  was  pushed  northward  from  that 
point  until  the  junction  of  the  rails  was  effected  near  Luray 
in  the  spring  of  1881. 

In  tabular  form  the  progress  is  indicated  as  follows:  — 

!<•  Diary  of  Judge  James  Kenney. 



Date  of  Schedule 



Dec.      15,      1879 

Shenandoah  River. 

May      10,      1880 



August  19,      1880 



Sep.        6,      1880 


Milford— 76  miles. 

Dec.      20.      1880 



The  road  was  accepted  from  the  contractors  in  March, 
1881,  and  on  April  18th,  1881,  the  first  through  schedule  of 
trains  between  Hagerstown  and  Waynesboro  was  put  into 

The  Atlantic,  Mississippi  &  Ohio  Railroad  was  purchased 
on  February  10,  1881,  and  reorganized  as  the  Norfolk  and 
Western  Railroad  Company,  by  parties  having  a  large  finan- 
cial interest  in  the  Shenandoah  Valley  Railroad.  The  exten- 
sion from  Waynesboro  to  Roanoke  was  undertaken  in  June, 
1881,  and  prosecuted  with  such  vigor  that  the  first  through 
schedule  of  trains  between  Hagerstown  and  Roanoke  was  put 
into  effect  on  June  19th,  1882. 

The  promoters  of  the  Shenandoah  Valley  Railroad,  also 
of  the  Norfolk  and  Western  Railroad,  were  mainly  gentle- 
men of  Philadelphia  and  Boston.  Mr.  Upton  L.  Boyce,  of 
Boyce,  Va.,  was  instrumental  in  bringing  this  project  to  the 
attention  of  capitalists,  and  had  much  to  do  with  furthering 
the  construction  of  the  road.  The  chief  engineer  during  the 
construction  was  Mr.  W.  W.  Coe.^^ 

(3)  As  early  as  February,  1870,  perhaps  earlier,  a  rail- 
road west  from  Harrisonburg,  past  Dayton,  Bridgewater,  and 
other  places  in  that  course  was  being  agitated.  In  October, 
1872,  the  people  of  Harrisonburg  voted  a  corporation  sub- 
scription of  $25,000  to  the  narrow  gauge  road  proposed — vote 
222  for,  19  against.  In  June,  1873,  this  subscription  was  in- 
creased to  $50,000— vote  171  for,  29  against.  R.  B.  Osberne 
was  chief  engineer;  P.  B.  Borst  of  Luray  was  president. 

15.  For  most  of  the  above  particulars  I  am  indebted  to  the  kindness  of 
Supt.  E.  A.  Blake,  of  the  Norfolk  &  Western  Railway  Company. 


November  3,  1873,  Judge  Kenney  wrote  in  his  diary: 

Cloudy  and  warm  this  morning.  Yesterday  I  walked  out  to  where 
they  have  commenced  work  on  the  narrow  gauge  railroad.  This  road  has 
a  sounding  name,  the  Washington,  Cincinnatti  &  St.  Louis  Railroad.  They 
are  working  about  ten  hands  and  two  carts.  All  the  capital  they  have  is 
the  subscription  of  $50,000  by  the  town  of  Harrisonburg. 

In  August,  1874,  the  Register  reported  work  on  the  nar- 
row gauge  "entirely  suspended."  In  November  following 
it  was  stated  through  the  same  paper  that  the  grading  from 
Harrisonburg  to  Bridgewater  had  been  completed,  and  that 
the  whole  line  from  Harrisonburg  to  Sangerville  was  ready 
for  the  ties  and  iron.  For  the  next  ten  years  the  work  was 
in  the  main  suspended,  except  for  hopeful  talk  on  the  part  of 
a  few  individuals,  and  occasional  digging  here  and  there.  In 
1892  the  project  was  revived  with  new  vigor.  In  1895  the 
old  narrow  gauge  interests  were  transferred  to  the  standard 
gauge  Chesapeake  &  Western,  and  on  June  7  work  was  begun 
again  at  or  near  the  point,  south  of  Harrisonburg,  where  the 
Chesapeake-Western  now  crosses  the  B.  &  0.  The  first  rail 
was  laid  July  1.  The  old  narrow-gauge  grade,  properly 
widened,  was  utilized  at  some  places. 

From  January  to  March,  1895,  the  sum  of  $150,000  was 
subscribed,  mainly  in  Rockingham,  conditioned  upon  the  com- 
pletion of  the  road  from  Elkton  to  Bridgewater.  Among  the 
chief  promoters  were  E.  C.  Machen,  W.  H.  Rickard,  J.  M. 
Snell,  Jacob  Meserole,  W.  H.  Ritenour,  and  P.  W.  Reherd. 
0.  H.  P.  Cornell  was  chief  engineer.  On  March  23,  1896, 
track-laying  was  completed  between  Elkton  and  Bridgewater; 
and  on  April  28  following  the  road  was  opened  to  traffic 
between  those  towns.  In  1901  the  contract  was  awarded  for 
the  extension  of  the  road  from  Bridgewater  to  North  River 
Gap.  Its  present  western  terminus  is  Stokesville,  Augusta 
County.  C.  A.  Jewett  is  traffic  manager;  C.  B.  Williamson 
is  superintendent.  These  gentlemen  have  their  offices  at 

Now,  a  few  words  concerning  the  railroad  projects  that 
have  not  yet  materialized. 



It  will  be  recalled  that  in  1858  a  road  had  been  surveyed 
from  Broadway,  through  Brock's  Gap,  to  the  South  Branch. 
In  1873  a  company  that  evidently  intended  to  follow  the  same 
route  in  general  was  chartered:  B.  Chrisman,  president;  Dr. 
Cootes,  Dr.  Winfield,  and  Dr.  Williams,  directors.  The  road 
proposed  (through  Brock's  Gap)  was  to  have  connections  and 
extensions  reaching  from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Great  Lakes, 
and  was  to  be  known  in  its  entirety  as  the  Norfolk,  Massa- 
netta,  &  Toledo  Railway. '"^  In  Feburary,  1883,  John  Q.  Win- 
field  and  P.  W.  Pugh,  of  Broadway,  with  A.  W.  Kercheval 
of  Romney,  and  others,  were  promoting  the  Toledo,  Massa- 
nutta,  &  Petersburg  Railway. 

One  of  the  most  interesting  projects  of  the  early  seventies 
was  the  one  set  on  foot  by  the  North  River  Railroad  Company, 
chartered  March  21,  1872,  and  organized  at  Bridgewater  Jan- 
uary 9,  1873.  J.  W.  F.  Allemong^^  was  made  president;  D. 
A.  Plecker,  vice-president;  R.  N.  Pool,  general  superinten- 
dent; John  W.  Jacobs,  secretary;  Dr.  Harvey  Kyle,  treasurer. 
The  directors  were  G.  W.  Berlin,  J.  G.  Minor,  T.  M.  Hite, 
D.  A.  Plecker,  G.  H.  Dinges,  J.  W.  F.  Allemong,  R.  N.  Pool, 
Harvey  Kyle,  and  J.  W.  Jacobs.  The  road  was  to  extend 
from  Bridgewater  to  Port  Republic.  The  charter  required 
that  the  part  from  Bridgewater  to  Berlinton  be  put  under 
contract  within  90  days.  In  April  the  enterprise  was  pur- 
chased by  Henry  M.  Clay  of  Kentucky,  who  was  reported  to 

16-  Rockingham  Register,  September  19,  1873. 

7.  John  W.  F.  Allemong,  born  at  Stephens  City,  Va.,  Sept.  5,  1828, 
son  of  Rev.  John  and  Hannah  Payne  Allemong;  married  Sarah  C.  Hail- 
man,  June  7,  1857;  moved  to  Bridgewater,  1863,  and  until  1889  was  one  of 
the  most  prominent  and  enterprising  citizens  of  Rockingham,  being  a 
merchant,  bank  president,  director  in  the  Bridgewater  Wool  Mills,  Bridge- 
water  Carriage  Works,  etc.  In  October,  1889,  he  moved  to  Salem,  Va., 
where  he  took  his  accustomed  place,  as  a  captain  of  industry,  till  his 
death,  Oct.  29,  1904.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Methodist  Church,  and 
served  in  various  responsible  offices  therein.  He  was  the  father  of  six 
children,  two  of  whom  survive  him:  Mrs.  Ella  V.  Strayer,  of  Harrison- 
burg, and  Mr.  John  Edwin  Allemong,  a  prominent  attorney  and  business 
man  of  Roanoke  City. 



be  ready  and  able  to  push  it.  The  narrow  gauge,  with  the 
long  name,  was  also  being  boomed  at  Bridgewater  at  the 
same  time. 

June  18, 1873,  ground  was  broken  at  Bridgewater  for  the 
construction  of  the  N.  River  R.  R.  A  speech  was  made  by 
Rev.  J.  S.  Loose;  the  first  shovelful  of  dirt  was  thrown  by 
Adam  Rader,  the  oldest  resident  of  the  town.  In  July  the 
second  mile  was  let  for  construction  to  Wm.  H.  Kiracofe. 
H.  M.  Clay,  general  superintendent,  had  bought  7  acres  of 
land  at  the  northeast  end  of  the  town,  on  the  turnpike,  and 
had  laid  out  grounds  for  depot,  car  shed,  machine  shops, 
round  house,  etc.  In  August  it  was  announced  that  the  road 
was  to  extend  westward  to  the  Ohio  River,  But  in  Septem- 
ber came  Black  Friday. 

In  March,  1872,  the  Harrisonburg,  Bridgewater,  and  W. 
Augusta  R.  R.  Co.  was  incorporated.  The  road  was  to  begin 
at  or  near  McGaheysville,  pass  thence  via  Harrisonburg  to 
Rawley  Springs,  thence  through  or  near  Bridgewater  to  some 
convenient  point  on  the  C.  &  0.  Ry. 

In  1874-5  D.  A.  Flecker  was  proposing  to  build  a  narrow 
gauge  railway  from  Mt.  Crawford  depot  to  Bridgewater.  In 
1876  a  bill  was  passed  the  Virginia  legislature  incorporating 
the  Harrisonburg  &  Orange  C.  H.  Ry.  Co.  In  1890  a  railroad 
was  proposed  through  Shendun  Pass  (Brown's  Gap) ;  a  plan 
was  being  considered  by  business  men  of  Elkton  and  Har- 
risonburg for  connecting  those  towns  with  a  railroad;  a  street 
railway  for  Harrisonburg  was  being  considered;  and  the 
Harrisonburg  &  Western  Ry.  Co.  was  organized  at  Har- 
risonburg, Messrs.  J.  P.  Houck,  C.  A.  Sprinkel,  T.  A.  Long, 
and  Jacob  Meserole  being  the  chief  promoters. 

In  1891  a  railroad  from  Shenandoah  City  to  Harrisonburg 
was  projected;  another,  from  Shendun  to  Weyer's  Cave  station 
(on  the  B.  &  0.),  was  projected  and  surveyed.  In  1892 
(February  16)  an  Act  was  passed  incorporating  the  Harrison- 
burg &  Bridgewater  Electric  Ry.  Co.  In  1895  a  charter  was 
issued  to  the  Basic  City,  Bridgewater,  &  Western  Electric 
Ry.  Co.     In  1901  an  Act  was  passed  incorporating  the  Central 



Railroad  of  Virginia,  Messrs.  Wm.  H.  Rickard,  P.  W. 
Reherd,  D.  C.  Reherd,  Herman  Wise,  John  B.  Peale,  H.  B. 
Miller,  and  A.  A.  Chapman  being  named  as  incorporators. 

It  is  of  interest  to  notice  that  three  periods  of  conspicuous 
activity  in  promoting  and  building  railroads  in  Rockingham 
(as  elsewhere)  coincided  with  or  shortly  preceded  the  years 
1857,  1873,  and  1893:  years  of  notable  economic  crises.  In 
1873,  no  less  than  five  different  roads  were  being  projected 
or  actually  constructed:  (1)  The  one  from  Harrisonburg  to 
Staunton,  opened  in  1874;  (2)  the  one  through  Page  and  East 
Rockingham,  opened  in  1881  (now  the  Norfolk  &  Western) ; 
(3)  the  narrow-gauge  westward,  past  Bridgewater,  opened 
as  a  standard-gauge  in  1896;  (4)  the  one  from  Bridgewater 
to  Port  Republic,  still  in  possibility;  (5)  the  one  through 
Brock's  Gap,  also  a  possibility  only,  as  yet. 

Just  when  the  first  telegraph  line  was  put  up  in  Rocking- 
ham County  is  not  definitely  knov/n;  but  there  was  one  run- 
ning into  Harrisonburg  as  early  as  1863— perhaps  earlier. 
N.  M.  Burkholder  was  in  charge  of  the  Harrisonburg  office 
from  1863  to  1865,  as  appears  from  an  original  schedule  before 
me.  Additional  lines  were  being  constructed,  or  earlier  lines 
were  being  restored  or  repaired,  in  1872-3.  In  1884  the 
Bridgewater  Journal  said:  "If  we  cannot  get  a  railroad  we 
must  have  a  telephone  or  telegraph  connection  with  Harrison- 
burg. A  telegraph  line  will  cost  $300. "  The  next  year  a 
telegraph  line  was  completed  between  Harrisonburg  and 
Bridgewater.  It  is  needless  to  say  that  at  present  telegraph 
lines  are  maintained  by  all  the  railroads;  and  there  is  a 
Western  Union  office  in  Harrisonburg. 

No  material  improvement  has  had  a  more  rapid  develop- 
ment in  Rockingham,  or  has  done  more  to  dissipate  provin- 
cialism in  the  county,  than  the  telephone  systems.  In  Feb- 
ruary, 1893,  the  Valley  Telephone  and  Telegraph  Company 
was  chartered  by  J.  W.  Click,  C.  Driver,  N.  W.  Berry,  and 
others.  This  company  succeeded  to  the  possession  of  the 
Rosenberger  &  Shirley  lines,  but  was  soon  in  competition 
with  the  Virginia  &  West  Virginia  Telephone  Company.     In. 



August,  1895,  the  Valley  Telephone  Company,  centering  in 
Harrisonburg,  had  nearly  150  'phones  in  operation.  In  1899 
a  gentleman  from  Illinois,  widely  traveled,  who  spent  a 
couple  of  weeks  in  Rockingham,  said  there  were  more  'phones 
here  than  in  any  other  section  he  knew. 

In  1897  the  Rockingham  mutual  telephone  system  was 
organized.  The  same  year  connection  by  telephone  was 
■established  between  Rockingham  and  Pendleton,  from  county- 
seat  to  county-seat.  January  25,  1898,  an  Act  was  passed 
incorporating  the  Rockingham  Mutual  Telephone  and  Tele- 
graph Company,  naming  D.  B.  Showalter,  Chas.  H.  Ralston, 
J.  N.  Fries,  C.  H.  Brunk,  J.  R.  Bowman,  W.  J.  Lineweaver, 
C.  N.  Strickler,  C.  D.  Wenger,  M.  A.  Layman,  J.  E.  Shaver, 
J.  H.  Shirkey,  and  W.  C.  Switzer.  In  April,  1899,  the  Rock- 
ingham Mutual  and  the  Valley  Company  were  consolidated. 

In  1901  a  long  distance  line  between  Harrisonburg  and 
Staunton  was  completed.  In  March,  1902,  an  Act  was  passed 
incorporating  the  Harrisonburg  Mutual  Telephone  Company, 
naming  W.  C.  Switzer,  John  A.  Switzer,  S.  B.  Switzer,  G.  R. 
Eastham,  and  J.  P.  Mauzy. 

At  present  there  are  in  the  county  the  following  telephone 
companies:  (1)  Harrisonburg  Mutual,  with  exchanges  at 
Harrisonburg,  Bridgewater,  and  Weyer's  Cave;  (2)  Rocking- 
ham Mutual,  with  exchanges  at  Dayton,  Timberville,  Mc- 
Gaheysville,  and  Goods  Mill;  (3)  Plains  District,  with  exchange 
at  Broadway;  (4)  Swift  Run,  with  exchange  at  Elkton;  (5) 
Mayland,  with  exchange  at  Mayland. 



Five  years  ago  the  conclusion  was  reached,  after  an 
analytical  study  of  numerous  facts  and  figures,  that  at  least 
70  per  cent,  of  the  people  of  Rockingham  County  are  of 
German  descent,  and  bear  German  names.  ^  This  conclusion 
has  had  rather  striking  confirmation  in  an  additional  experi- 
ment just  carried  through.  Lake's  Atlas  of  Rockingham 
County,  published  in  1885,  contains  the  names  of  practically 
all  the  heads  of  families  outside  of  the  larger  towns,  then 
living  in  the  county,  geographically  distributed  on  the 
large-scale  maps  of  the  five  districts.  By  inspection  of  these 
names,  and  by  actual  count,  the  following  tables  have  been 
prepared;  and  while  no  absolute  accuracy  can  be  claimed  for 
the  results,  they  are  believed  to  be  generally  reliable.  The 
striking  coincidence  is  to  be  found  in  the  fact  that  these 
figures  show  a  German  element  in  Rockingham  of  almost 
exactly  70  per  cent.  Moreover,  if  we  may  be  certain  of  any- 
thing in  the  case  it  is  this,  that  the  number  of  people  of  Ger- 
man stock  has  not  been  put  too  high.  One  is  constantly  con- 
fronted with  instances  in  which  names  originally  German 
have  been  changed  into  forms  that  are  not  now  recognized 
as  German.  For  example,  the  county  records  contain  entries 
in  which  Zimmerman  is  changed  to  Carpenter;  Yager  to 
Hunter;  Swartz  to  Black;  etc.  In  an  inspection  of  names 
Carpenter,  Hunter,  and  Black  would  not  usually  be  counted 
as  German;  and  many  similar  cases  may  be  cited;  hence  the 
probability  that  one  is  apt  to  underestimate  the  number  of 
German  families,  rather  than  overestimate  it,  from  an 
inspection  of  the  names  in  their  present  forms, 

1  See  the  "German  Element  of  the  Shenandoah  Valley  of   Virginia," 
pp.  94,  95,  etc. 



Races  { 


By  Districts. 

































































By  Districts. 


















































Explanation:    *  indicates  plus;  t  indicates  minus. 


The  first  table  above  shows  the  numbers  of  names  of  the 
different  races  or  nationahties  found  in  the  different  magis- 
terial districts  of  the  county;  the  second  table  shows  a  corre- 
sponding distribution,  stated  in  percentages. 

It  is  probable  that  Shenandoah  County  is  even  more  largely 
of  German  stock  than  Rockingham;  and  it  will  be  observed 
from  the  tables  that  the  largest  percentage  of  German  names 
in  Rockingham  has  been  found  in  Plains  District,  the  district 
adjacent  to  Shenandoah  County.  The  strongest  Irish  ele- 
ment seems  to  be  resident  in  Linville  District;  while  Stone- 
wall District,  lying  next  to  Eastern  Virginia,  has,  as  one  would 
naturally  expect,  the  largest  infusion  of  English  names. 

Practically  all  the  families  and  family  names  now  found 
in  Rockingham  have  been  here  for  several  generations,  and 
most  of  them  since  the  18th  century.  This  is  particularly  true 
of  the  German  names  and  families.  Most  of  these  came  up 
the  Valley  from  Pennsylvania  and  Maryland  prior  to  1800. 
Very  few  of  the  recent  immigrants  from  Germany  have  come 
to  the  Valley  of  Virginia.  Most  of  the  Germans  that  have 
located  in  Rockingham  in  recent  years  have  been  the  Jews, 
who  now  make  up  an  important  class  of  tradesmen  in  Harri- 
sonburg.    So  far  as  known,  all  of  these  have  come  to  the 

county  since  1850. 

Incidental  references,  from  various  sources,  show  that 

most,  if  not  all,  the  nationalities  named  in  the  above  tables 
have  been  represented  in  Rockingham  from  early  times.  In 
1749  a  Hollander  was  living  in  East  Rockingham  (see  page 
47).  Mrs.  Carrsays  that  the  Scherdhns,  who  had  a  vineyard 
on  the  hill  east  of  Harrisonburg  a  century  ago,  were  natives 
of  France;  Valentine  Sevier,  who  came  to  Rockingham  prior 
to  1750,  was  of  French  stock;  and  the  Mauzys,  who  have  been 
in  the  county  more  than  a  hundred  years,  are  also  French. 
In  August,  1781,  Evan  Evans  and  Jona.  Evans,  with  William 
Morriss,  were  appointed  to  appraise  the  estate  of  Philip  Con- 
rod.  The  Evanses  lived  in  East  Rockingham,  and  evidently 
were  Welsh.  One  of  the  earhest  Scotch  names  preserved  is 
that  of  Hugh  Douglas,  who  received  a  patent  for  175  acres  of 


land  just  west  of  Round  Hill,  above  Bridgewater,  in  1750. 
In  1774-5  John  Craig,  Wm.  McGill,  John  Eadie,  Wm.  Camp- 
bell, John  Murry,  Saml.  Curry,  Alex.  Curry,  James  Laird,  and 
LacHan  Campbell  were  residents  of  this  section,  and  they 
were  all  evidently  Scotch,  The  name  Laird  is  preserved 
geog-^aphically  in  Laird's  Knob,  east  of  Harrisonburg,  and  in 
the  village  of  Penn  Laird.  William  Ewing,  a  native  of  Glas- 
gow, father  of  Henry  Ewing,  who  was  many  years  county 
clerk  came  from  Pennsylvania  in  1742  and  purchased  300 
acres  of  land  three  miles  northwest  of  Harrisonburg. - 

As  to  the  Irish,  it  might  be  sufficient  to  call  attention  to 
the  fact  that  two  of  the  original  justices  of  Rockingham, 
Johr  Grattan  and  John  Fitzwater,  were  likely  of  Irish  lineage. 
Capcains  Frazier  and  Ragan  of  Revolutionary  days  were  evi- 
dencly  Irish,  as  were  James  Gillilan,  Thomas  Doolin,  Patrick 
Guin,  John  Guin,  Daniel  Guin,  Darby  Ragon,  and  Hugh  Duna- 
hoe,  of  the  same  period.  In  Felix  Gilbert's  old  day-book  of 
1774-5,  "Irish"  is  written  after  the  name  of  Robt.  Hook.  A 
good  many  Irishmen  came  into  the  Valley  about  1857  to  1869, 
as  workers  on  the  railroads.  In  1866  Michael  Flinn  was  living 
in  Harrisonburg.  The  schoolmaster,  Hugh  Tagart,  had  died 
there  about  1840.  Patrick  Kelly,  carder  and  fuller,  was  in 
the  county  in  1844.  On  July  12,  1894,  died,  at  the  age  of  78, 
Patrick  Flahavan,  who  had  been  an  employee  of  the  Valley 
Railroad  ever  since  its  construction,  and  had  been  watchman 
at  the  bluff  south  of  Mt.  Crawford  station  for  nearly  20  years. 
Main  Street  of  Harrisonburg  used  to  be  called  Irish  Alley. 
On  February  11,  1879,  Judge  James  Kenney  wrote  in  his  diary: 

E.  J.  Sullivan,  Post  Master  at  this  place,  died  this  morning  in  the 
B5th  year  of  his  age.  He  was  born  in  Ireland.  He  has  been  postmaster 
here  ever  since  the  close  of  the  war  in  1865. 

Robert  Gray,  the  famous  lawyer,  who  located  at  Harri- 
sonburg in  1805,  was  a  son  of  Erin,  as  were  likely  the  Bryans, 
or  O'Brians,  distinguished  in  both  earlier  and  latter  days. 

No  special   catalogue  of  Englishmen   and   Germans  is 

2.  Memoirs  of  Virginia  Clerks,  page  346. 



attempted  here.  They  must  speak  for  themselves,  and  are 
obviously  numerous  enough  to  make  themselves  heard.  It 
may  be  a  matter  of  interest  in  this  connection,  however,  to 
know  that  along  in  the  later  60's  and  early  70's  there  was  a 
Turn-Verein  at  Harrisonburg.  It  was  organized  about  March 
1,  1867,  with  Wm.  Loeb  president,  Jonas  Loewenback  treas- 
urer, and  Adolph  Shockman  secretary.  The  qualifications 
for  membership  were  good  moral  character  and  German 
extraction.  Meetings  were  held  weekly,  and  all  proceedings 
were  conducted  in  the  German  language. 

A  few  people  in  Rockingham  can  still  speak  traditional 
German — a  dialect  of  the  "Pennsylvania-Dutch";  but  the 
number  is  becoming  smaller  every  year.  German  has  not 
been  much  used  for  the  past  fifty  years,  except  in  the  home 
talk  of  certain  families. 

In  October,  1822,  the  Harrisonburg  postmaster  advertised 
a  list  of  letters  for  82  persons  named.  Of  these,  30  had 
names  that  were  unmistakably  German;  14  were  probably 
Scotch  or  Scotch-Irish;  3  were  apparently  Irish;  5  or  6  were 
likely  English ;  2  or  3  were  apparently  Welsh ;  the  rest  were 
of  uncertain  character. 

The  negro  race  is,  of  course,  largely  represented  in  Rock- 
ingham County,  though  the  proportion  of  negroes  here  is 
much  smaller  than  in  the  adjacent  counties  east  of  the  Blue 
Ridge.  For  example,  the  number  of  slaves  in  Rockingham  in 
1840  was  1899,  in  a  total  population  of  17, 344,  or  only  about 
11  per  cent. ,  while  at  the  same  time  the  number  of  slaves  in 
che  four  counties  of  Albemarle,  Orange,  Madison,  and  Cul- 
peper  made  up  about  57  per  cent,  of  the  whole  population. 
In  1880  the  total  population  of  Rockingham  was  given  as 
29,567.  Of  these,  29,368  were  classed  as  natives,  while  only 
199  were  classed  as  foreign-born.  At  the  same  time  the 
whites  numbered  26,137;  the  blacks,  only  3430. 

At  the  November  court  for  Rockingham  County,  in  1880, 
James  Cochran,  colored,  was  a  member  of  the  grand  jury. 
In  1874-5  Harrisonburg  had  a  colored  policeman,  Joseph  T. 
Williams  by  name,  who  was  also  a  barber.     Williams   had 


Tutwiler  Rust.  University  of  \'iininia  Library 
I'hoto  Ijy  J.  S.  I 'at  ton 


been  born  free,  but  had  served  four  years  in  the  Confederate 
army,  as  a  faithful  servant.  He  is  said  to  be  at  present  a 
well-to-do  property  owner  in  Washington  City. 

Rockingham  families  are  proverbially  large.  Many  of 
them  number  their  members  by  the  hundred,  and  some  by 
the  thousand,  if  we  extend  the  circle  beyond  the  county  into 
the  States  and  countries  whither  they  have  gone.  Looking 
through  the  telephone  directory  of  the  county,  it  appears 
that  the  Armentrouts,  Bowmans,  Clines  (Klines),  Garbers, 
Goods,  Heatwoles,  Holsingers,  Longs,  Millers,  Myerses, 
Rhodeses,  and  Showalters,  are  most  numerous.  The  Millers 
seem  to  outnumber  all  the  rest.  Family  histories  have  been 
published  by  the  Funks,  the  Kageys,  the  Funkhousers,  the 
Heatwoles,  the  Shueys,  the  Beerys,  the  Wengers,  the  Kem- 
pers,  the  Koiners,  and  others;  and  genealogies  of  the  Fences, 
Kaylors,  and  other  families  are  known  to  be  in  preparation. 
In  an  old  ledger  of  the  Rockingham  Register,  covering 
the  years  1857-1868,  there  are  under  the  M's  118  names;  and, 
of  these,  34  are  Millers,  8  are  Myerses  or  Moyerses,  6  are 
Martzes.  Under  the  N's  are  20  names,  6  being  Niswander 
and  4  Nicholas.  There  are  138  names  that  begin  with  H, 
9  being  Huffman,  6  Heatwole,  6  Hopkins,  and  5  Harnsberger. 
And  there  are  186  names  that  begin  with  S,  among  which 
are  14  of  the  Smiths,  11  of  the  Showalters,  9  of  the  Shavers, 
7  of  the  Sengers,  and  5  of  the  Stricklers. 

John  Detrick,  who  lived  near  Greenmount  in  the  early 
part  of  the  last  century,  had  13  children.  They  all  grew  up, 
all  married,  and  all  had  grandchildren  before  they  died. 
Thirteen  may  be  an  unlucky  number  in  some  places,  but  not 
in  Rockingham. 

In  conclusion,  a  few  words  about  the  longevity  of  Rock- 
ingham people.  In  February,  1841,  died  Henry  Hammer, 
aged  88,  who  had  been  a  soldier  in  the  Indian  wars  and  in 
the  Revolution.  In  1868,  at  Fort  Lynne  near  Harrisonburg, 
died  Martin  Burkholder,  aged  91;  at  the  same  place,  in  1898, 
his  son  John  Burkholder  died,  at  the  age  of  89.  In  June, 
1874,  Mrs.  Katie  Shepp,  living  in  the  Massanutten  Mountain 



near  Keezletown,  reached  the  age  of  120.  Her  husband  had 
been  a  wagoner  in  the  Revolutionary  war.  She,  at  the  age  of 
20,  had  married  him  in  1774.  ^  In  1885  Wm.  G.  Thompson  died 
at  Timberville,  aged  86  years  and  7  months.  February 
17,  1894,  George  Kiser  died  at  Mt.  Crawford,  aged  over  92. 
He  had  been  born  in  Mt.  Crawford  in  1801,  and  had  been  a 
merchant,  a  miller,  and  a  tanner.  June  8,  1895,  Elizabeth 
Funk  (nee  Meliza),  a  native  of  Rockingham,  died  in  Har- 
rison County,  Mo.,  aged  92  years,  8  months,  and  14  days. 
In  1897  John  R.  Funk  died  in  Harrison  Co.,  Mo.,  aged  nearly 
89.  He  had  been  born  near  Turleytown,  Rockingham  Co., 
Va.,  in  1808. 

In  June,  1898,  Mrs.  Margaret  D.  Effinger,  of  Staunton,  a 
daughter  of  Judge  Daniel  Smith,  of  Rockingham,  revisited 
Harrisonburg,  at  the  age  of  89.  In  1898  Mr.  John  C.  Wetzel, 
who  was  born  in  McGaheysville  in  1802,  was  still  living  in 
that  village.  One  of  the  present  hale  citizens  of  McGaheys- 
ville is  Mr.  Richard  Mauzy,  aged  88.  He  was  a  pupil  in  Jos- 
eph Salyards'  McGaheysville  school  in  the  later  30's.  At 
Frankfort,  Indiana,  lives  Capt.  Wm.  N.  Jordan,  a  native  of 
Rockingham,  at  the  age  of  92.  On  July  25,  1912,  at  the  re- 
union of  the  Funk  family  in  Singer's  Glen,  Messrs.  Samuel 
Funk  of  Tennessee  and  John  Funk  of  Virginia,  two  hale  sons 
of  Rockingham,  were  present;  the  latter  aged  90,  the  former 
aged  93. 

3.  The  Old  Commonwealth,  July  16,  1874. 


In  the  following  pages  a  sketch,  largely  in  tabular  form, 
is  given  of  each  denomination  in  the  county.  The  several 
sketches  are  arranged  in  alphabetical  order,  according  to  the 
respective  headings. 

Baptist  Church. 

Baptist  Churches  in  Rockingham  (1912), 

1.  Bridgewater:  Constituted  1873;  Sundayschool  organ- 
ized 1878. 

2.  Broadway:  Constituted  1892. 

3.  Harrisonburg:  Constituted  1869;  present  church 
erected  1886. 

4.  Mt.  Crawford:  Constituted  1841.  The  church  origi- 
nally stood  on  the  east  side  of  the  Valley  Pike,  just  at  the 
north  end  of  town;  the  present  church  is  located  near  Mt. 
Crawford  Station  (North  River). 

5.  Riverview:  Near  Cootes'  Store;  constituted  1908. 

6.  Singer's  Glen:  Constituted  1876;  present  church  dedi- 
cated 1888. 

7.  Turleytown:  Constituted  1859;  present  church  dedi- 
cated July  12,  1885. 

The  following  paragraphs  are  copied  from  a  valuable 
paper  recently  prepared  by  Dr.  C.  S.  Dodd,  who  for  several 
years  past  has  been  a  zealous  worker  in  the  Baptist  churches 
of  northern  Rockingham. 

As  early  as  1743  the  English  settlers  had  established  a 
Baptist  church  at  Mill  Creek  (now  Page  County),  and  on 
August  6,  1756,  Linville  and  Smith  Creek  churches  in  Rock- 
ingham County  were  constituted. 

Linville  Creek  was  disturbed  by  the  Indians  in  1757,  and 


received  such  cruel  treatment  that  many  of  the  members  fled 
to  Eastern  Virginia  for  safety;  so  some  time  elapsed  before 
the  remnant  had  service  again. 

Foremost  of  these  Baptists  who  came  to  Rockingham  as 
missionaries  was  Elder  John  Koontz,  whose  brother  had  pre- 
ceded him  to  Rockingham  a  few  years.  He  and  Elder  John 
Alderson,  Sr.,  were  preaching  here  about  the  same  time. 
This  being  a  new  doctrine,  it  met  with  opposition  from  many 
quarters.  Mr.  Koontz  was  severely  beaten  on  several  occa- 
sions for  preaching  this  faith. 

Another  co-laborer  was  Elder  Andrew  Moffett,  who  also 
suffered  for  this  cause  as  a  malefactor  and  was  committed  to 
jail;  nor  was  he  the  last  of  his  family  to  be  persecuted  for 
his  convictions;  for  Rev.  John  Moffitt,  who  fell  by  the  hand 
of  an  assassin  in  1892,  because  of  his  stand  against  the  saloon 
in  the  city  of  Danville,  was  a  relative. 

Linville  Creek  ordained  Elder  John  Alderson,  Jr.,  in  1775, 
and  for  two  years  he  served  the  church  as  pastor.  He  then 
moved  to  Greenbrier  County  (now  in  W.  Va, ),  where  he  was 
destined  to  do  a  work  that  few  men  accomplished. 

Conspicuous  among  the  Rockingham  Baptists  stood  the 
Hfe  of  Elder  John  Ireland  for  being  maltreated  by  the  Estab- 
lished Church.  He  was  sent  to  Culpeper  Jail  for  preaching 
without  a  permit.  In  prison  there  he  suffered  many  things. 
From.  1838  to  1842  the  Baptist  church  throughout  the  South 
was  torn  asunder  over  missions.  One  wing,  self-styled  Old 
School,  or  Primitive  Baptist,  was  and  still  is  anti-missionary 
in  spirit;  protests  against  Sunday  school  as  being  without 
scriptural  support,  does  not  have  any  salaried  ministers,  etc. 
This  body  now  separated  from  the  church,  causing  much  con- 
fusion and  contention  over  church  property.  The  other  body 
was  afterwards  known  as  Regular,  or  Missionary,  Baptists. 

When  the  division  was  made  (about  1840)  the  Old,  or 
Primitive,  Baptists  had  churches  located  in  this  county  as 
follows:  one  near  Dayton;  Linville  Creek;  Mt.  Pleasant;  and 
Runions  Creek;  the  latter  two  being  in  Brock's  Gap.  At  the 
time  of  this  writing  the  Runion  Creek  Church,  in  Brock's 



Gap,  which  has  a  small  membership,  with  Elder  Reuben 
Strickler  of  Page  County  as  pastor,  is  the  only  surviving 
church  of  this  faith  in  this  county. 

Rev.  John  E.  Massie  and  Rev.  V.  L.  Settle  were  the  first 
Missionary  Baptists  to  visit  this  county,  and  they  awakened 
the  missionary  spirit  in  the  remnant;  and  then  soon  Mt. 
Crawford,  Linville  Creek,  and  Turleytown  churches  were 
organized  as  Regular  Baptist  churches.  Mr.  Massie  moved 
the  old  Linville  Creek  Church  from  near  Green  Hill  to  a  far 
more  convenient  site,  where  it  now  stands,  and  for  this  he 
was  sued  in  the  Rockingham  Court  by  one  of  the  trustees. 
Mr.  Massie  plead  his  own  case,  and  Mr.  Jacob  Myers,  who 
was  present,  quotes  him  as  saying:  "I  admit  I  moved  the 
building,  but  I  beg  to  state  that  I  placed  it  in  a  more  con- 
venient place  where  more  people  can  and  will  attend  services. " 
He  won  his  case. 

Turley  Town  may  truly  be  called  the  mother  church, 
since  Singers'  Glen,  Broadway,  Cootes'  Store  (River  View), 
also  North  Mill  Creek  and  South  Mill  Creek,  of  Grant  County, 
W.  Va.,  are  her  offspring,  and  many  churches  in  the  far  west 
now  have  in  their  membership  those  who  joined  Turley  Town 
before  leaving  this  state.  The  first  fruits  of  the  evangelical 
work  of  these  missionaries  were  Timothy,  Solomon,  Benjamin, 
and  John  Funk,  sons  of  Joseph  Funk,  a  Mennonite  layman  of 
Singers'  Glen.  All  except  John  were  called  to  the  ministry 
of  the  churches,  and  for  many  years  they  preached  in  the 
county  and  elsewhere.  They  were  lovers  of  music  and  taught 
it  as  well  as  preached  the  Gospel.  Rev.  Timothy  Funk  for 
more  than  50  years  taught  music  and  preached,  going  as  far 
east  as  Orange  County,  Va. 

Mr.  Joe  K.  Ruebush  of  Dayton  has  located  the  site  of 
the  Primitive  Baptist  Church  at  that  place.  It  stood  just 
out  of  town,  toward  the  southwest,  near  the  point  where  the 
railroad  now  crosses  the  Warm  Springs  Pike. 

Silas  Hart,  a  native  of  Pennsylvania,  high  sheriff  of 


Augusta  in  1764,  and  senior  justice  of  Rockingham  in  1778, 
was  a  Baptist. ' 

The  regular  Baptist  churches  in  Rockingham  now  have 
a.  total  membership  of  about  600;  while  there  are  in  the 
county  about  60  primitive  Baptists. 

Brethren  Church. 

Since  about  1882  there  has  been  an  organization  of  the 
Brethren  Church  (Progressive  Bunkers)  in  Rockingham. 
They  at  present  have  four  houses  of  worship:  One  in  Dayton; 
Bethlehem,  a  mile  and  a  half  southwest  of  Harrisonburg; 
Mt.  Olive,  near  McGaheysville,  and  one  at  Arkton,  east  of 
Tenth  Legion. 

Bethlehem  was  dedicated  in  February,  1894,  by  Eld.  E. 
B.  Shaver;  John  Thompson,  Lee  Hammer,  and  J.  H.  Hall 
being  the  building  committee. 

Among  the  pioneers  of  this  church  in  Rockingham  were 
Eld.  E.  B.  Shaver,  of  Maurertown,  Va.,  and  S.  H.  Bashor. 
A  history  of  the  denomination  at  large  was  published  in 
1901  by  Eld.  H.  R.  Holsinger,  of  Lathrop,  Cal.  The  member- 
ship in  Rockingham  is  about  350. 

Christian  Church. 

Christian  Churches  in  Rockingham  (1912). 

1.  Antioch:  A  mile  and  a  half  south  of  Greenmount; 
organized  by  Rev.  L  N.  Walter  about  1832;  present  house 
erected  in  1880. 

2.  Bethlehem:  At  Tenth  Legion;  admitted  to  confer- 
ence in  1851;  original  deed  dated  Sept.  21,  1844. 

3.  Linville:  Organized  June  10,  1871,  by  Rev.  D.  A. 
Long;  dedicated  3d  Sunday  of  January,  1873. 

4.  Concord:  Organized  in  1891  by  Rev.  E.  T.  Iseley; 
house  built  in  1893.     Located  3  miles  north  of  Tenth  Legion. 

5.  New  Hope:  Three  miles  southeast  of  Harrisonburg; 
organized  in  1895  by  Rev.  E.  T.  Iseley;  house  built  in  1896. 

1.  See  Waddell's  Annals  of  Augusta,  pp.  204,  238;  Semple's  History  of 
Virginia  Baptists,  1810  edition,  p.  192. 



6.  Bethel:  Four  miles  northwest  of  Elkton;  organized 
August  25,  1898,  by  Rev.  J.  W.  Dofflemyre;  house  built  in  1899. 

7.  Beulah:  Five  miles  southeast  of  Harrisonburg; 
organized  in  1898  by  Rev.  W.  T.  Herndon;  house  built  in  1899. 

8.  Mayland:  Organized  in  1899  by  Rev.  W.  T.  Hern- 
don; house  built  in  1900. 

9.  Mt.  Olivet.  Two  miles  southwest  of  McGaheysville; 
organized  in  1899  by  Rev.  W.  T.  Herndon;  house  built  in  1900. 

10.  Island  Ford:    House  built  in  1905. 

For  most  of  the  facts  embodied  in  the  foregoing  state- 
ments regarding  the  Christian  Church  in  Rockingham,  I  am 
under  obligation  to  Rev.  A.  W.  Andes,  of  Harrisonburg.  He 
has  also  supplied  a  list  of  ministers,  which  will  be  found  in 
the  Directory  at  the  end  of  the  volume. 

Mr.  C.  0.  Henton  of  Harrisonburg  has  loaned  the  deed 
made  in  1833  at  Antioch.  This  deed  is  before  me.  It  bears 
date  of  May  4,  1833,  and  is  signed  by  Martin  Croomer,  who 
made  his  mark.  It  conveys  a  lot  containing  10,848  square  feet 
of  land  to  John  Kratzer,  Sr.,  John  Higgens,  Peter  Paul,  Mar- 
tin Burkholder,  and  Jacob  Burkholder,  Jr.,  trustees,  for  the 
use  of  the  Christian  Church  and  all  other  religious  denomina- 
tions that  might  obtain  consent  of  the  trustees  to  preach 
there.  The  lot  was  bounded  as  follows:  Beginning  on  the 
lands  of  the  said  Martin  Croomer,  near  the  residence  of  Mar- 
tin Burkholder,  at  a  stone  where  there  was  formerly  a  white 
oak,  corner  made  for  the  school  house  lot,  by  the  said  Martin 
Croomer  and  Molly  his  wife,  in  the  year  1810,  thence  with 
the  patent  line  S.  10  degrees  W.  113  feet  to  a  walnut,  thence 
S.  80  degrees  E.  96  feet,  crossing  the  big  road  to  a  white 
oak,  thence  N.  10  degrees  E.  113  feet  to  intersect  the  line  of 
the  school  house  lot,  thence  with  the  said  line  N.  80  degrees 
W.  96  feet  to  the  beginning. 

The  consideration  was  one  dollar;  and  a  building  was 
already  erected  on  the  land.  Daniel  Bowman,  Jacob  Burk- 
holder, Jr.,  and  David  Lawman  signed  as  witnesses. 

From  the  published  minutes  of  the  Valley  Christian  Con- 


ference,  held  in  Edinburg,  Shenandoah  County,  and  Antioch, 
Rockingham  County,  in  August,  1869,  it  appears  that  Antioch 
and  Bethlehem  in  Rockingham  were  represented. 

The  following  items  have  been  gleaned  from  the  files  of 
the  Rockingham  Register: 

In  June,  1866,'  a  new  Christian  church  was  dedicated  at 
Cedar  Grove,  2h  miles  from  Harrisonburg.  This  must  have 
been  in  the  vicinity  of  the  present  New  Hope  Christian 

In  August,  1868,  the  Valley  Christian  Conference  met  at 
Bethlehem.  John  Burkholder  presided;  and  the  following 
Rockingham  churches  were  represented:  Antioch,  Bethle- 
hem, and  Cedar  Green  (Grove) . 

At  the  organization  of  the  Linville  Church  in  1871,  Rev. 
D.  A  Long  presiding,  DeWitt  C.  Beery  was  secretary,  H.  C. 
Beery  was  treasurer,  and  A.  R.  Rhinehart,  John  C.  Williams, 
and  H.  C.  Beery  were  deacons.  The  building  committee  was 
composed  of  Col.  E.  Sipe,  Isaac  Stone,  John  C.  Williams, 
Harvey  Simmers,  John  Fridley,  and  D.  C.  Rhinehart. 

In  November,  1874,  Eld.  Benj.  Seever,  of  the  Christian 
Church,  "who  used  to  preach  in  this  part  of  Rockingham 
from  1843  to  1849,"  visited  Harrisonburg. 

On  April  3,  1877,  died  David  Ralston,  aged  74,  who  had 
been  '  'for  more  than  thirty  years  a  member  of  the  Christian 
Church  at  Antioch." 

On  January  24,  1897,  the  Christian  Church  east  of  Har- 
risonburg, at  Mt.  Vernon  school  house,  E.  T.  Iseley,  pastor, 
was  dedicated.     This  evidently  refers  to  New  Hope. 

The  membership  of  the  Christian  Church  in  Rockingham 
at  the  present  is  about  700. 

Church  of  the  Brethren. 

Church  of  the  Brethren  (Dunker)  Church  Houses  in 
Rockingham  (1912). 

1.  Garber's:  "The  Old  Meeting  House";  two  miles 
west  of  Harrisonburg;  built  about  1820;  rebuilt  recently. 

—248—  • 


2.  Linville  Creek:  One  mile  east  of  Broadway;  house 
built  in  1828  or  1830. 

3.  Beaver  Creek:  First  minister,  John  Brower;  Martin 
Miller  made  elder  April  5,  1855;  house  burned  June  13,  1869; 
new  church  used  for  communion  meeting  Nov.  13,  1869. 

4.  Mill  Creek:  Congregation  organized  in  1840,  Isaac 
Long  (1815-1895)  and  Daniel  Yount  being  present;  new  house 
erected  in  1860. 

5.  Greenmount:  Built  in  1859;  rebuilt  1898.  In  1872  at 
Greenmount  died  Benj.  Bowman,  aged  87  years,  who  had 
been  a  minister  for  50  years. 

6.  Pine  Grove:  Two  miles  northeast  of  Linville;  built 
about  1850. 

7.  Plains:  A  union  house,  the  Brethren  having  prece- 
dence on  fourth  Sundays;  a  schoolhouse  as  early  as  1827;  pres- 
ent building  erected  1857. 

8.  Bridge  water:  Built  in  1878.  In  September,  1892, 
Eld.  Solomon  Garber  died  near  Bridgewater,  aged  over  80. 

9.  Dayton:  House  built  in  1851  by  the  Lutherans,  and 
used  by  them,  the  Methodists,  and  the  United  Brethren  prior 
to  1861. 

10.  Timberville:  House  completed  in  1879.  The  first 
Dunker  meetings  in  Timberville  began  about  1820  in  John  Zig- 
ler's  barn;  his  brick  house,  built  in  1832,  was  arranged  for 

11.  Mt.  Ohvet:  Three  miles  northeast  of  Cootes'  Store. 
On  Lake's  map  (1885)  a  Dunker  church  is  shown  at  this  point. 

12.  Montezuma:  Old  schoolhouse,  used  as  a  church  for 
a  number  of  years. 

13.  Fairview:    Two  miles  north  of  Mt.  Clinton. 

14.  Fairview:     Two  miles  northeast  of  Tenth  Legion. 

15.  Newdale:     One  mile  north  of  Tenth  Legion. 

16.  Bethel:    At  Mayland. 

17.  Cedar  Run:    Two  miles  west  of  Broadway. 

18.  Brock's  Gap:    Organized  in  1895. 

19.  Oak  Grove:    Three  miles  west  of  Cootes'  Store. 

20.  Mt.  Zion:    Two  miles  northeast  of  Singer's  Glen. 



21.  Melrose. 

22.  Mt.  Pleasant:    Near  Peale's  Cross  Roads. 

23.  Harrisonburg:  Mission  opened  by  Eld.  P.  S.  Thomas 
and  others  about  1900;  church  built  in  1907. 

24.  Hinton  Grove:  Formerly  Trinity;  present  church 
built  at  Hinton  about  1900. 

25.  Rawley  Springs. 

26.  Briery  Branch. 

27.  Bridge  water  College  Chapel:    In  use  since  1884. 

28.  Pleasant  Run:  Near  Pleasant  Valley. 

29.  Sunnyside:    Two  miles  west  of  Port  Republic. 

The  Brush  Meeting  House  was  erected  in  1843,  west  of 
Broadway,  and  an  old  church  used  to  stand  near  Ft.  Hoover. 

On  May  10,  1798,  Martin  Carver,  certifying  a  marriage 
he  had  performed,  subscribed  himself  as  "Minister  of  the 
Duch  Babtist  Susiety." 

In  1875  it  was  stated  in  the  Register  that  there  were  at 
that  time  35  Dunker  ministers  in  Rockingham  County. 

Among  the  leaders  of  the  church  in  Rockingham,  not 
already  named,  may  be  mentioned  Peter  Nead  (1795-1877), 
John  Kline  (1800-1864),  Samuel  H.  Myers  (1832-1897),  and 
Daniel  Hays  (1839). 

The  anti-slavery  and  anti-war  principles  of  the  Dunkers 
are  well  known,  and  they,  with  the  Mennonites,  suffered  not 
a  little  in  Rockingham  during  the  civil  war  by  arrest,  im- 
prisonment, etc. 

The  establishment  of  a  school  in  1880,  now  well  known  as 
Bridgewater  College,  has  done  much  to  give  efficiency  and 
distinction  to  the  work  of  the  Brethren  in  the  Valley  of  Vir- 
ginia and  adjacent  sections.  The  membership  of  the  church 
in  Rockingham  totals  about  2500.  ^ 

3.  For  more  particulars  regarding  the  Church  of  the  Brethren,  the 
reader  is  referred  to  the  following  publications:  Howard  Miller's  Record 
of  the  Faithful;  Wayland  and  Garber's  Bridgewater  College,  Past  and 
Present;  Hays  and  Sanger's  Olive  Branch;  D.  H.  Zigler's  History  of  the 
Brethren  in  Virginia;  Two  Centuries  of  the  Church  of  the  Brethren, 
Chapter  II. 



Church  of  Christ. 

There  are  two  church  houses  of  the  Church  of  Christ  in 
Rockingham,  one  on  E.  Market  Street,  in  Harrisonburg,  the 
other  in  Dayton. 

In  July,  1871,  a  Christian  church  was  organized 'in  Day- 
ton, with  16  members,  by  Rev.  D.  A.  Long.  What  the  con- 
nection is  between  this  organization  and  the  present  Church 
of  Christ  in  Dayton  is  not  known.  The  present  church  was 
dedicated  July  15,  1883. '^ 

The  church  in  Harrisonburg  has  been  opened  more  re- 
cently. The  pastor  of  both  churches  is  Rev.  Geo.  C.  Minor, 
who  lives  in  Harrisonburg,  and  who  is  an  active  worker  in  all 
departments  of  religious  activity.  One  of  the  pioneer  work- 
ers in  Rockingham,  as  well  as  in  Shenandoah  and  other  coun- 
ties in  Virginia,  was  Rev.  J.  D.  Hamaker,  who  is  still  an  active 
leader.     His  home  is  in  Strasburg. 

There  are  members  of  the  Church  of  Christ  at  Lacey 
Springs,  Keezletown,  Elkton,  and  other  places  in  the  county, 
as  well  as  in  Harrisonburg  and  Dayton,  the  total  number 
being  about  150. 

Episcopal  Church. 

Rockingham  Parish  in  Virginia  was  organized  some  years 
prior  to  the  breaking  out  of  the  American  Revolution  in  1776; 
the  exact  year  is  not  known,  and  up  to  that  time  was  under 
the  charge  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Balmaine,  with  two  houses  of 
worship,  one  at  Dayton,  and  the  other  close  to  the  present 
Union  Church  near  Cross  Keys. 

During  the  long  weary  years  of  that  memorable  struggle 
for  American  independence  the  parish  seems  to  have  declined, 
and  after  the  close  of  the  war  both  of  the  above  mentioned 
houses  of  worship  were  neglected  and  allowed  to  go  to  ruin, 
and  for  more  than  sixty  years  there  is  no  record  of  any  reg- 
ularly organized  religious  work  being  done  in  the  parish  by 

3-  It  is  assumed  that  the  church  dedicated  in  Dayton,  July  15,  1883, 
by  the  Disciples  of  Christ  was  the  same  as  that  now  known  as  the  Church 
of  Christ. 



Episcopalians,  although  it  is  very  probable  that  occasional 
services  were  held  at  or  near  Port  Republic. 

In  1850  an  effort  was  made  to  revive  the  parish,  and  the 
Rev.  James  B.  Goodwyn  was  placed  in  charge  as  minister;  and 
after  him  the  Rev.  John  C.  Wheat,  Vice-Principal  of  the  Vir- 
ginia Female  Institute  at  Staunton,  Va.,  preached  regularly 
in  the  parish  at  great  cost  of  labor  and  inconvenience  to 

In  1865,  after  the  close  of  the  Civil  War,  the  parish  was 
re-organized  at  Port  Republic,  Va.,  with  the  Rev.  John  C. 
Wheat  still  serving  as  minister,  and  on  March  8,  1866,  a  meet- 
ing of  the  members  of  the  parish  and  other  contributors  was 
held  in  Harrisonburg  with  Mr.  John  F.  Lewis,  one  of  the  old 
vestry  of  Rockingham  parish,  presiding;  when  the  following 
named  gentlemen  were  elected  as  vestrymen;  General  Sam- 
uel H.  Lewis,  John  F.  Lewis,  Samuel  H.  Lewis,  Jr.,  Andrew 
Lewis,  John  R.  Jones,  Wm.  H.  Effinger,  Frank  Boylan, 
Joshua  Wilton,  Foxhall  A.  Dangerfield,  Algernon  S.  Gray, 
Dr.  George  W.  Kemper,  Jr.,  and  Edward  H.  Stevens.  John 
F.  Lewis  of  Port  Republic  and  Andrew  Lewis  of  Harrison- 
burg were  elected  wardens,  and  Wm.  H.  Effinger  secretary 
and  treasurer.  At  this  meeting  the  resignation  of  Rev.  John 
C.  Wheat  was  accepted,  and  a  resolution  of  thanks  for  his 
untiring  efforts  and  Christian  zeal  in  behalf  of  the  Protestant 
Episcopal  Church  here  was  passed  and  directed  to  be  com- 
municated by  the  secretary  to  Mr.  Wheat.  The  next  busi- 
ness in  order  being  the  choice  of  a  rector,  the  Rev.  Henry  A. 
Wise  (son  of  Henry  A.  Wise,  ex-governor  of  Virginia)  was 
called,  and  a  notice  in  due  form,  signed  by  the  wardens,  was 
directed  to  be  sent  to  the  Bishop  of  the  Diocese.  Mr.  Wise 
accepted  the  call  and  was  duly  installed  as  rector,  holding 
services  on  alternate  Sundays  in  Harrisonburg  and  Port 
Republic,  the  services  in  Harrisonburg  being  held  in  the 
second  story  of  a  frane  building  on  Main  Street  just  north  of 
what  was  then  known  as  the  Old  School  Presbyterian  Church. 
This  frame  building  was  then  owned  by  Mr.  Samuel  Shack- 
lett,  the  lower  floor  being  used  as  a  wareroom.     The  upper 



story  was  called  Shacklett's  Hall,  where  services  were  held 
once  a  month  on  Sunday  afternoons  by  the  Old  School 

In  May,  1867,  Mr.  Wise  resigned  to  become  rector  of 
Christ's  Church,  Baltimore,  and  the  following  October  the 
Rev.  Thomas  Underwood  Dudley,  Jr.  Deacon,  afterwards 
Bishop  of  Kentucky,  was  sent  by  the  Right  Rev.  John  Johns, 
Bishop  of  the  Diocese  of  Virginia,  to  minister  during  his 
diaconate.  From  October  1  to  December  1,  1867,  services 
were  held  on  alternate  Sundays  by  Mr.  Dudley  at  the  points 
where  Mr.  Wise,  his  predecessor,  had  previously  officiated, 
till,  owing  to  the  severity  of  the  weather,  the  services  at 
Port  Republic  were  discontinued  and  then  held  twice  each 
Sunday  at  Harrisonburg,  the  vestry  having  in  the  meantime 
rented  at  $15.00  per  month  the  brick  church  on  North  Main 
street  formerly  owned  and  used  by  the  New  School  Presby- 
terians-(Rev.  T.  D.  Bell,  Pastor).  This  church  stood  on  the 
ground  now  occupied  by  the  Post  Office  and  U.  S.  Court 

In  March,  1868,  a  vacant  lot  on  the  northeast  corner  of 
Main  and  Bruce  streets  was  purchased  from  Dr.  Geo.  K. 
Gilmer  for  one  thousand  dollars  for  the  purpose  of  erecting 
thereon  Emmanuel  Protestant  Episcopal  Church. 

In  February,  1868,  Rev.  Dudley,  at  the  request  of  the 
vestry,  started  on  a  tour  through  some  of  the  Northern  States 
soliciting  funds  for  the  new  church  building,  and  succeeded 
in  procuring  about  $3500.  At  the  same  time  subscription 
papers  were  circulated  in  the  town  and  throughout  the  parish, 
by  which  means  about  $1500  was  promised,  and  the  ladies  of 
the  parish,  ever  ready  and  at  all  times  doing  their  part  and 
doing  it  well,  had  already  raised  some  eight  hundred  dollars. 
With  these  several  sums  of  money  in  hand  and  promised,  the 
rector  and  vestry  undertook  to  build  the  church,  and  on  the 
24th  of  June,  1868,  the  corner  stone  was  laid  with  appropriate 
Masonic  ceremonies  by  Rockingham  Union  Lodge  No.  27  A. 
F.  and  A.  M.,  Mr.  Joseph  T.  Logan  acting  as  Grand  Master, 
on  which  occasion  an  appropriate  and  eloquent  address  was 



delivered  by  the  Rev.  James  D.  McCabe,  D.D.  On  the  same 
day  the  ladies  of  the  congregation  held  a  dinner  and  fair  in 
the  basement  of  the  Methodist  church  on  German  Street, 
from  which  they  realized  the  handsome  sum  of  six  hundred 

Mr.  Dudley  having  tendered  his  resignation,  preached  his 
last  sermon  on  the  last  Sunday  night  in  December,  1868, 
using  the  same  text  from  which  his  first  sermon  was  taken, 
viz:  "Except  ye  repent  ye  shall  all  likewise  perish";  and  to 
the  very  great  regret  of  his  people  removed  to  Baltimore, 
where  he  assumed  charge  as  rector  of  Christ's  Church  in  that 
city,  as  the  successor  to  Rev.  Henry  A.  Wise,  deceased. 

On  the  first  Sunday  in  1869,  the  Rev.  John  Cosby,  having 
accepted  the  call  of  the  vestry,  preached  his  first  sermon  in 
the  New  School  Presbyterian  Church,  and  on  February  7, 
1869,  he  began  to  hold  regular  services  in  the  basement  of  the 
new  church  and  continued  to  use  that  room  as  a  chapel  until 
August  1,  1869,  when  the  first  service  was  held  upstairs  in 
the  church  proper. 

The  foregoing  paragraphs  have  been  copied  from  a  valu- 
able paper,  recently  prepared,  on  the  Episcopal  Church  in 
Rockingham,  by  Mr.  J.  Wilton,  of  Harrisonburg.  The  rec- 
tors at  Harrisonburg  since  1869,  as  recorded  by  Mr.  Wilton, 
are  the  following: 

Alexander  W.  Waddell,  1870-1875. 

David  Barr,  1875-1879. 

T.  Jervis  Edwards,  1879-1881. 

0.  S.  Bunting,  1881-1889. 

W.  T.  Roberts,  1889-1892. 

0.  M.  Yerger,  1893-1899. 

W.  J.  Morton,  1900-1902. 

Robert  U.  Brooking,  1903-1908. 

Dallas  Tucker,  1908-1909. 

John  L.  Jackson,  1910 — 

Mr.  Wilton  refers  to  the  old  chapel  at  Dayton.  On  May 
6,  1911,  Mr.  Joe  K.  Ruebush  pointed  out  to  me  the  site  form- 
erly occupied  by  this  chapel,  agreeing  with  the  following, 



copied  from  a  letter  written  September  10,  1912,  by  Capt.  J. 
A.  Herring: 

"My  grandmother  and  grand-aunt  told  me  a  great  deal 
about  the  history  and  people  of  the  early  days.  [The  Herrings 
were  among  the  pioneers  in  the  Dayton  section.]  There  was 
an  Episcopal  chapel  near  the  north  end  of  the  graveyard 
[north  side  of  Dayton].  Under  the  English  rule  it  was  the 
established  church.  Parson  Bellmain  ministered  to  the  people 
there.  When  the  war  of  the  Revolution  came  on  he  went  as 
a  chaplain  to  the  army,  and  never  returned.  The  old  people 
said  there  was  never  any  Episcopal  service  there  after  he 
left.  I  can  remember  the  old  building,  but  it  was  removed 
long  ago." 

In  East  Rockingham  at  present  there  are  at  least  four 
Episcopal  churches  or  chapels:  Sandy  Bottom,  St.  Stephens, 
Rocky  Bar,  and  Grace  Memorial.  These  are  in  charge  of  the 
Rev.  J.  R.  Ellis,  who  is  also  doing  a  splendid  work  in  the 
adjacent  sections  of  the  Blue  Ridge  in  connection  with  mis- 
sion schools.  Mr.  Ellis  informs  me  that  the  services  of  the 
church  in  this  section  of  the  county  have  been  kept  up  con- 
nectedly since  colonial  times. 

A  short  distance  southwest  of  Port  Republic,  on  a  beauti- 
ful situation  overlooking  the  river  plain  and  valley  bordered 
with  mountains,  is  Madison  Hall,  the  birthplace  of  James 
Madison,  first  Episcopal  bishop  of  Virginia.  His  father  was 
John  Madison,  cousin  of  President  Madison,  and  first  clerk  of 
Augusta  County.  His  mother  was  a  Miss  Strother,  whose 
sisters  married  Thomas  Lewis  and  Gabriel  Jones.  He  was 
born  August  27,  1749,  at  Port  Republic,  and  died  March  5, 
1812,  at  Williamsburg.  He  graduated  at  William  and  Mary 
in  1772;  studied  law;  was  admitted  to  the  bar,  but  soon  turned 
to  theology  and  teaching.  From  1777  to  1812— for  35  years- 
he  was  president  of  William  and  Mary  College.  He  had  at 
least  three  brothers,  Thomas,  Rowland,  and  George. 
Thomas,  born  in  1746,  was  a  captain,  and  married  Susanna, 



youngest  sister  of  Patrick  Henry.     George  was  a  governor 
of  Kentucky.^ 

The  membership  of  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church  in 
Rockingham  in  1906  was  reported  as  163. 

Jewish  Church. 

The  first  Jewish  famihes  that  settled  permanently  in 
Rockingham  County  emigrated  from  Austria  in  1859.  Among 
them  were  Messrs,  Leopold  Wise  and  Herman  Heller,  who 
settled  in  Harrisonburg;  Samuel  Loewner,  who  settled  in 
Dayton;  and  Jonas  Heller,  who  located  in  Mt.  Crawford. 

There  may  have  been  Jewish  settlers  previous  to  those 
mentioned  above,  as  the  early  court  records  of  Rockingham 
County  disclose  a  certain  transaction  in  which  it  is  expressly 
mentioned  that  one  of  the  parties  thereto  was  a  Jew;  but  as 
to  when  and  where  they  may  have  settled,  we  have  no 

When  the  civil  war  broke  out,  Messrs.  Albert  and  Her- 
man Wise,  Emanuel  Lowner  and  Jonas  Heller  enlisted  in  the 
Confederate  army,  serving  under  General  Jackson.  After 
the  close  of  the  civil  war  the  Jewish  community  was  increased 
by  a  number  of  emigrants  from  Germany  and  Austria,  among 
whom  were  Messrs.  B.  Ney  and  Joseph  Ney,  Simon  Oes- 
treicher,  and  William  Loeb. 

These  few  families  met  from  time  to  time  at  the  resi- 
dence of  Leopold  Wise  on  W.  Market  Street  for  divine 
services,  which  were  conducted  by  Samuel  Lowner,  Adolph 
Wise,  and  Simon  Oestreicher  in  accordance  with  the  orthodox 
ritual.  Later  the  Jewish  community  organized  itself  under 
the  name  of  the  Hebrew  Friendship  Congregation  of  Harri- 
sonburg, bought  ground  for  a  cemetery,  and  rented  a  room 
in  the  Liskey  building,  on  W.  Market  Street,  which  was  used 

4-  On  Bishop  Madison,  Madison  Hall,  etc.,  see:  Appleton's  Cyclopedia 
of  American  Biography,  Vol.  4;  Tyler's  Williamsburg;  Waddell's  Annals 
of  Augusta,  pp.  112,  113;  Cartmell's  Shenandoah  Valley  Pioneers,  p.  446; 
Thwaites  and  Kellogg's  Dunmore's  War,  p.  280;  Virginia  Magazine  of 
History  and  Biography,  Vol.  13,  p.  360. 


Bishop  James  Madison      (Page  255) 

From  oil  portrait  in  rooms  of  Virginia  Historical  Society, 

Photo  by  Cook 


for  a  temporary  place  of  worship  as  well  as  a  Sunday  school 
for  the  young. 

As  the  Congregation  grew  in  numbers  and  became  more 
prosperous,  more  desirable  quarters  were  secured  in  the 
Sibert  building  on  Main  Street,  the  ladies  began  to  take  an 
active  interest  in  the  congregation  by  organizing  themselves 
into  an  Auxiliary  Society,  and  helping  to  establish  a  perma- 
nent choir,  with  the  result  that  the  services  became  more 
impressive  and  modern  in  spirit.  The  first  class  was  con- 
firmed by  Major  Hart  of  Staunton,  in  the  new  place  of  wor- 

Thus  were  continued  the  activities  of  the  Congregation 
for  two  decades,  Messrs.  Samuel  Loewner,  Adolph  Wise, 
and  Simon  Oestreicher  devoting  their  time  and  energy  to 
promote  the  spiritual  welfare  of  the  Congregation. 

In  1890  the  Congregation  began  devising  w^ays  and  means 
to  erect  a  permanent  House  of  Worship,  and  with  that  end 
in  view,  a  lot  was  purchased  on  North  Main  Street,  and  a 
building  committee  was  appointed,  with  Mr.  B.  Ney  as 

The  members  were  enthusiastic  over  the  new  undertak- 
ing, and  through  the  indefatigable  labors  of  the  building 
committee,  in  conjunction  with  all  the  members  of  the  con- 
gregation, and  the  Ladies'  Auxiliary  Society,  funds  were  re- 
alized from  the  proceeds  of  a  fair  given  in  Harrisonburg,  to 
which  the  people  of  the  different  denominations  responded 
liberally.  Additional  funds  were  raised  by  soliciting  some  of 
the  prominent  Jewish  congregations  of  the  East  for  contribu- 
tions to  the  worthy  cause.  When,  in  1892,  the  Temple  was 
dedicated  by  Dr.  Shoanfarber  of  Baltimore,  it  was  free  and 
clear  of  debt.  It  was  a  gala  occasion  for  the  Jewish  com- 
munity of  Harrisonburg;  the  dedicatory  services  were  at- 
tended by  the  Jewish  people  of  Staunton  and  Charlottesville, 
and  many  of  the  prominent  people  of  Harrisonburg  partici- 
pated in  the  festivities. 

The  new  Temple  stimulated  a  keener  interest  in  congre- 
gational life,  yet  the  community  was  not  large  enough  to  be 




able  to  procure  the  services  of  a  Rabbi;  so  Messrs.  Adolph 
Wise  and  Simon  Oestreicher  continued  to  minister  to  the 
spiritual  needs  of  the  congregation,  and  it  is  principally  due 
to  the  untiring  efforts  of  these  two  gentlemen  that  the  con- 
gregation continued  its  spiritual  activities. 

In  1910  the  congregation  deemed  it  advisable  to  procure 
the  services  of  a  Rabbi;  accordingly  Rev.  J.  Schvanenfeld  of 
Baltimore  was  unanimously  elected,  and  since  then  the  congre- 
gation has  started  on  its  new  career. 

The  religious  status  of  the  congregation  had  remained 
unchanged  during  four  decades,  from  the  time  of  its  organ- 
ization; but  in  pursuance  of  the  Rabbi's  advice,  the  ritual 
used  by  all  modern  American  Hebrew  congregations  was  in- 
troduced; a  new  constitution  and  by-laws,  similar  to  those  in 
vogue  in  the  prominent  American  congregations,  were 
adopted.  The  entire  congregational  machinery  was  reorgan- 
ized with  the  result  that  the  religious  life  of  the  congregation 
has  been  reawakened.  The  congregation  is  conducted  by  a 
Board  of  Managers  consisting  of  Messrs.  Adolph  Wise,  Presi- 
dent; Simon  Oestreicher,  Vice-President;  Joseph  Ney,  Treas- 
urer; V.  R.  Slater,  Secretary;  B.  Ney,  Bernard  Bloom,  Abra- 
ham Miller,  Charles  Loewener,  and  Herman  Wise,  The 
President  appoints  the  various  committees  to  look  after  the 
material  welfare  of  the  congregation;  the  Rabbi  looks  after 
the  spiritual  welfare  of  the  congregation  by  conducting 
services  on  Sabbaths  and  hohdays;  preaching  to  the  old,  and 
teaching  the  young. 

The  Ladies'  Auxiliary  Society  is  also  active  in  com- 
mendable work  by  having  a  standing  committee  to  look  after 
the  poor  and  the  stranger,  to  whom  financial  aid  and  advice 
are  given  irrespective  of  race  or  creed.  The  Auxiliary  also 
proves  its  usefulness  in  decorating  the  Temple  on  special 
occasions  and  providing  the  Sunday  school  children  with  en- 

The  foregoing  excellent  account  of  the  Jews  in  Rocking- 
ham was  prepared  for  this  work  by  Rabbi  J.  Schvanenfeld. 

In  1877-8  Rabbi  Sterne  was   with  the  congregation  in 

—258  - 


Harrisonburg;  and  in  1883  Rabbi  M.  Strauss  was  called  to 
conduct  weekly  services  and  teach  a  school.  Neither  of  these 
remained  long. 

In  1906  the  U.  S.  Census  Bureau  reported  20  Jews,  heads 
of  families,  in  Rockingham;  and  in  1910  a  religious  census  of 
Harrisonburg  showed  a  membership  of  87  in  the  Jewish 

Lutheran  Church. 

Lutheran  Churches  in  Rockingham  (1912). 

1.  Rader's:  Near  Timberville;  organized,  by  Lutherans 
and  Reformed,  as  early  as  1762;  log  house  replaced  in  1806; 
present  church  built  in  1878-9;  in  hands  of  Lutherans  since 

On  May  20, 1765,  Adam  Reider  and  Alex.  Painter  deeded 
3  acres  of  land  for  a  church  to  Peter  Scholl,  in  behalf  of  the 
Presbyterian  church,  and  to  Michael  Neice,  in  behalf  of  the 
Lutheran  church.  Abram  Bird  was  witness.  "Presbyterian" 
in  this  case  is  doubtless  "Reformed."  In  1872  an  Act  of 
Assembly  was  passed  making  the  above  deed  valid  to  the 
Lutherans  and  Reformed. 

2.  Friedens:  Organized  perhaps  as  early  as  1748;  still 
held  jointly  by  the  Lutherans  and  Reformed;  the  Dinkles, 
Shanks,  Wises,  and  Hoffmans  were  among  the  organizers. 

3.  McGaheysville:  Peaked  Mountain  Church,  built  in 
1769,  and  held  jointly  by  the  Lutherans  and  Reformed,  stood 
at  or  near  the  site  now  occupied  by  the  old  union  church. 
The  latter  is  said  to  have  been  built  about  1800  by  Nicholas 
Leap,  and  to  have  been  dedicated  May  25,  1804,  by  Christian 
Streit  and  John  Brown;  used  only  by  the  Lutherans  since 

4.  St.  Peter's:  Four  miles  north  of  Elkton;  perhaps 
called  in  early  times  Lower  Peaked  Mountian  Church;  dedi- 
cated in  June,  1777;  remodeled  in  1910. 

5.  Spader's:  Near  Pleasant  Valley;  an  old  church. 

6.  St.  John's:  Near  Singer's  Glen;  present  house  dedi- 
cated in  1887. 



7.  Harrisonburg:  Built  before  the  civil  war;  used  as 
hospital,  barracks,  etc.,  during  the  war;  rededicated  in  1868: 
services  conducted  by  Rev.  J.  I.  Miller,  assisted  by  Revs. 
Snyder,  Holland,  McClanahan,  and  Keller,  of  the  Lutheran 
Church;  A.  P.  Boude,  of  the  Methodist  Churh;  and  S.  Funk, 
of  the  Baptist  Church:  Rev.  G.  W.  Holland  installed  as 

8.  Bridge  water:  Dates  back  to  1866  or  before;  present 
house  dedicated  in  1881. 

9.  Trinity:  East  of  Melrose. 

10.  Edom:  In  1871,  a  new  church,  replacing  an  old  one, 
was  dedicated  at  Edom  for  the  use  of  the  Lutherans,  South- 
ern Methodists,  and  Presbyterians. 

11.  St.  Paul:  Two  miles  north  of  Tenth  Legion. 

In  1851  the  Lutherans  built  the  church  in  Dayton  now 
owned  by  the  Church  of  the  Brethren.  In  Lake's  Atlas  (1885) 
a  Lutheran  church  is  located  on  the  Back  Road,  three  miles 
northeast  of  Cootes'  Store.  In  the  same  atlas  an  "Old  Dutch 
Church"  is  located  at  Paulington.  This  may  have  been 

In  1891  Rev.  J.  P.  Stirewalt  organized  a  Lutheran  con- 
gregation, 37  communicants,  near  Hupp  P.  0.  This  is  identi- 
fied with  St.  Paul. 

Many  of  the  oldest  settlers  of  Rockingham  were  Luther- 
ans or  Reformed,  and  a  number  of  the  first  churches  were 
held  jointly  by  these  two  denominations. 

Rev.  Geo.  S.  Klug  (see  pp.  46,  47)  was  perhaps  the  first 
Lutheran  preacher  to  labor  in  vv^hat  is  now  Rockingham 
County.  Rev.  Paul  Henkel  (1754-1825)  doubtless  did  much 
work  in  Rockingham.  The  Henkel  (Lutheran)  Press,  estab- 
lished at  New  Market,  so  near  to  Rockingham,  in  1806,  has 
had  a  potent  and  wide  influence. 

The  eminent  Joseph  A.  Seiss,  born  in  Maryland,  preached 
for  a  year  or  so  in  Rockingham  about  1842.  Two  young  men 
who  heard  him  at  Friedens  and  Cross  Keys  (Union  Church) 
were  Peter  and  Joseph  I.  Miller,  vv^ho  were  born  near  Mt. 
Crawford  Depot  (as  nov/  named),  the  former  September  18, 



1828,  the  latter  June  2,  1831.  Both,  having  conquered  hard 
fortune  in  securing  an  education,  entered  the  ministry  in 
1858.  Both  became  distinguished  as  educators  and  preachers. 
Rev.  J,  I.  Miller  served  churches  in  Clear  Spring,  Md.,  Shep- 
herdstown,  W.  Va.,  Staunton,  and  elsewhere.  He  was  the 
pioneer  in  the  field  of  higher  education  for  women  in  the 
Lutheran  Church  in  the  South;  founded  and  conducted  schools 
for  women  at  Staunton,  Luray,  and  Buena  Vista.  He  died 
February  26,  1912,  full  of  years  and  honors.  His  brother, 
Rev.  Peter  Miller,  having  been  a  teacher  and  preacher  for 
more  than  fifty  years,  is  still  about  his  Father's  business 
among  his  people  at  Rio,  W.  Va. 

The  eminent  Dr.  C.  Armand  Miller,  now  of  Charleston, 
S.  C,  is  a  son  of  Rev.  J.  I.  Miller. 

The  Lutherans  in  Rockingham  number  between  600  and 

Mennonite  Church. 

Mennonite  Churches  in  Rockingham  (1912). 

1.  Trissel's:  Four  miles  west  of  Broadway;  first  house 
built  in  1822;  first  ministers,  Henry  Rhodes,  Henry  Funk, 
Henry  Shank. 

2.  Pike:  First  known  as  Moyers's;  located  two  miles 
east  of  Dayton;  house  built  in  1825;  first  ministers,  Fred. 
Rhodes  and  Abram  Nisewander. 

3.  Brenneman's:  Two  miles  west  of  Edom;  built  1826; 
first  ministers,  Michael  Kaufl'man  and  Samuel  Shank. 

4.  Weaver's:  Two  miles  west  of  Harrisonburg;  built 
in  1827;  first  called  Burkholder's;  first  ministers,  Peter  Burk- 
holder,  Martin  Burkholder,  and  Samuel  Cotfman. 

5.  Bank:  One  mile  north  of  Rushville;  first  ministers, 
David  Rhodes  and  John  Weaver. 

5.  In  February  and  March.  1895.  and  February  and  March,  1897,  ar- 
ticles appeared  in  the  Rockingham  Register  dealing  with  the  early  history 
of  Friedens  Church.  The  published  address  of  Gen.  J.  E.  Roller,  made 
October  25,  1897,  at  Hagerstown,  Md.,  also  presents  interesting  matter 
concerning  it.  The  Shenandoah  Valley,  New  Market,  Vti. ,  of  January 
2.  1908,  gives  an  account  of  St.  John's  Lutheran  Church. 



6.  Mt.  Clinton:  One  mile  west  of  Mt.  Clinton;  house 
built  in  1874;  first  ministers,  David  Showalter,  Jacob  Driver, 
Jos.  N.  Driver. 

7.  Zion:  Near  Daphna  Station;  house  built  in  1885; 
first  minister,  Samuel  Shank. 

8.  Lindale:  Near  Edom;  house  built  in  1899;  first  min- 
ister, Henry  Wenger. 

9.  White  Hall:    House  built  in  1875. 

Services  are  also  conducted  at  Newdale,  Dry  River, 
Peak  Schoolhouse,  and  Gospel  Hill.  The  total  membership 
in  the  county  is  about  600. 

There  were  probably  three  Mennonites  at  Massanutten 
as  early  as  1730  (see  pp.  36,  37).  One  of  the  three,  Michael 
Kauff  man,  is  likely  the  man  who,  as  a  minister  of  that  name^ 
settled  later  on  Linville  Creek,  In  1748  the  Moravian  mis- 
sionaries found  a  number  of  Mennonites  at  Massanutten  (see 
page  47).  The  Mennonites  were  among  the  earliest  settlers, 
therefore,  in  what  are  now  Rockingham  and  Page  counties. 

Up  to  about  1840  the  Mennonite  preaching  and  singing 
were  exclusively  in  the  German  language.  In  or  about  1816 
Joseph  Funk,  of  Mountain  Valley  (now  Singer's  Glen),  a 
Mennonite,  published  a  music  book  in  German,  entitled, 
"Choral-Music."  It  was  printed  in  Harrisonburg,  and 
was  doubtless  one  of  the  first  music  books  printed  in  Virginia. 
In  1832  Funk  sent  out  the  first  edition  of  "Genuine  Church 
Music,"  later  famous  under  the  title  "Harmonia  Sacra."  In 
1847  he  opened  at  Mountain  Valley  what  is  said  to  have  been 
the  first  Mennonite  printing  house  in  America.  Ten  years 
earlier  he,  with  Peter  Burkholder,  had  published  a  large 
volume  on  Mennonite  history  and  doctrine. 

Although  not  many  of  the  early  Mennonites  in  Rocking- 
ham favored  higher  education,  it  is  an  interesting  fact  that 
provision  was  made  from  the  beginning  at  Brenneman's  and 
Weaver's  for  the  erection  of  a  schoolhouse  on  the  church  lot. 

In  the  Mennonite  Church,  as  in  all  other  churches,  there 
have  been  occasional  differences  of  opinion  that  have  resulted 
in  separate  organizations.     In  Rockingham,  about  ten  years 



ago,  a  part  of  the  Mennonite  church  perfected  a  separate 
organization,  and  erected  a  church  a  short  distance  southeast 
of  Rushville.  This  church  is  called  Pleasant  View,  and 
represents  what  may  be  termed  the  Old  Order.  The  house 
was  built  in  1902-3,  and  the  membership  numbers  90  or  100." 

Methodist  Church. 

Methodist  Churches  in  Rockingham  (1912). 

1.  Harrisonburg:  Organized  as  early  as  1788;  church  lot 
donated  by  Robert  and  Reuben  Harrison  in  1789;  first  church 
finished  in  1794.  The  Methodist  Mission  at  the  north  side  of 
Harrisonburg  was  established  in  April,  1899. 

2.  Bridgewater:  Organized  prior  to  1866,  since  a  Meth- 
odist church  was  in  Bridgewater  in  that  year. 

3.  Dayton:  Present  church  opened  April,  1899;  the  or- 
ganization ante-dates  the  civil  war. 

4.  Clover  Hill:    Church  dedicated  in  November,  1886. 

5.  Spring  Creek:    Church  dedicated  June  14,  1885. 

6.  Rushville:  Present  church  dedicated  in  December, 
1896.  The  first  church  there  was  likely  erected  about  1858, 
since  on  March  3,  1858,  an  Act  of  Assembly  was  passed 
authorizing  the  trustees  of  Gospel  Hill  meeting  house,  on 
Muddy  Creek  (now  Mt.  Clinton),  to  sell  the  church  for  the 
benefit  of  the  M.  E.  church  to  be  erected  within  the  Rushville 

Churches  2,  3,  4,  5,  and  6  constitute  the  Bridgewater 

7.  Mt.  Crawford:  Date  of  organization  unknown.  There 
was  a  union  (or  free)  church  in  Mt.  Crawford  as  early  as  1835. 

8.  Fair  view:    Two  miles  southeast  of  Mt.  Crawford. 
Churches  7  and  8  compose  the  Mt.  Crawford  Circuit. 

5.  For  more  particulars  concerning  the  Mennonites  in  Virginia  and 
elsewhere, the  reader  is  referred  to  the  following:  A  History  of  the 
Mennonite  Conference  of  Virginia  and  its  Work,  by  L.  J.  Heatwole,  C. 
H.  Brunk,  and  Christian  Good;  Hartzler  and  Kauffman's  Mennonite 
Church  History;  C.  H.  Smith's  Mennonites  of  America;  the  Rockingham 
Register,  June  14,  1895,  etc. 



9.  Keezletown:  A  new  Methodist  church  was  being 
erected  at  Keezletown  in  1869.  In  November,  1883,  a  Meth- 
odist church,  likely  the  present  one,  was  dedicated. 

10.  McGaheysville:  It  is  said  that  a  Mr.  Bader  built  a 
Methodist  church  in  McGaheysville  in  1835. 

11.  Fellowship:    Three  miles  east  of  Linville. 

12.  Linville:    Church  dedicated  in  September,  1890. 

13.  Edom. 

Churches  9,  10,  11,  12,  and  13  make  up  the  Rockingham 

14.  Elkton:  Said  to  date  back  to  1821,  when  Conrad 
Harnsberger  and  Col.  Miller  donated  4  acres  of  land  for  church 
site  and  cemetery,  and  Wm.  Monger  hewed  the  logs  and  built 
the  church.  This  house  was  evidently  the  same  as  the  famous 
old  Elk  Run  Church,  which  stood  until  recently  opposite  (north 
of)  Cover's  tannery. 

15.  Mt.  Hermon:  Two  miles  west  of  Elkton;  corner 
stone  laid  September  22,  1893. 

16.  Mt.  Pleasant:    Two  miles  east  of  Elkton. 
Churches  14,  15,  and  16  form  the  Elkton  Circuit. 

17.  Port  Repubhc:  Date  of  organization  unknown.  As 
early  as  1835  there  was  a  union  (free)  church  in  Port  Re- 

18.  Grottoes. 

19.  Timber  Ridge:  Three  miles  northwest  of  Port  Re- 

Churches  17,  18,  and  19  constitute  the  Port  Republic 

20.  Broadway:    Church  dedicated  in  October,  1881. 

21.  Lacey  Springs. 

22.  Glass's  Church. 

Churches  20,  21,  and  22  belong  to  the  New  Market  (Shen- 
andoah County)  Circuit. 

23.  Furnace:     Four  miles  northeast  of  Elkton. 
Church  23  belongs  to  the  Shenandoah  City  (Page  County) 


In  the  Rockingham  Register  of  January  5, 1866,  appeared 



the  statement  that  Long's  school  house,  which  stood  on  land 
in  the  southern  part  of  Rockingham  belonging  to  the  heirs  of 
Ephraim  Whitmer,  and  which  had  been  erected  some  50  years 
before  (to  wit,  about  1816),  had  been  used  in  early  days  as  a 
church  by  the  Methodists;  later,  by  the  United  Brethren. 

In  1872  the  Baltimore  Conference,  M.  E.  Church,  South, 
made  appointments  to  the  following  charges  in  Rockingham 
County:  Harrisonburg,  Bridgewater,  Rockingham,  E.  Rock- 
ingham, and  Rockingham  Mission. 

In  the  latest  available  census  reports,  the  membership  of 
the  M.  E,  Church,  South,  in  Rockingham  County  is  given  as 

The  first  Methodist  church  in  Harrisonburg,  which  was 
also  the  first  in  the  county,  so  far  as  known,  stood  on  the  hill 
west  of  the  county  court  house,  on  the  site  nov/  occupied  by 
the  Church  of  the  Brethren.  In  this  house  the  school  estab- 
lished in  1794  under  the  direction  of  Bishop  Asbury,  noticed 
more  fully  in  Chapter  XV,  was  conducted.  The  divisions,  etc. , 
incident  upon  the  civil  war  caused  certain  changes  in  organ- 
ization, and  the  natural  course  of  circumstances  has  brought 
about  various  changes  in  the  construction  and  location  of 
church  houses.  At  present  the  Harrisonburg  Methodists  are 
just  completing  a  splendid  brown-stone  church  on  the  west 
corner  of  Main  and  Bruce  streets.  When  the  cornerstone  of 
this  structure  was  laid,  September  1,  1911,  Rev.  H.  H.  Sher- 
man, pastor,  read  an  extended  and  interesting  paper  on  the  his- 
tory of  Methodism  in  Harrisonburg,  which  paper  was  published 
in  full  at  the  time  by  the  local  press. 

On  September  17,  1821,  a  meeting  was  held  by  the  official 
members  of  the  Methodist  Church  in  the  Rockingham  Circuit, 
at  which  the  following  resolutions  were  passed: 

Resolved  that  it  Shall  be  the  farther  duty  of  the  Same  Committee 
[Peachey  Harrison,  Joseph  Cravens,  Geo.  W.  Harrison,  Reuben  Har- 
rison, and  Gerard  Morgan]  to  prepare  a  petition  to  the  next  General  As- 
sembly of  this  State  praying  that  Body  to  pass  a  law  for  the  better  pro- 
tection of  Camp  meetings  and  that  G.  W.  Harrison  be  the  Chairman 
Jos.  Cravens,  LOUIS  R.  FECHTIG, 

Clerk.  Presiding  Elder. 



The  campmeetings  at  Taylor's  Springs  and  other  places 
had  been  much  disturbed  by  disorder,  the  sale  of  liquor,  etc. 
On  February  19, 1822,  the  committee  reported  to  the  quarterly 
conference  that  a  memorial  had  been  prepared  and  forwarded 
to  the  legislature. 

Says  Mrs.  Carr: 

The  camp  meeting  was  one  of  the  great  features  at  that  time.  It  was 
looked  forward  to  with  even  greater  pleasure  than  general  muster  day. 
Everybody  that  could  raise  money  enough  to  get  materials  for  a  tent  was 
sure  to  be  there  with  their  families.  A  good  many  would  go  if  they  had 
to  stint  themselves  for  months.  For  many  years  it  was  held  on  Taylor 
Spring  grounds.  The  water  was  so  good  and  healthy  that  many  people 
stayed  there  all  summer  to  drink  the  water.  George  W.  Harrison  had 
a  nice  two-story  frame  house  on  the  corner  of  the  campground.  Those 
that  did  not  have  a  tent  would  go  out  in  the  morning  to  stay  all  day,  and 
take  their  lunch  along. 

From  1815  to  1820,  as  the  old  minute  book  shows,  the 
quarterly  conferences  for  Rockingham  Circuit  of  the  Meth- 
odist Church  were  concerned  frequently  with  the  question  of 
slavery.  According  to  the  rules  of  the  church  and  a  prevail- 
ing sentiment,  there  were  persistent  efforts  to  secure  the 
gradual  emancipation  of  slaves  belonging  to  members  of  the 
church;  and  there  was  evidently  a  marked  disposition  on  the 
part  of  the  Rockingham  Methodists  to  make  a  test  on  this 
point  with  persons  applying  for  membership.  About  1816 
an  elaborate  memorial  was  draw  up,  addressed  to  the  Gen- 
eral Conference  in  Baltimore,  deploring  the  existence  of 
slavery  among  members  of  the  church,  together  with  the 
fact  that  the  General  Conference  had  authorized  the  Annual 
Conferences  "to  make  whatever  regulations  they  Judged 
proper  respecting  the  admission  of  persons  to  official  stations 
in  our  Church!"    The  memorial  concludes: 

Therefore  we  most  ardently  desire  that  the  General  Conference 
would  adopt  some  plan  that  would  enable  us  to  look  forward  to  the  day 
when  this  great  evil  shall  be  removed  and  the  Methodist  Church  shall 
become  the  Glory  of  all  the  Churches;  If  nothing  better  should  be  thought 
of.  Permit  us,  to  suggest  the  following  plan;  That  no  person  shall  be 
admitted  to  official  stations  in  our  Church,  Who  holds  Slaves,  without 
emancipating  them  when  the  Laws  of  the  State  shall  admit  of  Emanci- 



pation,  and  in  case  they  cannot  Emancipate  them  in  the  State  where 
they  may  live,  to  give  the  Slave  the  offer  of  liberty  by  going  to  some  of 
the  States  that  w^ill  receive  and  protect  free  people  of  Colour,  w^henever 
he  or  she  may  choose  to  go, — 

And  that  all  persons  coming  forward  to  Join  our  societies,  holding 
Slaves,  shall  be  informed,  that  we  will  take  them  on  trial  for  Twelve 
Months,  and  offer  them  every  information  in  our  power,  on  the  Subject— 
And  if  they  will  submit  to  the  same  plan  of  Emancipation  as  in  the  case 
of  Official  Members,  we  will  consider  them  Acceptable  Members,  of  Our 
Church;  But  if  not,  they  can  have  no  place  among  us— 

And  also  that  the  General  Conference,  Strongly  recommend  to  all 
our  members,  conscienciously  to  avoid  Hiring  Slaves,  in  all  cases  where 
it  can  be  dispensed  with,  as  this  practice  tends  Indirectly  to  incourage 
that  sin  which  we  long  to  be  delivered  from. 

Another  interesting  incident  connected  with  the  history 
of  Methodism  in  Rockingham  was  the  formation  of  the 
Armenian  Union  Church,  August  12,  13,  1847,  at  Dry  River 
Church,  by  Benj.  Denton,  a  minister  of  the  M,  E.  Church, 
John  L.  Blakemore,  formerly  of  the  Lutheran  Church,  and 
others.  Later,  Denton  and  Blakemore  seem  to  have  separated ; 
and  Denton,  endeavoring  to  get  things  more  to  his  notion, 
organized  another  synod  at  Dry  River  Church  in  1849.  The 
members  of  this  body  were  Benj.  Denton,  ordained  preacher; 
John  D.  Freed,  licentiate  preacher;  Algernon  E,  Gilmer, 
Madison  Tyler,  and  John  Denton,  delegates.  A  house  was 
built  at  Dry  River,  near  the  old  one,  in  1850,  and  services 
kept  up  for  some  time.  The  old  Dry  River  Church  was 
originally  Methodist.  Denton  published  a  little  book  on  his 

Presbyterian  Church. 

Presbyterian  Churches  in  Rockingham  (1912). 

1.  Cook's  Creek:  New  Erection;  organized  in  the  18th 
century;  called  "New  Erection"  because  an  older  establish- 
ment was,  or  had  been,  at  Dayton;  second  church  at  New 
Erection  built  in  1834;  present  one  in  1912. 

7.  I  am  under  obligation  to  Dr.  H.  H.  Sherman  for  the  loan  of  old 
records  of  the  Methodist  Church,  of  books,  etc.,  and  for  direct  informa- 
tion; to  Bishop  L.  J.  Heatwole  for  access  to  a  copy  of  Denton's  booklet, 
etc.,  and  to  Rev.  John  W.  Rosenberger  for  aid. 



2.  Harrisonburg:  First  preaching  by  Presbyterians  said 
to  have  been  done  about  1780;  congregation  organized  in  1789; 
first  church  built  (on  E.  Market  St.)  about  1793;  present 
church  erected  (northeast  side  of  Public  Square)  in  1907-8. 

3  Cross  Keys:  For  many  years  a  union  church;  present 
church  erected  about  1872. 

4.  Broadway:  Church  dedicated  June  5,  1870;  Rev.  T. 
D.  Bell,  D.  D. ,  organizer  and  first  pastor. 

5.  Edom:  A  new  church,  replacing  an  old  one,  was  ded- 
icated in  1871  for  use  of  Lutherans,  Methodists,  and  Presby- 

6.  Massanutten:  At  Peale's  Cross  Roads;  dedicated  in 
November,  1874. 

7.  Bridgewater:  Congregation  organized  in  June,  1878; 
church  dedicated  in  December,  1889. 

8.  Dayton:  Replaces  Old  Erection. 

9.  Mt  Olive:  On  Rawley  Pike,  9  miles  west  of  Harri- 
sonburg; dedicated  January  3,  1897. 

10.  Elkton. 

11.  Mabel  Memorial  Chapel:  Two  miles  southeast  of 
Harrisonburg;  dedicated  1899. 

It  is  probable  that  Presbyterian  ministers  were  sent  into 
this  part  of  Virginia  from  Pennsylvania  prior  to  1750.  In 
1752  the  congregations  of  North  and  South  Mountain,  Timber 
Grove,  North  River,  and  Cook's  Creek  are  mentioned  in  the 
records  of  the  Philadelphia  Synod.  In  1756  the  Cook's  Creek 
congregation  made  application  to  the  synod  that  Rev.  Alex. 
Miller  might  be  sent  them  as  pastor,  and  in  1757  he  came. 
He  was  installed  as  pastor  for  Dayton  (Old  Erection)  and 
Peaked  Mountain  (probably  Cross  Keys). 

The  church  at  Dayton  was  finally  abandoned,  apparently 
for  New  Erection;  and  about  1780  the  old  church  was  torn 
down.  Later,  a  dam  was  built  across  the  creek  below,  and 
the  waters  backed  up  and  spread  out  until  the  site  of  Old 
Erection,  with  the  graves  about  it,  was  lost  in  Silver  Lake. 

The  following  table  will  not  only  give  interesting  infor- 
mation regarding  the  history  of  one  church,  but  will  also 



show  how  "division  and  reunion"  have  been  part  and  parcel 
of  the  experiences  of  Rockingham  Presbyterians. 

Harrisonburg  Pastors. 

1789-1808— Benjamin  Erwin. 
1809-1814— A.  B.  Davidson. 
1818-1821— Daniel  Baker,  D.  D. 
1822-1826— Joseph  Smith. 
1827-1837— Abner  Kilpatrick. 
1837-1839— J.  W.  Phillips. 

1839— Division. 

Old  School      V  New  School 

1840-1850— Henry  Brown.         1837-1839-J.  W.  Phillips. 
1853-1856— J.  H.  Bocock,  D.D.  1840-1841— A. H.H.  Boyd,  D.D. 
1858-1867— D.  C.  Irwin.  1842-1844— T.  L.  Hamner. 

1846-1867— T.  D.  Bell,  D.  D. 

1867— Reunion. 
1867-1884— John  Rice  Bowman,  D.  D. 
1885-1887— J.  H.  Smith. 
1887-1892— L.  B.  Johnson. 
1893-1904-E.  P.  Palmer,  D.  D. 
1905-        —Benjamin  Wilson,  D.  D. 

The  following  description  of  the  little  stone  church  on 
East  Market  Street,  and  of  the  services  held  in  it,  is  copied 
from  the  manuscript  of  Mrs.  Carr,  whose  account  of  Harri- 
sonburg in  olden  days  is  of  such  rare  interest. 

Next  comes  the  old  stone  Presbyterian  church.  The  lot  on  which  it 
was  built  was  taken  from  Harriet  Graham's  part  of  her  portion  which 
her  father  gave  her  afterwards.  John  Graham's  land  furnished  the  land 
on  which  the  church  was  built.  The  last  ten  feet  on  the  W.  side  was 
where  the  principal  entrance  was;  there  was  also  a  door  on  the  E.  and  S. 
ends.  My  grandfather  paid  a  great  deal  more  than  his  share  towards 
the  erection  of  this  church. 

There  were  four  high  pews  in  each  corner  of  the  building,  each  pew 
having  one  a  foot  or  two  below  it.  My  grandfather's  pew  was  in  the  N. 
W.  corner,  and  Sam  Henry  had  one  under  it.  Mr.  Scott  had  the  S.  W. 
corner;  and  I  do  not  remember  who  had  the  pew  below  his,  unless  it  was 



the  Herrons.  The  S.  E.  corner  was  Dr.  Waterman's,  with  Robert  Gray's 
below  his;  the  N.  E.  was  Mr.  Jerry  Kyle's.  The  pulpit  was  very  high, 
and  half  way  between  the  E.  and  the  W.  on  the  N.  side  of  the  church. 
Under  it,  a  little  distance  from  the  floor,  was  the  enclosure  of  perhaps 
six  or  seven  feet  where  the  elders  sat.  In  front  of  the  pulpit  stood  a 
man  who  led  the  singing,  giving  out  two  lines  of  the  hymn  at  a  time, 
the  congregation  joining  in  the  singing.  The  rest  of  the  seats  were  on  a 
level  with  the  floor.  The  high  pews  were  entered  by  doors.  The  upper 
part  of  the  pews  were  of  turned  balustrades— two  steps  leading  up  to  the 
high  pews  and  one  step  to  the  low  pews. 

The  communion  was  administered  twice  a  year;  long  high  benches 
were  placed  in  the  aisles,  in  front  of  the  pulpit,  with  clean  white  linen 
placed  on  them;  then  on  either  side  were  low  benches  for  the  communi- 
cants to  sit  on.  Every  communicant  brought  a  small  square  piece  of 
copper  called  a  token,  and  when  they  were  seated  at  the  table  laid  it  be- 
fore him.  The  elders  came  around  and  took  them  all  up;  then  a  solemn 
hymn  was  sung  beginning,  "On  that  dark  and  doleful  night."  The  elders 
after  the  singing  handed  around  the  bread  and  wine.  Afterwards  an  ad- 
dress was  delivered  by  the  preacher,  and  a  few  more  verses  were  sung, 
when  those  at  the  table  would  retire  and  make  room  for  others:  there 
were  usually  four  or  five  tables.  It  was  certainly  a  more  solemn  cere- 
mony than  at  the  present  day. 

The  Presbyterians  in  Rockingham  at  the  present  time 
number  between  1000  and  1200.** 

Reformed  Church. 

Reformed  Churches  in  Rockingham  County  (1912). 

1.  Friedens:  Termed  a  mother  church  by  Gen.  J.  E. 
Roller  (Hagerstown  address,  1897),  and  indentified  with  the 
''New  German  town"  visited  in  1748  by  the  eminent  Michael 
Schlatter.  Still  held  jointly  by  the  Reformed  and  Lutherans. 
Repaired  and  rededicated  in  1894. 

2.  St.    Michael's:  Three  miles   south  of  Bridgewater; 

8-  For  aid  in  securing  the  foregoing  information,  I  acknowledge  special 
obligation  to  Mr.  Milo  Custer,  Bloomington,  111.,  and  Dr.  B.  F.  Wilson 
and  Judge  George  Grattan,  of  Harrisonburg. 

Reference  is  made  to  the  following  publications:  Webster's  History 
of  the  Presbyterian  Church  in  America  (Phila. ,  1857);  Custer's  Alexander 
Miller  and  Descendants;  Year  Book  of  the  Harrisonburg  Presbyterian 
Church;  and  files  of  the  Young  Virginian,  published  in  1874-5,  etc.,  by 
Rev.  W.  T.  Price,  pastor  at  New  Erection. 



organized  (as  Lutheran  or  as  Lutheran  and  Reformed)  in 
1764;  house  had  dirt  floor;  Rev.  Benj.  Henkel  (Lutheran) 
said  to  have  been  buried  under  the  chancel,  about  1794;  in 
1830  the  old  log  house  was  remodeled;  in  1876  it  was  torn 
down,  and  present  brick  church  was  built. 

3.  Brown  Memorial:  At  McGaheysville;  build  in  1885, 
after  a  separation  of  the  old  Reformed  and  Lutheran  con- 

4.  Mt.  Crawford:  Congregation  organized  and  church 
built  in  1842. » 

5.  Timberville:  Cornerstone  laid  in  1881;  church  dedi- 
cated June  1,  1884;  built  by  the  Reformed  congregation  that 
had  previously  worshiped  at  Rader's  Church. 

6.  Pleasant  Valley. 

7.  Harrisonburg:  Congregation  organized  1894-5  by 
Rev.  J.  S.  Garrison;  church  built  in  1897. 

The  most  famous  leader  of  the  Reformed  Church  in  Vir- 
ginia was  Rev.  John  Brown,  preacher,  organizer,  author, 
reformer,  born  in  Germany,  1771.  Having  come  to  America, 
he  began  the  study  of  theology  at  Chambersburg,  Pa.,  in 
1798;  about  the  same  time  he  visited  the  Reformed  churches 
in  the  Valley  of  Virginia.  In  1799  or  1800  he  came  to  be 
pastor  of  the  Rockingham  churches— walking  all  the  way 
from  Pennsylvania.  He  labored  at  St.  Michael's,  Friedens, 
McGaheysville,  and  elsewhere.  In  1818  he  had  a  400-page 
book  printed  in  Harrisonburg  (intended  as  a  "Circular"),  in 
which  he  advocated  Bible  societies,  foreign  missions,  freedom, 
and  peace.  In  1850  he  died  at  Bridgewater,  having  served 
his  people  50  years.  No  wonder  they  called  him  Father 

Another  beloved  pastor  was  John  C.  Hensell,  who  died 
March  29,  1894,  at  Mt.  Crawford,  aged  85.  For  many  years 
he  had  preached  at  Mt.  Crawford,  St.  Michael's,  Friedens, 
McGaheysville,  and  other  neighboring  places. 

9.  I  am  indebted  to  Mr.  S.  H.  W.  Byrd,  of  Bridgewater,  for  the  par- 
ticulars given  regarding  St.  Michael's  Church  and  Mt  Crawford  Church. 



The  Reformed  Church  members  in  Rockingham  number 
about  600. '0  j 

Roman  Catholic  Church. 

There  have  doubtless  been  some  Roman  CathoHcs  in 
Rockingham  from  very  early  times.  The  present  church 
organization  seems  to  date  from  about  1865.  In  this  year, 
perhaps  earlier,  the  Catholics  had  a  chapel  in  Harrisonburg. 
In  July,  1866,  their  chapel  was  on  German  Street, — a  school- 
house  shortly  before  occupied  by  Miss  Mary  J.  McQuaide. 
Father  McGuire,  of  Maryland,  and  Father  Joseph  Bixio  held 
occasional  services  in  Harrisonburg  in  1865  and  1866.  In 
1867  a  Sundayschool  was  conducted,  and  Father  Weed  of  "^ 
Staunton  held  services  each  4th  Sunday.  In  November,  1867, 
Right-Rev.  Bishop  McGill  of  Richmond  preached  in  Rev. 
Mr.  Bell's  (Presbyterian)  church  in  Harrisonburg.  Mass  was 
celebrated  in  the  Catholic  chapel  at  10  a.  m.,  November  5. 
In  the  summer  of  1873  Father  Kane,  of  Washington  or  Balti- 
more, and  Right-Rev.  James  Gibbons,^' of  Richmond,  visited 
Harrisonburg  and  stimulated  the  movement  for  building  a 
church.  The  Rockingham  Register  of  September  5  and  Octo- 
ber 31  contains  lists  of  names  of  those  persons  subscribing  to 
the  enterprise.  In  June,  1876,  it  was  reported  that  the 
Catholics  had  purchased  the  church  formerly  belonging  to 
the  Methodists.  In  August  following  the  church  was  dedi- 
cated. Bishop  Gibbons  preaching  the  sermon.  In  the  evening 
Father  O'Keefe  preached.  Special  music  was  furnished  by 
the  St.  Francis  choir  of  Staunton. 

10.  On  Brown  Memorial  Church,  see  Our  Assistant,  May,  1899,  pub- 
lished at  Mt.  Crawford;  on  Father  Brown,  Rockingham  Register,  March 
29,  1895,  and  March  12,  1897;  on  St.  Michael's  Church,  the  Register,  April 
26, 1877; on  Rader's  Church,  etc.,  the  Harrisonburg  Daily  Neivs,  May  22, 
1909,  supplement, 

I  acknowledge  information  received  from  Mr.  S.  H.  W.  Byrd  con- 
cerning Father  Brown. 

Rev.  J.  S.  Garrison,  of  Harrisonburg,  is  preparing  to  publish  a  history 
of  the  Reformed  Church  in  Virginia, 

11.  Now  Cardinal  Gibbons  of  Baltimore. 


BiK  Spring-.  Cuiirt  Square,  as  in  Olden 
Days  Photo  by  Morrison 

Normal  School  tJirls  al  Ashhy's  Monument  ^ 
(PaRe  IT'.K 

Waterman  Kenny  Catholic 

House  House  Church     |  Pajres  i'i,  -i?:?! 

Hi^h  Hill  at  Left  site  of  First  Methodist  Church     fPaKes  ie?,  itKt] 

Ashury  Chapel     ( I'age  "iHt) 

Gen.  Roller's  Library 
Oldest  House  in  Harrisonburg 

Old  St.  Peter's  Church, 
near  Elkton 


The  church  purchased  was  the  one  erected  about  1863  by 
the  Northern  Methodists.  It  stood  on  the  bank  opposite  the  B. 
&  0.  passenger  station,  on  the  site  now  occupied  by  the  large 
Snell  building.  For  several  years,  about  1868  and  following, 
it  had  been  used  as  a  place  of  worship  by  the  Baptists.  This 
church  burned  in  April,  1905,  and  about  a  year  later  the 
present  handsome  Catholic  church  on  Main  Street  was  erected. 

The  total  number  of  Catholics  in  Rockingham  is  about 

United  Brethren  Church. 

United  Brethren  Churches  in  Rockingham  (1912). 

1.  Mt.  Hebron:  Formerly  Whitesel's  Church;  oldest  in 
the  county;  located  a  mile  or  so  southeast  of  Pleasant  Valley. 
Rededicated  in  February,  1876,  by  Bishop  J.  J.  Glossbrenner. 

2.  Pleasant  Grove.-  On  the  Valley  Pike,  two  miles  south 
of  Mt.  Crawford. 

3.  Dayton  Station:  Dayton.  Church  dedications:  June, 
1878;  September,  1904.  The  congregation  was  organized  prior 
to  the  civil  war.  In  1866  there  was  a  United  Brethren  Church 
in  Bridgewater,  3  miles  south  of  Dayton. — See  RocJcinghaTn 
Register,  June  28,  1866. 

4.  Ottobine:  About  14  miles  north  of  Spring  Creek. 

5.  Pleasant  Valley. 

/'       6.     Mt.  Horeb:  A  short  distance  southwest  of  Hinton; 
(dedicated  in  August,  1875. 

7.  Mt.  Clinton. 

8.  Harrisonburg:  Lot  on  W.  Market  Street  purchased  in 
July,  1894;  first  service  in  new  church,  January  5,  1896. 

9.  Cedar  Grove:  A  mile  and  a  half  east  of  Harrisonburg. 
Church  dedicated  in  November,  1886. 

10.  Mt.  Sinai:  Three  miles  south  of  Harrisonburg. 

11.  Keezletown. 

12.  Singer's  Glen:  Donovan  Memorial  Church,  dedi- 
cated in  May,  1906.  Salem,  formerly  located  one  mile  north 
of  Singer's  Glen,  was  founded  during  the  civil  war,  said  to 
have  been  the  only  U.  B.  Church  erected  within  the  Confed- 
erate States  during  the  war. 



13.  Herwin :  One  mile  east  of  Linville. 

14.  Cherry  Grove:  Three  miles  northeast  of  Singer's- 

15.  Lacey  Springs. 

16.  Mt.  Bethel:  On  the  Keezletown  Road,  four  miles 
south  of  Lacey  Springs. 

17.  Mountain  Valley:  Two  miles  east  of  Lacey  Springs. 

18.  Broadway:  Church  dedicated  in  1893. 

19.  Cootes'  Store:  Union  church. 

20.  Mt.  Carmel:  Three  miles  west  of  Cootes'  Store. 

21.  Keplinger's  Chapel:  Near  Crider's. 

22.  Shady  Grove:  Two  miles  northwest  of  Port  Republic. 

23.  Mt.  Zion:  Three  miles  northeast  of  McGaheysville. 
Church  dedicated  in  1899. 

24.  Elkton. 

25.  East  Point:  Two  miles  west  of  Elkton. 

26.  Mt.  Hebron:  Near  Beldor. 

27.  Swift  Run:  On  Swift  Run,  southeast  of  Elkton., 

In  the  Rockingham  Register  of  Feburary  26,  1864,. 
appeared  this  paragraph: 

"Virginia  annual  conference  of  the  United  Brethren  in 
Christ  will  meet  at  Freeden's  Church,  Rockingham  County, 
Va.,  on  the  11th  of  March." 

Inasmuch  as  Whitesel's  Church  is  near  Friedens,  the 
former  may  be  the  one  referred  to  in  the  above  notice. 

The  United  Brethren  have  been  at  work  in  Rockingham 
for  more  than  a  century.  In  1809,  when  the  Baltimore 
Methodist  Conference  met  for  the  second  time  in  Harrison- 
burg, Christian  Newcomer,  who  succeeded  Otterbein  and 
Boehm  as  bishop  of  the  United  Brethren,  was  present  in  the 
effort  to  arrange  for  the  union  of  the  two  churches.  Although 
the  plan  for  union  was  never  formally  consummated,  Asbury 
recieved  Newcomer  warmly,  and  cordial  relations  have  always 
existed  between  the  two  bodies.  The  United  Brethren  have 
frequently  been  called  German  Methodists.  Practically  all 
of  their  preaching  up  to  1820  was  in  the  German  language, 
and  the  teaching  is  like  that  of  Methodism. 



Like  the  Mennonites,  the  Dunkers,  the  Methodists,  and 
at  least  some  of  the  Lutherans  and  Reformed,  the  United 
Brethren  opposed  the  institution  of  slavery.  Their  well-known 
attitude  on  this  question  subjected  them  to  no  little  unpopu- 
larity and  to  some  persecution.  In  1830  there  were  only 
three  church  houses  in  all  Virginia,  one  of  these  being  White- 
sel's  Church.  So  heavily  did  the  storms  of  the  civil  war  fall 
that  Bishop  Markwood,  in  1865,  or  thereabouts,  is  said  to 
have  exclaimed,  "There  is  no  United  Brethren  church  in  Vir- 
ginia." In  view  of  this  statement,  and  the  discouraging 
situation  that  warranted  it,  the  present  large  number  of 
churches  in  Rockingham  and  adjacent  sections  of  the  State 
is  the  more  remarkable. 

One  of  the  indefatigable  leaders  in  building  up  the  waste 
places  after  the  war  was  Rev.  John  Williams  Howe.  He 
was  born  December  4,  1829;  and  lived  long  enough  to  see 
much  rejoicing  in  the  blessings  that  followed  his  labors. 
He  died  June  17,  1903.  A  fitting  sketch  of  his  life  and  work 
is  given  in  the  second  volume  of  "Our  Heroes,"  by  W.  M. 
Weekley  and  H.  H.  Fout.  The  same  book  contains  an 
extended  tribute  to  Rev.  James  L.  Hensley,  another  leader 
of  the  church,  a  native  of  Rockingham.  The  establishment 
of  a  church  school  at  Dayton,^'  in  1876,  which  has  since  grown 
to  large  proportions  and  influence,  contributed  greatly  to  the 
success  of  the  religious  work  now  so  much  in  evidence.  In 
this  connection  the  influence  of  the  Ruebush-Kieffer  publish- 
ing house  at  Dayton  should  also  be  mentioned. 

The  membership  of  the  United  Brethren  churches  in 
Rockingham  in  1906  had  reached  a  total  of  2917.^^ 

Colored  Churches. 
So  far  as  ascertained,  there  are  eight  colored  churches  in 
Rockingham:    Two  Baptist,  two  Methodist,  and  four  United 

12.  Now  Shenandoah  Collegiate  Institute  and  School  of  Music. 

13-  For  aid  in  securing  information  regarding  the  United  Brethren 
Church  in  Rockingham,  I  am  under  special  obligation  to  Rev.  A.  S.  Ham- 
mack  and  Mr.  Joe  K.  Ruebush,  of  Dayton. 



The  colored  Baptists  in  Harrisonburg  have  had  a  church 
organization  for  many  years.  Shiloh  Church  was  dedicated 
July  11,  1875;  and  again  in  June,  1882.  The  Baptists  of 
Bridgewater  erected  a  church  on  Mt.  Crawford  Avenue,  near 
Main  Street,  about  ten  years  ago. 

The  colored  Methodists  of  Harrisonburg  dedicated  John 
Wesley  Church  November  25,  1866.  In  January,  1870,  they 
purchased  the  "brick  church  on  the  hill"  shortly  before  re- 
linquished by  the  Baptist  congregation  (supposedly  the  col- 
ored Baptists),  for  $2500 ;i^  and  in  January,  1880,  they  pur- 
chased Andrew  Chapel,  on  the  west  side  of  German  Street,  of 
the  white  Methodists. 

The  colored  Methodists  of  Bridgewater  used  to  meet  in 
an  old  school  house  that  stood  on  the  southwest  side  of  the 
river,  not  far  from  Warm  Spring.  In  May,  1879,  they  first 
used  the  present  house  of  worship,  west  of  Main  Street. 

In  1879,  Mt.  Moriah,  the  colored  M.  E.  church  at  Mt. 
Vernon  Forge,  was  burned. 

The  four  United  Brethren  churches  are  the  following: 

1.  Harrisonburg:  Organized  in  April,  1876,  by  Rev.  A. 
H.  Wells. 

2.  Linville. 

3.  Long's  Chapel:  Near  Lacey  Springs;  used  as  early 
as  1885. 

4.  Dungee's  Chapel:    Near  Pleasant  Valley. 
Reliable  statistics  of  membership  of  the  colored  churches 

have  not  been  available. 

The  date  when  and  the  place  where  the  first  Sunday 
school  was  organized  in  Rockingham  have  not  been  ascer- 
tained; but  abundant  evidence  is  at  hand  to  show  that  ever 
since  the  civil  v/ar  Sunday  schools  have  been  numerous. 

In  the  published  obituary  of  John  Hinton  Ralston,  who 
died  in  1874,  at  the  age  of  80,  it  is  asserted  that  he  had  been 
one  of  the  first  persons  in  his  community  to  encourage  Sun- 
day schools,  and  to  engage  earnestly  in  the  work,  when  many 

14.  Rockingham  Register,  February  3,  1870. 



good  people  opposed  them  on  conscientious  grounds.— Mr. 
Ralston  was  a  ruling  elder  at  New  Erection. 

In  June,  1866,  it  was  stated  in  the  Register  that  there 
were  41  Sunday  schools  in  the  county,  and  2500  scholars. 

At  a  county  Sundayschool  convention  held  in  Harrison- 
burg, October  26,  1866,  the  following  statistical  report  of 
certain  schools  in  Rockingham  County  was  made: 


Classes        Books 

M.  E.  School,  Hbg., 


















Linville's  Creek, 



Cross  Roads, 




Mt.  Crawford  (Union), 












New  Erection, 



Dry  River  (Union), 




Elk  Run, 




Edom  (Union), 




Verses  Committed. 

Edom  school. 


Dry  River  school, 


Harmony  school, 


In  February,  1867,  the  following  statement  appeared : 

We  learn  from  Rev.  F.  W.  Stanley,  agent  for  the  A.  T.  S.,  that  there 
are  in  Rockingham  county  over  twenty-nine  Sunday  Schools  in  operation. 
In  29,  the  statistics  show  322  teachers  and  3016  scholars.  Within  the  past 
year,  in  these  twenty-nine  schools,  there  have  been  200  conversions. 

This  is  a  winter  report. 

In  July,  1898,  a  Sundayschool  Union  of  Harrisonburg  and 
Rockingham  County  was  organized  in  Assembly  Hall,  Court 

IB.  Rockingham  Register,  Nov.  8,  1866. 



House,  J.  P.  Houck  being  made  president,  and  J.  C.  Staples, 

This  is  a  summer  report. 

For  several  years  Mr.  Henry  N.  Whitesel  of  Harrison- 
burg, now  deceased,  was  the  enthusiastic  president  of  the 
county  Sundayschool  organization.  He  was  succeeded  in  office 
by  Prof.  Geo.  H.  Hulvey,  who  held  the  presidency  till  1910. 

The  most  remarkable  development  in  efficient  organiza- 
tion, extending  from  the  county  force  to  the  district  officers, 
and  from  the  latter  to  the  individual  schools,  has  been  wit- 
nessed during  the  last  two  years.  Not  only  has  the  county 
association  made  itself  vital  in  all  its  parts,  but  it  has  also 
set  a  pace  for  other  counties  of  the  State.  According  to  the 
reports  of  the  State  officers,  based  upon  careful  comparisons 
of  statistics,  the  Rockingham  County  Sundayschool  Associa- 
tion, for  efficiency  and  thoroughness  of  work,  is  now  second 
to  none  in  Virginia.  It  is  also  an  acknowledged  fact  that 
this  condition  must  be  credited  mainly  to  Dr.  E.  R.  Miller,  of 
Harrisonburg,  who  has  been  president  of  the  organization 
since  1910.  It  would  be  difficult  for  any  one  not  acquainted 
with  the  facts  at  first  hand  to  appreciate  the  value  of  his 
services,  or  to  realize  how  much  time  and  labor  he  has  devoted 
to  the  work;  but  the  results  speak  for  themselves,  and  are 
patent  to  all.  The  county  convention  this  year  was  attended 
by  1000  people,  and  practically  every  school  in  the  county 
was  represented  by  delegates  or  letter.  From  the  reports 
presented  it  appears  that  there  are  in  the  county  142  Sunday- 
schools,  with  1415  officers  and  teachers,  and  12,184  scholars: 
a  total  enrollment  of  13,599.  Of  this  number,  3972  are  in 
Ashby  District;  3349  in  Central;  1622  in  Linville;  2139  in 
Plains;  and  2517  in  Stonewall. 

The  table  on  the  opposite  page  has  been  prepared  from 
statistics  collected  by  the  president  of  the  Association 
during  the  past  two  years,  and  will  be  convenient  for  refer- 
ence. It  shows  that  all  the  churches  are  awake  to  the 
importance  of  the  Sundayschool  work. 









Ashby    i 

















2      I 




Church  of 








Church  of 































































The  Sundayschool  map  presents  the  above  conditions  in  a 
still  more  graphic  manner. 

A  lilSTORY  OF 

The  present  (1912-13)   officers  of  the   county   Sunday- 
school  association  are  the  following: 
Dr.  E.  R.  Miller,  president. 
Mr,  W.  J.  Dingledine,  vice-president. 
Rev,  J.  S.  Garrison,  secretary. 
Dr.  W.  T.  Lineweaver,  Treasurer. 

Superintendents  of  Departments. 
Elementary  Division,  Mrs.  P.  S.  Thomas. 
Secondary  Division,  Mr.  J.  D.  Alexander. 
Adult  Division,  Prof.  J.  Owen  Long. 
Home  Department,  Miss  Vada  Funk. 
Teacher-Training  Department,  Rev.  A.  W.  Andes. 

Y.  M.  C.  A. 

In  December,  1860,  there  was  a  Young  Men's  Christian 
Association  in  Harrisonburg,  with  Geo.  0.  Conrad,  president, 
J.  B.  Odor,  secretary;  and  the  organization  was  preparing  to 
hold  its  4th  annual  meeting  in  the  M.  E.  Church  on  January 
5,  1861. 

In  May,  1873,  there  was  another  organization  of  the  Y. 
M.  C.  A.  in  Harrisonburg,  F.  A.  Berlin  being  made  presi- 
dent; Jos.  T.  Logan,  vice-president;  D.  H.  Lee  Martz,  secre- 
tary; J.  Wilton,  treasurer;  Frank  L.  Harris,  librarian. 

There  seems  to  have  been  another  revival  of  the  organiza- 
tion in  1884;  at  any  rate  it  was  in  operation  in  1885,  and  until 
sometime  in  1886,  when  it  was  discontinued.  For  three  years 
it  lapsed;  but  in  March,  1889,  a  new  start  was  taken.  E.  T. 
Dadmun  of  Staunton  came  down  as  a  special  aid:  Judge 
Grattan  was  made  president,  J.  C.  Staples,  secretary;  and  a 
ladies'  auxiliary  gave  assurance  of  support.  From  this  re- 
vival the  work  seems  to  have  gone  on  for  14  years — that  is, 
till  March  or  April,  1903. 

As  early  as  1827  a  Rockingham  County  Bible  society, 
with  John  Brown  as  president,  was  in  operation.  In  Septem- 
ber, 1866,  a  county  Bible  society  was  organized  at  Harrison- 
burg, in  a  joint  meeting  of  the  several  churches.  In  Novem- 
ber, 1874,  Col.  D.  H.  Lee  Martz  was  president  of  the  society; 



Rev.  Cline,  of  Broadway,  and  other  ministers  in  the  county,, 
were  vice-presidents.  In  1875  the  society  was  active.  J.  J. 
Miller  was  colporteur  for  the  county,  and  was  expected  to 
visit  every  family.  In  the  Register  oi  February  11  (1875)  he 
made  an  interesting  report. 

Temperance  Movements. 

In  March,  1844,  Marshall  Division  No.  3  of  the  Sons  of 
Temperance,  a  national  order,  was  organized  at  Harrison- 
burg, with  Wm.  G.  Stevens,  Jacob  R.  Stevens,  J.  M.  Con- 
rad, W.  McK.  Wartmann,  John  W.  Bear,  L.  W.  Gambill, 
Chas.  D.  Gray,  and  Henry  T.  Wartman  charter  members. 
During  the  next  four  years  153  men  were  initiated  into  the 
chapter.  Some  of  the  well  known  names  that  may  still  be 
seen  upon  the  roll  are  these:  Alg.  S.  Gray,  Geo,  0.  Conrad, 
St.  Clair  Kyle,  Jacob  E.  Harnsberger,  P.  Liggett,  J.  N.  Lig- 
gett, John  H.  Gtaham,  Morgan  Switzer,  and  John  G.  Effinger. 

In  1846  Worth  Division  No.  44,  Sons  of  Temperance,  was 
organized  at  Port  Republic,  and  was  kept  going  till  the  civil 
war.  In  January,  1873,  it  was  revived  and  reorganized.  On 
Christmas  Day,  1860,  the  Sons  of  Temperance  at  Bridgewater 
had  an  elaborate  procession,  the  Mt.  Crawford  Cavalry  under 
command  of  Capt.  Jordan,  taking  part. 

Mt.  Crawford  for  many  years  seems  to  have  been  a 
potential  center  of  temperance  sentiment.  As  early  as  1838 
the  village  had  a  live  temperance  society.  On  May  20,  1854, 
a  large  convention  of  temperance  advocates  was  held  in  the 
Mt.  Crawford  Reformed  Church,  Dr.  M.  H.  Harris  presiding. 
C.  Coffman  Bare  and  J.  B.  McGill  were  secretaries.  A  com- 
mittee of  gentlemen  in  each  precinct  in  the  county  was 
appointed  to  obtain  signatures  to  a  petition  to  the  court, 
praying  the  court  not  to  grant  any  license  for  the  sale  of 
"ardent  spirits''  in  the  county.  Frequently  during  the  years 
of  Reconstruction  Mt.  Crawford  was  heard  from  regarding 
temperance,  when  the  "Friends  of  Temperance"  were  organ- 
izing councils. 

The  following  paragraph,  which  appeared  in  the  Register 
of  March  19,  1868,  will  give  an  idea  of  what  was  being  done 
for  temperance  at  that  time. 



We  are  gratified  to  notice  that  our  talented  and  intelligent  young 
friend,  E.  Roller,  Esq.,  of  Harrisonburg,  is  exerting  himself  actively  in 
behalf  of  the  cause  of  Temperance  in  the  Valley.  We  see  that  he  has 
proposed  organizing  Councils  of  Temperance  in  Woodstock,  Strasburg, 
Edinburg,  Mt.  Jackson  and  New  Market,  in  our  sister  county  below  us. 
He  has  already  organized  a  number  of  flourishing  Councils  in  Rockingham 
and  Augusta  counties.  This  is  a  new  organization  with  the  same  objects 
of  the  old  order  of  Sons  of  Temperance,  an  institution  that  flourished  and 
did  much  good  before  the  war. 

Mt.  Crawford  was  honored  in  this  tribute,  for  "E,  Roller, 
Esq.,"  now  well  known  as  Gen.  John  E.  Roller,  grew  up  in 
the  vicinity  of  Mt.  Crawford. 

In  March,  1868,  Harrisonburg  Council  No.  37,  Friends  of 
Temperance,  elected  J.  S.  Harnsberger  president,  and  A.  Poe 
Boude  chaplain.  In  July  following  the  same  council  elected 
J.  Ed.  Pennybacker  president,  J.  Wilton  associate,  T.  U.  Dud- 
ley chaplain,  and  J.  Gassman  secretary.  In  the  fall  of  1869, 
at  Petersburg,  J.  Ed.  Pennybacker  (1844-1912)  was  elected 
president  of  the  State  council. 

During  the  decade  from  1873  to  1883  the  Good  Templars 
were  active  in  Rockingham,  having  organizations  in  many 
parts  of  the  county.  In  January,  1882,  a  county  local  option 
alliance  was  organized  at  Harrisonburg.  The  same  year  a 
local  option  petition,  18  feet  long,  with  a  double  row  of  names, 
was  on  exhibition  at  the  store  of  Houck  &  Wallis.  In  1884  a 
women's  temperance  reading  room  was  established  in  the  old 
clerk's  office.  It  was  during  the  later  80' s  that  the  saloons 
in  Harrisonburg  and  certain  other  parts  of  the  county  were 
closed  a  little  while  by  local  option. 

For  a  number  of  years  past  the  Women's  Christian  Tem- 
perance Union  and  the  Anti-Saloon  League  have  had  active 
organizations  in  Rockingham. 

Benevolent  societies  and  temperance  societies  have  not 
been  wanting  among  the  colored  people  of  Rockingham.  For 
example,  in  1875,  1876,  etc.,  organizations  of  the  Sons  of 
Jonadab,  the  True  Reformers,  and  the  Sons  of  Purity  were 
effected  in  various  parts  of  the  county.  ^^' 

16.  General  acknowledgmentismade  to  Dr.  E.  R.  Miller,  Dr.  H.H.  Sher- 
man, Rev.  L.  J.  Heatwole,  and  Hon.  James  Hay  for  aid  on  this  chapter. 



The  desire  on  the  part  of  the  Valley  of  Virginia  people  for 
higher  education  has  become  general  only  in  recent  years; 
but  from  early  times  most  of  them  have  craved  for  them- 
selves and  their  children  the  rudiments  of  learning— or  more; 
and  therefore  elementary  schools  grew  up  with  the  first  set- 
tlements. Frequently  the  pastor  was  also  the  teacher;  and 
in  many  cases  the  church  house  and  the  school  house  were 
built  on  the  same  lot.  The  records  are  not  sufficient  to  give 
us  many  particulars  regarding  the  first  schools  in  Rocking- 
ham and  adjacent  sections,  but  we  know  of  some  that  were 
here  more  than  a  century  ago;  and  with  these,  as  well  as 
with  others  that  came  later,  we  shall  have  to  do. 

In  1794  the  Methodists  of  Harrisonburg  opened  a  school. 
It  was  organized  under  the  direction  of  no  less  a  person  than 
Bishop  Asbury  himself.  We  read  on  the  yellowed  page  of 
the  minute  book: 

In  conference  chamber,  the  following  persons  were  nominated  by  the 
Bishop  as  Trustees  of  the  Harrisonburg  School,  viz. 

Andrew  Shanklin  Samuel  McWilliams 

Joseph  Denny  Robert  Harrison 

Benjamin  Smith  Thomas  Harrison 

Reubin  Harrison  Joseph  Cravens 

Jeremiah  Reagan  William  Cravens 

George  Wells  William  Hughs 
Benjamin  Harrison 

From  the  thirteen  nominated,  seven  were  chosen,  as  fol- 

Andrew  Shanklin  Benjamin  Harrison 

George  Wells  Samuel  McWilliams 

Benjamin  Smith  Joseph  Cravens 

Reuben  Harrison 


The  elder  of  the  circuit,  who  appears  a  few  months  later 
as  Joshua  Wells,  was  to  be  president  of  the  board,  ex  officio; 
George  Wells  was  made  vice-president;  Joseph  Cravens, 
clerk;  Benjamin  Harrison,  treasurer. 

It  is  said  that  Asbury  held  the  conference  this  year 
(1794)  in  the  Harrison  house,  on  Bruce  Street  near  Main, 
which  is  now  Gen.  John  E.  Roller's  law  office.  The  log 
church,  which  stood  on  the  top  of  the  hill  where  the  Dunker 
church  now  stands,  was  new  and  likely  unfinished;  for  on 
June  23  the  seven  trustees,  who  looked  after  the  business  of 
the  church  as  well  as  that  of  the  school,  resolved,  "that  a 
sum  sufficient  to  finish  the  Methodist  meeting  house  suitable 
for  said  School  as  well  as  publick  Preaching  &c.  be  raised  by 

So  the  meetinghouse  became  also  the  schoolroom.  Brother 
John  Walsh  was  employed  as  teacher  at  a  salary  of  fifty 

If  the  term  "Blue  Light"  or  "Blue  Laws"  could  with 
propriety  be  attached  to  the  Methodists,  we  should  certainly 
be  inclined  to  use  them  both  in  describing  the  rules  by  which 
this  school  for  boys  and  girls  was  to  be  regulated.  They — 
these  rules— remind  us  very  much  of  some  that  John  Wesley 
himself  drew  up  for  another  school:— but  here  they  are,  as 
formulated  by  the  seven  trustees  on  the  23d  of  June,  1794. 

Rule  1.  The  Scholars  shall  attend  at  EightO'clock  in  the  Summer  and 
Half  Past  eight  in  the  winter;  and  the  Teacher  Shall  regulate  the  time 
of  attendance  in  Spring  and  Autumn,  according  to  the  length  of  the  day. 

2.  They  Shall  be  allowed  an  hour  for  recreation  in  Winter,  and 
two  Hours  in  Summer. 

3.  They  Shall  be  dismissed  at  six  o'clock  in  Summer,  and  at  four 
in  Winter;  and  in  Spring  and  Autumn  in  proportion. 

4.  The  School  Shall  always  be  opened  and  closed  with  prayer. 

5.  The  Teacher  Shall  appoint  a  weekly  monitor  out  of  a  Senior  Class, 
who  Shall  Call  the  list  upon  all  Occasions,  and  see  that  the  Scholars  be 
present  at  all  times  of  Publick  worship  in  the  School;  and  give  Informa- 
tion of  al!  misdemeanors  in  the  Teachers  Absence.  And  also  that  all 
Scholars  of  Seven  Years  old  and  upwards  shall  attend  at  publick  service 
on  the  Sabbath,  wherever  his  or  her  Parents  Guardians  or  Master  may 



6.  No  gaming  of  any  kind,  nor  Instruments  of  Play  shall  be  tolerated. 

7.  The  Tutor  shall  be  judge  of  all  excuses  for  non  attendance,  and 
shall  deal  with  the  delinquents  accordingly. 

8.  A  strict  order  of  silence  shall  be  observed  in  School  hours. 

9.  In  every  case  of  Sinning  against  God,  the  trial  shall  be  very 
Serious,  the  facts  proved,  and  the  Sinner  Properly  dealt  with,  according 
to  the  Judgment  of  the  Teacher.  If  it  should  be  near  the  time  of  a  Vis- 
itation (of  the  trustees)  let  it  be  laid  over  till  the  meeting  of  the  Board 
of  Trustees. 

10.  In  a  case  of  rebellion  against  the  rules  of  the  School,  or  the 
Authority  of  the  Teacher,  Such  a  Scholar  with  the  concurrence  of  the 
Tutor,  with  the  Trustee,  Shall  be  dismissed. 

Nevertheless,  in  Case  of  Such  dismission  there  shall  be  a  right  of  ap- 
peal to  board  of  Trustees. 

11.  No  Scholar  Shall  be  permitted  on  any  account  whatever  to  wear 
Ruffles  or  powder  his  hair. 

12.  The  Scholars  Shall  be  examined  in  the  "Instructions  for  Chil- 
dren" Once  a  week  Except  the  Children  of  such  parents  as  disapprove 
the  same. 

13.  There  Shall  be  a  Garden  procured  (if  practicable)  that  those 
Scholars  who  choose  it  may  Recreate  themselves  therein. 

14.  That  no  teacher  Shall  be  Eligible  for  a  Trustee. 

15.  It  is  Earnestly  recommended  that  no  person  or  persons  will  send 
their  Children  to  the  School  without  observing  the  Strictest  punctuality, 
in  making  payment  Half  Yearly;  And  if  Any  Subscriber  neglects  payment 
one  Year,  it  Shall  be  determined  by  a  majority  of  the  Trustees,  whether 
he  shall  be  permitted  to  send  the  Ensuing  Year. 

16.  Every  subscriber  is  required  to  give  three  months  notice,  if  he 
does  not  Continue  to  Send  the  Insuing  Year. 

17.  There  Shall  be  no  more  than  Forty  Scholars  admitted  into  the 
School  and  the  Subscribers  Shall  pay  to  the  Trustees  the  sum  of  Thirty 
three  Shillings  for  each  Scholar  per  Year. 

18.  No  Subscriber  shall  have  restitution  for  the  Scholars  loss  of  time, 
by  sending  more  than  the  number,  or  longer  than  the  time  subscribed. 

The  school  evidently  was  continued  in  session  the  whole 
year.  The  last  Fridays  in  the  months  of  November,  Febru- 
ary, May,  and  August  were  days  set  apart  for  visitation.  On 
these  days  the  vice-president  of  the  board  of  trustees  was  to 
call  a  meeting  of  the  trustees,  and  they  were  to  "Examine 
the  Scholars  in  their  knowledge  of  God  and  progress  in 

Subscribers  were  to  have  the  privilege  of  sending  their 


black  servants  into  the  school  for  the  first  year,  "Under 
these  Restrictions  viz.  They  Shall  be  Classed  &  Seated  by 

A  space  in  the  gallery,  on  the  right  hand  of  the  pulpit, 
w^as  to  be  set  apart  for  the  reception  of  such  pupils  as 
attended  public  worship.  The  teacher  or  a  trustee  was  to 
sit  at  their  right. 

If  we  are  disposed  to  revolt  at  some  of  the  foregoing 
regulations,  we  are  certainly  gratified  at  others.  On  the 
whole,  we  must  regard  the  provisions  for  this  school  of  a 
hundred  and  fifteen  years  ago  as  remarkably  sane  and  liberal. 
One  or  two  provisions  are  surprisingly  progressive;  for 
example,  who  would  now  imagine  that  the  people  of  that  day 
were  planning  for  a  school  garden? 

In  May  of  the  next  year,  1795,  Bishop  Asbury  was  again 
at  Harrisonburg;  and  he  gave  on  that  occasion  further  evi- 
dence of  his  concern  for  the  new  school.  Under  date  of 
Wednesday,  May  13,  he  writes  in  his  Journal:  *  'Rode  twenty- 
four  miles  to  Rock-Town,  and  preached  at  three  o'clock;  and 
again  the  next  day.  Here  I  met  the  trustees  of  our  school, 
to  whom  I  read  my  Thoughts  on  Education.  In  the  evening 
I  left  the  town,  and  on  Friday  15,  rode  forty  miles." 

It  appears  from  the  records  that  the  teacher  for  the 
second  year,  1795-6,  was  a  Mr.  Spencer.  It  would  seem  that 
early  in  1795  the  trustees  were  planning  to  enlarge  the  school 
by  having  two  departments  and  two  teachers — Mr.  Walsh 
and  Mr.  Spencer.  The  new  department  was  to  be  a  '  'gram- 
mar school."  March  16,  1795,  the  Board  resolved  that  "the 
Grammar  School  Shall  be  under  the  same  Rules  &  Regulations 
which  have  been  made  for  the  English  School — except  the 
Two  last  weeks  in  April  &  the  Two  first  in  October,  which 
times  shall  be  set  apart  for  Vacation  as  Common  in  Grammar 

The  outcome  seems  to  have  been  about  this — the  minutes 
are  very  meager — that  Mr.  Spencer  for  the  second  year  had  a 
school  combining  in  some  measure  the  two  departments 



After  1796  I  find  no  more  references  in  the  records  to 
this  school,  definitely;  but  at  a  quarterly  meeting  conference 
held  in  Harrisonburg  on  Saturday,  January  15,  1820,  the 
matter  of  securing  a  school  teacher  was  again  under  consid- 

Mrs.  Carr,  whose  recollections  went  back  into  the  first 
quarter  of  last  century,  mentions  Richard  Fletcher,  Rev.  Mr. 
Coie,  and  Rev.  Joseph  Smith  as  among  the  Harrisonburg 
schoolmasters  of  that  time;  and  names  Tiffin  Harrison, 
Gessner  Harrison,  and  Henry  Tutwiler  as  pupils  of  Mr. 
Smith.  She  gives  the  following  characteristic  account  of 
school  Hfe: 

The  school  hours  were  from  eight  to  twelve,  and  from  two  to  five. 
Recess  was  never  known  at  that  time.  We  were  allowed  to  go  out  once  in 
the  morning  and  once  in  the  afternoon.  A  piece  of  wood  shaped  like  a 
paddle  was  hung  on  the  inside  of  the  door  by  apiece  of  string;  on  the  one 
side  was  written  the  word  OUT,  in  large  letters,  and  on  the  other  side 
was  written  IN.  Two  girls  were  allowed  to  go  out  together,  when  the 
paddle  was  turned  to  OUT,  and  when  they  came  in  the  paddle  was  turned 
to  IN.  Sometimes  the  paddle  was  reversed,  when  two  more  girls  would 
go  out  to  meet  the  others  and  have  a  good  time  playing,  until  the  teacher 
missed  them;  he  would  send  for  them  to  come  back.  Girls  were  very  sel- 
dom punished;  if  ever,  very  slightly;  boys  were  frequently  whipped  or 
kept  in  after  school.  We  were  taught  reading,  spelling,  writing,  gram- 
mar, and  geography.  A  pupil  who  had  gone  through  Pike's  arithmetic, 
Morse's  geography,  Murray's  grammar,  and  could  spell  a  dozen  words 
without  mis-spelling  three,  could  write  a  plain  round  hand,  he  was  a  man 
that  was  thought  capable  of  holding  any  common  office.  Ladies  of  that 
day  never  followed  any  profession,  or  meddled  with  men's  affairs— they 
could  teach  small  children  their  alphabet  and  work  samplers. 

On  January  20,  1806,  an  Act  was  passed  incorporating  the 
Rockingham  Library  Company,  the  said  company  being 
authorized  to  procure  a  library  for  the  improvement  of  the 
inhabitants.  In  1818  an  Act  was  passed  changing  the  time 
of  meeting  of  this  company.  In  1867  the  Rockingham  Library 
Association  was  chartered,  and  books  opened  for  subscriptions 
at  $2.50  a  share;   in  November  (1867)  James  Kenney  was 

1  Acknowledgment  is   made    to  Dr.  H.  H.    Sherman    for   access   to 



elected  president  of  the  association,  J.  L.  Sibert  vice  presi- 
dent, 0.  C.  Sterling,  Jr. ,  treasurer,  Ran  D.  Cushen  secretary, 
Wm,  D.  Trout,  librarian. 

In  the  summer  of  1825  S.  M.  Hunter  and  Rich.  P.  Fletcher 
were  advertising  the  opening  of  a  school  in  Harrisonburg,  on 
August  15,  in  which  school  Greek,  Latin,  philosophy,  rhetoric, 
geography,  English  grammar,  mathematics,  surveying,  read- 
ing, writing,  and  arithmetic  were  to  be  taught. 

In  February,  1826,  Rockingham  Academy  was  chartered, 
with  Samuel  Moffett,  Wm.  McMahon,  Saml.  Newman,  An- 
drew Moffett,  Isaac  Thomas,  Peter  Grim,  John  Hoover, 
Joseph  Gline,  and  Saml.  Hoover  as  trustees.  This  school  was 
located  between  Timberville  and  New  Market,  and  is  now 
known  as  Plains  (school  and  church). 

In  1827  Miss  Anna  Moore  was  conducting  a  school  in 
Harrisonburg  for  girls;  and  at  the  same  time  another  school, 
at  or  near  the  same  town,  was  going  on  under  the  direction 
of  Abner  W.  Kilpatrick.  In  November,  1833,  Mr.  Kilpatrick 
was  preparing  to  open  his  school  at  his  home,  SJ  miles  from 
Harrisonburg;  board  and  tuition  for  5  months  for  $55. 

In  1839  a  project  was  on  foot,  and  was  probably  carried 
through,  to  establish  an  academy  in  Harrisonburg.  An  Act 
of  incorporation  was  passed  by  the  legislature  this  year  or  the 

For  a  year  or  two,  beginning  about  1838,  a  school  in  Mc- 
Gaheysville  was  conducted  by  Joseph  Salyards,  probably  the 
most  famous  teacher  that  has  ever  lived  in  the  Valley  of  Vir- 
ginia. Born  near  Front  Royal  in  1808,  he  grew^  up  at  New 
Market,  winning  by  toil  an  education  in  spite  of  poverty  and 
obscurity.  After  many  years  of  work  as  a  teacher  in  Rock- 
ingham, Page,  and  Shenandoah,  he  died  at  New  Market, 
August  10,  1885,  full  of  years  and  honors.  Roanoke  Gollege 
conferred  the  M.  A.  degree  upon  him  in  1872;  and  he  is  re- 
membered as  scholar,  teacher,  and  poet.- 

2.  See  biography  of  Salyards  by  Elon  0.  Henkel,  New  Market,  Va. ; 
also  sketch  and  selections  from  his  poems  in  Harris  and  Alderman's 
Library  of  Southern  Literature,  Vol.  X. 



Mr.  Richard  Mauzy,  who  went  to  Salyards'  school  in  Mc- 
Gaheysville,  thinks  he  opened  it  in  1838.  After  a  year  or  so 
Salyards  became  temporarily  insane;  but  in  December,  1840, 
and  January  and  February,  1841,  he  was  advertising  the  re- 
sumption of  his  school  at  McGaheysville. 

Mr,  Mauzy  supplies  the  following  list  of  early  McGaheys- 
ville teachers: 

George  Mauzy,  about  1830-31. 

Miss  Jeanetta  Conrad,  about  1832-33. 

Charles  Buck,  1833-35. 

David  Howard,  1836. 

Mr. Lamb,  1836-37. 

Joseph  Salyards,  1838-39,  etc. 

Salyards  probably  taught  at  New  Market  from  about  1845 
to  1855;  from  about  1857  to  1860  he  was  principal  of  Rock- 
ingham Male  Academy,  located  on  W.  Market  Street, 
Harrisonburg,  in  a  building  that  now  forms  part  of  the  resi- 
dence of  James  Kavanaugh.  Academy  Street  marks  the 
place.  From  1859  or  1860,  for  two  or  three  years,  he  was 
principal  of  Pleasant  Grove  Academy,  located  on  the  Valley 
Pike,  two  miles  south  of  Mt.  Crawford.  Before  me  are  notices 
of  this  school  in  the  Southern  Musical  Advocate  of  July  and 
August,  1860,  and  the  Rockingham  Register  of  Aug.  3,  1860, 
and  Oct.  4,  1861.  In  1860  P.  S.  Roller,  J.  R.  Keagy,  and  D. 
Ross  were  proprietors  of  Pleasant  Grove  Academy;  and  Sal- 
yards was  spoken  of  as  "one  of  the  oldest  and  best  teachers 
in  the  Valley. "  The  branches  taught  included  languages,  lit- 
erature, and  mathematics.  Mr.  S.  T.  Shank,  writing  in  the 
Harrisonburg  Daily  News  oi  February  27,  1911,  says  that  Sal- 
yards was  assisted  at  Pleasant  Grove  in  1860-61  by  his  son. 

In  August,  1862,  Salyards  was  in  charge  of  Cedar  Grove 
Seminary,  near  Broadway;  and  in  1864  he  was  at  Rosendale, 
on  Smith's  Creek.  The  old  stone  house  at  Rosendale 
("Smith  Creek  Seminary")  in  which  he  taught  is  still 
standing.  From  Rosendale,  according  to  Mr.  Thos.  L.  Wil- 
liamson, he  went  to  Luray,  thence  returning  to  New  Market, 
where  he  spent  the  remainder  of  his  life.      Mr.   Elon  0. 




Henkel  says  he  went  to  Woodstock  from  Luray,  coming  to 
New  Market  in  July,  1870. 

One  of  Salyards'  advanced  pupils  at  Rosendale  was  a 
young  man  who  was  blind,  but  who,  in  spite  of  misfortune, 
has,  like  his  master,  achieved  distinction.  The  following  par- 
agraphs from  his  pen  are  a  special  contribution  to  this  work. 

The  writer  is  glad  of  the  opportunity  of  paying  a  grate- 
ful tribute  of  reverent  respect  to  the  memory  of  Joseph 
Salyards.  He  was  a  man  of  the  common  people.  In  early 
life  he  developed  an  extraordinary  taste  for  the  higher  learn- 
ing, and,  without  masters  or  schools,  made  himself  familiar 
with  the  ancient  languages  to  such  a  degree  that  he  read 
Latin,  Greek,  Hebrew,  and  Sanscrit  with  the  ease  and  fluency 
of  a  master,  and  not  merely  the  text  books  in  those  languages, 
but  their  literature  with  critical  discrimination  and  judg- 
ment. He  also  read  and  wrote  in  all  the  modern  languages 
that  had  a  literature.  Besides  his  wonderful  linguistic  accom- 
plishments, he  was  the  most  profound  scholar  in  mathematics, 
science,  philosophy,  history,  and  literature  that  Rockingham 
ever  produced,  and  perhaps  the  State  of  Virginia. 

He  was  not  appreciated  in  his  day  at  his  true  value.  He 
would  have  adorned  any  chair  in  any  school  or  college.  The 
drawback  in  his  life  was  his  own  consent  to  Hve  in  the  hum- 
ble sphere  to  which  he  had  been  born,  and  he  never  made  any 
effort  to  rise  above  it,  so  far  as  the  writer  knows.  In  early 
life  he  was  fond  of  attending  the  country  dances,  and  not 
always  as  careful  to  avoid  the  social  cup  as  he  should  have 
been.  It  is  said  that  he  lost  an  eye  in  consequence  of  an 
attempt  to  go  to  such  a  frolic  on  a  dark  night,  possibly  in  not 
perfect  command  of  himself,  by  striking  his  face  against  a 
fence  stake,  inflicting  an  injury  which  destroyed  an  eye. 
With  one  good  eye,  which  was  happily  preserved,  he  learned 
more  than  most  people,  and  was  at  the  time  at  which  the 
writer  knew  him  a  perfectly  temperate  man  of  most  digni- 
fied bearing.  He  spoke  elegantly,  wrote  with  a  facile  pen, 
and  would  have  commanded  attention  in  any  company.  He 
enjoyed  the  friendship  and  high  respect  of  the  best  men  in 



the  valley  of  Virginia;  was  known  most  favorably  by  John 
Baldwin,  A.  H.  H.  Stuart,  and  Hugh  Sheffy  of  Staunton, 
and  the  prominent  men  all  along  the  beautiful  valley.  The 
acquaintance  was  not  very  profitable  to  him  in  social  life; 
but  they  loved  and  honored  him. 

During  the  war  between  the  States  I  was  sent  to  his  little 
school  at  Rosendale,  on  Smith  Creek,  in  the  northern  edge  of 
Rockingham  County,  where  I  found  a  rare  opportunity  of 
prosecuting  my  studies  in  the  more  advanced  learning,  which 
could  not  at  that  time  have  been  found  anyvv^here  else.  He 
was  tenderly  kind  to  my  infirmity,  which  made  me  dependent 
on  the  eyes  of  others,  giving  me  all  the  encouragement  in  his 
vast  field  of  wisdom  and  learning. 

In  a  stone  house,  which  had  in  ante-bellum  days  been  a 
still  house,  on  the  beautiful  estate  of  the  late  George  Rosen - 
berger,  within  a  stone's  throw  of  his  hospitable  home,  where 
I  lived  for  a  year  or  two,  Mr.  Salyards  taught  a  school  com- 
posed of  the  sons  and  daughters  of  the  surrounding  farmers, 
in  the  earlier  grades,  as  we  would  say  now.  The  venerable 
teacher  found  time  in  that  school  of  sixty  or  more  "scholars'* 
to  hear  me  work  out  my  problems  in  the  advanced  courses  in 
which  I  was  so  busy.  I  had  for  my  companion  a  young  friend 
who  took  the  same  courses  with  me,  and  we  enjoyed  much  of 
the  great  teacher's  time,  both  out  of  school  and  in  the  hours 
of  the  day's  work.  We  often  went  to  his  little  log  house  in 
the  field,  only  a  few  hundred  yards  from  Mr.  Rosenberger's 
residence,  where,  surrounded  by  his  children  and  their 
mother,  much  younger  than  himself,  we  enjoyed  his  elegant 
conversation,  and  the  treasures  of  his  splendid  library,  a  sur- 
prise in  such  surroundings.  He  referred  to  his  books  with 
the  readiness  of  one  who  had  them  entirely  at  his  command. 
No  time  was  ever  lost  in  finding  the  most  abstruse  references. 
He  seemed  with  almost  an  instinctive  precision  to  turn  to  just 
what  we  wanted.  I  feel  that  I  owe  any  success  I  may  be 
thought  to  have  achieved  in  the  course  of  my  life  to  his 
instruction  and  inspiration. 

After  nearly  fifty  years,  I  recall  with  wonder  and  aston- 



ishment,  that  he  told  me  with  his  own  lips,  that  he  had  had 
in  early  life  an  ambition  to  write  a  literary  degree  after  his 
name,  and  had  sought  from  the  University  of  Virginia  the 
privilege  of  standing  for  examination  with  a  view  to  such 
degree;  but  his  request  was  declined.  A  finer  general  scholar, 
of  more  varied  learning  than  any  one  of  the  faculty,  he  had 
to  be  denied  the  distinction  because,  doubtless,  of  some  iron- 
bound  rule  of  the  institution.  In  later  life,  however,  that 
institution  honored  itself  not  less  than  him,  in  bestowing  a 
degree  without  examination.^ 

This  backwoods  philosopher  for  many  years  frequently 
contributed  to  the  local  press,  and  is  still  remembered  doubt- 
less by  some  of  the  older  newspaper  people;  his  articles  hav- 
ing appeared  in  both  prose  and  verse  on  a  great  variety  of 
subjects;  and  possibly  also  he  may  have  written  for  some  of 
the  magazines.  About  1874  he  gave  to  the  world  a  poem  of 
which  it  was  not  worthy,  and  did  not  appreciate,  for  it  still 
lingers  on  the  shelves  of  the  publishers,  if  indeed  it  is  not 
out  of  print.  "Idothea"  is  almost  an  epic,  and  received  a 
most  flattering  review  from  a  great  English  review  by  a  dis- 
tinguished author  of  high  literary  note.  My  memory  is  at 
fault  as  to  the  name  of  the  English  reviewer.  It  had  also  flat- 
tering notice  from  several  sources  in  this  country.  A.  W. 
Kercheval  and  the  writer  reviewed  it  for  the  publishers,  who 
issued  a  pamphlet  to  advertise  the  book;  but  it  was  all  in  vain. 
The  rich  descriptions  of  local  scenery  and  personages  of  note 
in  his  community,  and  the  deep  philosophy  of  the  work  make 
it  a  treasure  in  itself,  which  may  some  day,  to  a  more  appre- 
ciative auditory,  bring  it  into  favor  and  general  knowledge. 
Prof.  Salyards,  in  the  last  years  of  his  useful  life,  occupied  a 
chair  in  the  Polytechnic  Institute  at  new  Market. 

H.  H.  Johnson, 
Senior  Teacher,  Blind  Department,  School 
for  the  Deaf  and  Blind,  Romney,  W.  Va. 

3.  This  is  a  mistake.  Prof.  Johnson  probably  had  in  mind  the  degree 
conferred  by  Roanoke  College.  The  University  of  Virginia  has  never 
conferred  a  degree  except  for  residence  work. 



Mr.  S.  H.  W.  Byrd  of  Bridgewater  informs  me  that  a 
number  of  the  old  citizens  of  his  town  and  vicinity  were  pupils 
at  an  old  school  house  that  formerly  stood  at  St.  Michael's 

In  August,  1840,  Chas.  Viquesney,  a  native  of  France, 
was  advertising  a  night  school  at  Harrisonburg,  to  teach 
French;  the  said  school  to  be  conducted  during  the  coming 
winter.  At  the  same  time  Julius  Hesse  was  giving  notice  of 
a  writing  school;  and  Henry  Brown  was  announcing  a  "School 
for  Females"  to  open  September  1:  both  in  Harrisonburg. 
On  February  22,  1841,  the  Bridgewater  debating  society  cele- 
brated Washington's  birth,  with  the  Harrisonburg  band  in 
attendance.  In  1844,  as  I  am  informed  by  Rev.  A.  Poe  Boude, 
Wm.  W.  Littell  was  running  a  school  in  Dayton — the  only 
9-months  school  in  Rockingham  at  that  time.  Among  his 
pupils  were  A.  P.  Boude,  Danl.  Smith,  and  John  Green  Smith; 
the  Smiths  being  sons  of  Judge  Danl.  Smith.  The  same  year 
(1844)  Wm.  C.  Jennings  was  preparing  to  open  a  school  in 
Harrisonburg,  April  29. 

In  1851  an  Act  was  passed  incorporating  Rockingham 
Male  and  Female  Seminary,  to  be  established  in  or  near  Har- 
risonburg. The  trustees  were  Wm.  Kiger,  Thomas  D.  Bell, 
Robt.  Grattan,  and  ten  others  named.  In  1854  Rockingham 
Male  Seminary  was  in  charge  of  R.  W.  Thurmond,  principal. 
In  September  of  the  same  year  Miss  Harriet  Bear  was  pre- 
paring to  open  a  school  for  young  ladies  in  one  of  the  base- 
ment rooms  of  iVndrew  Chapel  (Hbg.).  About  1856  the 
"Academy"  near  Broadway,  first  in  charge  of  James  Wright, 
was  erected. 

During  the  years  now  under  consideration,  Joseph  Funk, 
at  Mountain  Valley  (Singer's  Glen),  was  conducting  a  school 
to  which  a  number  of  young  men  came  from  various  parts  of 
the  country.  It  is  probable  that  he  was  teaching  at  his  home 
as  early  as  1825  or  1830;  and  his  school  was  continued  by  his 
sons  for  a  number  of  years  after  the  civil  war.  In  the  South- 
ern Musical  Advocate  of  July,  1859,  he  and  his  sons  were  ad- 
vertising their  school— offering  to  teach  not  only  music,   but 



also  grammar,  elocution,  and  the  art  of  teaching  music.  Board 
and  music  tuition  cost  $9  a  month;  instruction  in  grammar 
and  elocution  raised  the  total  cost  to  $10  a  month. 

On  the  first  Monday  in  September,  1860,  Rockingham 
Male  Academy,  in  Harrisonburg,  reopened  under  the  princi- 
palship  of  John  W.  Taylor.  Thos.  D.  Bell  was  secretary  of 
the  board  of  trustees.  Mathematics,  natural  science,  Latin, 
Greek,  French,  etc.,  were  offered.  On  the  first  Wednesday 
of  September,  1861,  the  third  session  of  Rockingham  Female 
Institute,  in  Harrisonburg,  began,  with  J.  Mark  Wilson 

The  early  days  of  Reconstruction  were  fruitful  in  schools 
as  well  as  in  marriages.  In  the  fall  of  1866  the  following 
schools  were  announced: 

Female  Institute,  P.  M.  Custer,  principal. 
Male  Academy,  E.  H.  Scott,  principal. 
School  for  Children,  Miss  Alice  Houck. 

Miss  Mollie  McQuaide. 
"  "         Miss  Fannie  Lowman."* 

"  "         Miss  Carrie  Harrison. 

School  for  Young  Ladies,  Rev.  A.  Poe  Boude. 
Conrad's  Store. 

4.  Fannie  Lowman  was  born  at  or  near  Rushville  in  1840  or  1841,  and 
died  in  Harrisonburg  in  November,  1909.  In  spite  of  lameness,  poor 
health,  and  few  pecuniary  advantages  she  gained  an  education  in  good 
schools:  in  Georgetown  and  Staunton;  in  the  Valley  Normal  at  Bridge- 
water,  the  School  of  Methods  at  Charlottesville,  and  elsewhere:  and  for 
more  than  30  years  she  was  a  teacher— two  years  in  Texas,  the  remainder 
in  Virginia.  Some  of  her  first  earnings  went  to  aid  a  younger  sister,  who 
also  became  a  teacher.  For  several  years  before  her  death  she  was  en- 
titled to  a  teacher's  pension,  but  she  preferred  a  meager  salary  with  the 
work  she  loved.  With  characteristic  altruism,  it  was  her  wish  that  the 
very  few  dollars  she  left  at  death  be  devoted  toothers  rather  than  to  her- 
self or  her  memory.  On  learning  these  facts  the  Rockingham  County 
Teachers  Association  undertook  to  mark  her  grave,  in  order  that  her  own 
small  balance  might  not  be  thus  consumed,  but  might  go  to  benefit  the 
living.  The  fund  for  a  monument  is  growing,  and  her  colleagues  and  old 
pupils  are  embracmg  a  privilege  in  honoring  her. 



Classical  School,  W.  K.  Jennings. 

Linville  Creek. 
Classical  School,  John  D.  Pennybacker.^ 

Lacey  Spring's. 
Classical  School,  John  W.  Taylor. '^ 

Professor  Taylor  did  not,  perhaps,  designate  his  as  a 
classical  school,  but  it  seems  to  have  been  similar  to  the  oth- 
ers that  were  thus  called. 

In  1866  there  was  a  Rockingham  County  teachers'  asso- 
ciation, H.  Handy  being  secretary. 

The  first  regular  session  of  Harrisonburg  Female  Insti- 
tute, A.  Poe  Boude  principal,  Mary  L.  Attkisson  teacher  of 
French  and  music,  was  advertised  to  open  February  18,  1867, 
in  the  basement  of  the  "E.  M.  Church  on  the  hill." 

In  April,  1867,  B.  A.  Hawkins  opened  the  first  session  of 
Keezletown  Academy.  In  October  following  B.  A.  Hawkins 
and  W.  T.  Brett  were  principals  of  Pleasant  Grove  Academy; 
at  the  same  time  P.  M.  Custer  was  principal  of  Rockingham 
Female  Institute,  and  B.  F.  Wade  was  principal  of  Rocking- 
ham Male  Academy,  the  last  named  two  schools  being  at 
Harrisonburg.  In  this  same  year  (1867)  John  H.  Moore  had 
a  large  school  at  Beaver  Creek. 

In  1868  W.  S.  Kennedy  was  advertising  a  classical  school 
to  open  September  1,  in  the  town  hall  at  Bridgewater,  to 

5.  John  Dyer  Pennybacker  (1833-1904)  was  a  son  of  Sen.  I.  S.  Penny- 
backer,  and  a  brother  of  J.  Ed.  Pennybacker  (1844-1912).  His  wife  was 
Elizabeth  Lincoln  (1827-1905). 

6-  John  W.  Taylor  was  born  76  years  ago  on  the  west  bank  of  the 
Shenandoah  River,  in  East  Rockingham,  opposite  what  is  now  the  town 
of  Shenandoah.  His  father  was  Zachary  Taylor  (Scotch-Irish)  and  his 
mother  Nancy  Eppard  (German).  Winning  early  education  under  scant 
advantages,  he  taught  a  school  at  East  Point  when  18  or  19.  Continuing 
his  studies  at  Richmond  College,  Randolph-Macon,  and  other  schools,  he 
received  the  A.  M.  degree  at  Randolph-Macon  in  1860.  The  next  session 
he  was  principal  of  the  male  academy  in  Harrisonburg.  In  1865  he  opened 
his  school  at  Lacey  Springs,  where  he  has  taught  almost  continuously  to 
the  present.  His  wife  was  Virginia  C.  Lincoln,  a  daughter  of  Jacob 
Lincoln,  of  Rockingham. 



continue  10  months.  At  the  same  time  J.  H.  Turner  and 
G.  W.  Holland  were  principals  of  Rockingham  Male  Academy, 
and  P.  M.  Custer'  of  Rockingham  Female  Institute.  The 
buildings  of  the  last,  which  stood  on  the  site  of  the  present 
Harrisonburg  Main  Street  School,  had  been  erecced  a  few 
years  before  the  war;  during  the  war  they  were  used  as  a 
hospital  by  the  Confederates.     (See  page  153). 

In  1870  there  were  at  least  ten  schools  for  the  white 
children  in  Harrisonburg.^  In  the  fall  of  1871  the  Harrison- 
burg graded  school  was  organized,  under  the  new  public 
school  system,  and  Rev.  J.  S.  Loose  was  elected  principal. 
In  1871  a  classical  school  was  opened  in  Bridgewater,  with 
John  H.  Barb  principal,  Richard  Halstead  intermediate 
teacher,  and  Frank  Stover  primary  teacher.^  In  1872  S.  C. 
Lindsay  opened  a  classical  and  mathematical  school  in  Harris- 
onburg, in  September,  to  run  till  June  of  the  next  year. 

In  1873  a  boarding  and  day  school  for  young  ladies  was 
opened  in  the  home  of  Rev.  W.  G.  Campbell,  his  niece  and 
two  daughters  being  teachers.  In  1877  the  house  on  Camp- 
bell Street,  Harrisonburg,  now  Shaffer's  boarding  house,  was 
built  for  a  school  by  the  Misses  Campbell.  As  late  as  1892 
Miss  S.  L.  Campbell  was  conducting  the  school.  Later  mem- 
bers of  the  family  had  charge  of  Westminster  School  in  Rich- 

In  1874  and  1875  B.  L.  Hodge  was  principal  of  McGaheys- 
ville  Male  and  Female  Academy.  The  session  ran  9  months, 
and  classical  as  well  as  English  instruction  was  offered. 

At  Dayton,  in  1875,  A.  Paul  Funkhouser  and  other  pro- 
gressive leaders  in  the  United  Brethren  Church  founded 
Shenandoah  Seminary,  which  has  grown  into  the  well  known 
Shenandoah  Collegiate  Institute  and  School  of  Music.     As  in- 

7.  Rev.  P.  M.  Custer  died  in  Alabama  in  1890,  aged  70.  For  partica- 
lars  regarding  Rockingham  Female  Institute,  I  am  obliged  to  Mr.  L.  H. 

8.  Rockingham  Register,  June  30,  1870. 

This  information  was  given  by  Mr.  S.  H.  W.  Byrd. 



dicated  in  the  name,  music  has  been  much  encouraged  in  the 
policy  of  this  school.  The  institution  has  really  inherited  the 
musical  traditions  and  tendencies  that  so  long  distinguished 
the  school  of  Joseph  Funk  &  Sons  at  Singer's  Glen.  Since  its 
organization  it  has  grown  in  favor  and  popularity  at  home  and 
abroad,  particularly  in  the  Southern  States,  from  all  of  which 
a  large  number  of  students  come  annually.  It  aims  to  supply 
the  best  of  instruction  by  modern  methods  at  lowest  possible 
cost.     It  exalts  the  moral  above  the  merely  intellectual. 

To  the  older  buildings,  two  new  brick  structures  have  re- 
cently been  added:  (1)  Howe  Memorial  Building  (1899), 
occupied  exclusively  by  the  School  of  Music;  (2)  the  Admin- 
istration Building  (1909),  four  stories,  containing  laboratories, 
class-rooms,  studios,  offices,  etc.  Separate  dormitories  are 
provided  for  ladies  and  gentlemen.  Reading  rooms,  literary 
societies,  a  Y.  M.  C.  A.,  a  Y.  W.  C.  A.,  special  lectures  and 
entertainments,  etc.,  supplement  the  w^ork  of  the  class-rooms 
and  chapel.  The  students  publish  a  handsomely  illustrated 
annual,  "The  Zynodoa,"  and  maintain  athletic  organizations. 
The  enrolment  for  1911-12  was  259.  J.  H.  Ruebush  is  gen- 
eral manager;  J.  N.  Garber  is  president  of  the  board  of 
trustees.  The  board  of  control  is  composed  of  J.  H.  Ruebush, 
C.  A.  Funkhousev,  G.  P.  Hott,  and  A.  S.  Hammack.  The  fac- 
ulty comprises  1  (  regular  members. 

In  March,  1876,  State  Supt.  W.  H.  Ruffner  visited  Har- 
risonburg and  made  two  addresses  on  education  in  the  court- 
house. The  specific  purpose  of  his  visit  (he  had  been  invited 
by  the  town  council)  was  the  erection  of  a  public  school 
building.  In  November,  1878,  Supt.  Ruffner  was  in  Har- 
risonburg attending  a  teachers'  institute.  On  October  30, 
1879,  Judge  Kenney  wrote  in  his  diary:  "The  new  brick 
school  house  for  the  free  school  is  about  finished.  Cost  $5000. " 
It  was  used  for  the  session  of  1879-80,  Clarence  H.  Urner  of 
New  Market  being  principal  of  the  school.  This  building  is 
now  used  for  the  grades  in  the  Main  Street  school.  The 
trustees  under  whose  direction  it  was  built  were  J.  L.  Avis, 
G.  0.  Conrad,  and  G.  F.  Compton. 



Harrisonburg  in  1878-9  had  a  Shakespeare  Club.  Traces 
of  the  same  club,  or  another  like  it,  were  found  just  twenty 
years  later. 

In  1878  and  thereabouts  North  Mountain  Academy,  near 
Chrisman,  J.  W.  Jones  being  principal,  was  attracting  a  good 
deal  of  attention. 

In  1878  there  came  to  Rockingham  a  man  who  probably 
did  more  than  any  other  to  commend  the  public  schools  to 
general  favor,  to  stir  up  school  spirit,  and  to  inspire  his  pupils 
with  a  desire  for  higher  learning.  This  was  A.  C.  Kimler. 
From  1878  to  1881  he  taught  at  River  Bank;  from  1881  to  1889, 
at  McGaheysville.  It  was  at  the  latter  place  he  did  his  great 
work  for  Rockingham.  Says  Mr.  Richard  Mauzy:  "He  estab- 
lished Oak  Hill  Academy,  and  was  a  successful  teacher." 

During  his  eight  years  at  McGaheysville  Professor  Kim- 
ler sent  students  to  Randolph-Macon  College,  Roanoke, 
Franklin  and  Marshall,  Nashville  Normal  School,  the  Univer- 
sity of  Virginia,  West  Point,  Richmond  Medical  College,  and 
Baltimore  Dental  College.  He  received  letters  commending 
their  work  from  Dr.  Smith  of  Randolph-Macon,  Dr.  Venable 
of  the  University  of  Virginia,  and  others.  mg  those  he 

sent  out  were  the  following,  many  of  '>'  well  known 


William  Yancey,  Harrisonburg,  de 

C.  N.  Wyant,  school  principal  in  Pennsylvania. 

Dr.  J.  B.  Rush,  Woodstock,  Va. 

R.  H.  Sheppe,  teacher  and  educator,  deceased. 

Rev.  J.  P.  Harner,  Middlebrook,  Va. 

C.  C.  Herring,  editor;  Harrisonburg. 

Rev.  Melville  Killian. 

H.  W.  Bertram,  lawyer  and  editor;  Harrisonburg. 

Floyd  W.  Weaver,  county  clerk,  Luray,  Va. 

J.  H.  Bader,  educator;  McGaheysville. 

Rev.  John  Life. 

Fayette  Hedrick,  McGaheysville. 

Luther  Hopkins,  McGaheysville. 



C.  L.  Lambert,  Little  Rock,  Ark.^o 

Bridgewater  College  dates  its  beginnings  from  1880, 
when  D.  C.  Flory,  assisted  by  J.  R.  Shipman,  opened  a  nor- 
mal and  collegiate  institute  at  Spring  Creek.  In  1882  the 
school  was  located  at  Bridgewater,  where  it  has  since  gained 
wide  recognition.  It  was  chartered  as  a  college  in  1889.  On 
December  31  of  this  year  the  main  building  burned,  but 
others  have  taken  its  place  until  to-day  there  are?  buildings; 
two  frame,  five  brick.  These  include  a  gymnasium  and  a 
central  heating  plant.  One  of  the  benefactors  of  the  school 
was  W.  B.  Yount,  who  was  president  from  1892  to  1910.  The 
institution  represents  especially  the  educational  interests  of 
the  Church  of  the  Brethren,  and  is  co-educational.  Work  is 
offered  leading  to  the  degrees  of  B.  A.,  M.  A.,  Th.  B.,  etc. 
The  library  contains  over  10,000  volumes. 

The  students  conduct  three  literary  societies,  the  Vic- 
torian, the  Virginia  Lee,  and  the  Acme;  and  publish  a  monthly 
magazine,  founded  in  1896,  the  Philomathean  Monthly.  A 
student  civic  league  and  other  organizations  are  also  main- 
tained.    The  enrolment  during  the  session  of  1911-12  was  184. 

John  S.  Flory  is  president  of  the  college;  Hiram  G.  Miller 
is  presiden'  "^he  board  of  trustees.  The  faculty  consists  of 
17  regular  -  r  with  a  number  of  assistants.     An  active 

alumni  ass(      ■  ^  been  in  existence  since  1899.     Grad- 

uates of  the  1  have  taken  high  rank  at  the  univer- 

sities, and  a  it.  imber  have  entered  the  Gospel  ministry. 

At  Mt.  Clinton,  in  1890,  a  2-room  graded  school,  offering 
some  high-school  work,  was  built  up  into  a  4-year  high-school, 
and  named  West  Central  Academy.  It  continued  in  this 
character  till  1902,  I.  S.  Wampler,  now  fiscal  secretary  of 
the  alumni  association  of  Peabody  College,  Nashville,  was 
principal;  and  among  the  other  teachers  were  C.  J.  Heatwole, 

10.  Abram  C.  Kimler  graduated  from  Franklin  and  Marshall  College  in 
1878.  After  leaving  McGaheysvillehe  went  to  New  Market,  Va. ;  thence 
to  Shepherdstown,  W.  Va. ,  where  he  was  principal  of  the  State  Normal 
College  for  several  years.  At  present  he  is  principal  of  the  Waynesboro 
(Va.)  High  School,  and  he  is  still  sending  students  up  higher. 



L.  R.  Dinges  (now  studying  in  Germany),  D.  I.  Suter,  M. 
A.  Good,  and  D.  B.  Wampler.  The  largest  enrolment  in 
high  school  classes  at  any  time  was  170.  Public  and  private 
funds  were  combined  for  maintenance.  Graduates  entered 
Washington  and  Lee,  the  University  of  Virginia,  and  other 
colleges.  The  summer  normal  institutes  were  a  special  feature. 
About  1897  it  was  ascertained  that  65 '-^  of  all  the  teachers  in 
Rockingham  had  at  some  time  been  students  of  this  school. 

In  1896  Rockingham  Military  Academy,  atMt.  Crawford, 
was  opened  under  the  principalship  of  Otey  C.  Hulvey.  From 
the  beginning  of  the  second  session  until  the  suspension  of 
the  school  in  1901,  Capt.  F.A.  Byerly,  now  a  prominent  teacher 
in  West  Virginia,  was  principal  and  commandant.  The  school 
occupied  a  handsome  three-story  building  just  west  of  the 
Valley  Pike,  at  the  northeast  end  of  Mt.  Crav/ford.  For  some 
time,  prior  to  his  connection  with  the  R.  M.  A.,  Capt.  Byerly 
had  conducted  Sunnyside  School  for  Girls  at  Pleasant  Valley. 

A  Rockingham  County  historical  society  was  organized  in 
1898-9.  A  committee,  made  up  of  Maj.  George  Chrisman, 
James  B.  Stephenson,  and  F.  A.  Byerly,  drew  up  a  constitu- 
tion and  by-laws.  Gen.  John  E.  Roller  ^was  elected  presi- 
dent. There  were  16  vice-presidents,  an  executive  committee, 
a  library  committee,  a  committee  on  Confederate  soldiers,  and 
a  reception  committee.  The  society  was  given  the  use  of  a 
room  in  the  courthouse;  but  in  spite  of  this  official  recognition, 
the  rich  field  at  hand,  and  the  need  of  a  strong  organization 
to  preserve  our  historical  materials,  interest  in  the  organiza- 
tion soon  fell  to  a  low  ebb.  A  revival  of  spirit  will  doubtless 
come  at  some  time  in  the  future,  when  many  golden  oppor- 
tunities have  passed  forever.  Rockingham  County  needs  a 
historical  society;  but  such  a  society  to  live  must  have  the 
sympathy  of  many  people. 

It  is  a  common  misimpression  that  our  present  public  school 
system  in  Virginia  is  altogether  a  product  of  Reconstruction — 
that  we  had  no  free  schools  before  the  war.  As  a  matter  of 
fact,  there  were  legislative  provisions  in  Virginia  as  early  as 
1780 — perhaps  earlier— for  the  establishment  of  free  schools; 



and  such  schools  were  in  actual  operation  from  the  beginning 
of  the  19th  century  up  to  the  civil  war.  To  be  sure,  these 
public  free  schools  were  inadequate  to  the  general  need:  they 
were  intended  for  the  poor,  and  in  most  cases  were  used  only 
by  the  poor.  This  fact  will  explain  some  of  the  prejudice 
against  free  (public)  schools  in  more  recent  times. 

A  few  statistics  from  different  periods  will  illustrate  gen- 
eral conditions.  In  1824-5  the  number  of  free  schools  in  98 
counties  and  towns  of  Virginia  was  2450;  the  number  of 
"poor"  children  was  21,177;  the  number  sent  to  school  was 
10,226;  the  amount  expended  for  their  tuition  was  $49,222.22. 
Eleven  counties  made  no  report. ' '  In  1826  $45, 000  was  appro- 
priated for  schools  in  the  different  counties;  Rockingham's 
share  was  $942.12. 

According  to  the  census  of  1850,  there  were  in  Rocking- 
ham 2765  persons  who  could  neither  read  nor  write,  in  a  total 
white  population  of  17,500.  Rockingham's  share  of  the  school 
fund  this  year  was  $1399.^2 

The  increased  allotment  ten  years  later,  and  its  distribu- 
tion among  the  several  districts  of  the  county,  are  shown  in 
the  following  table: 


For  Rockingham  Co.,  for  the  Year  1861. 

The  following  is  the  apportionment  made  by  the  Superintendent  of 
the  Literary  Fund  for  Rockingham  county,  for  the  year  ending  Septem- 
ber, '61: 

Dist.  No.  1 

C.  A.  Sprinkel, 


$180  00 


J.  W.  C.    Houston, 

130  00 


B.  F.  Lincoln, 

140  00 


P.  P.  Koontz, 

130  00 


Wm.  Sellers, 

100  00 


Madison  West, 

130  00 


Jos.  H.  Conrad, 

170  00 


Wm.  B.  Yancey, 

120  00 


Y.  C.  Ammon, 

150  00 

11.  From  a  Virginia  almanac  of  1827. 

12.  From  a  Virginia  almanac  of  1852. 



ist.  No    10  Geo.  W.  Kemper, 


$140  00 

"              11  Jos.  Beery, 


120  00 

12  Geo.  P.  Burtner, 


120  00 

"             13  Jacob  Byerly, 


170  00 

14  M.  H.  Harris, 


130  00 

15  Peter  Wise, 


50  00 

16  Wm.  Beard, 


140  00 

17  G.  R.  Harrell, 


140  00 

18  F.  M.  Ervine, 


200  00 

"             19  Jesse  Ralston, 


80  00 

'*             20  Arch'd.  Hopkins, 


230  00 

21  Jno.  Q.    Winfield, 


130  00 

22  Henry  Neff, 


130  00 

"             23  Benj.  Trumbo, 


160  00 

"             24  Jacob  Caplinger, 


140  00 

Chas.  a,  Sprinkel, 

County  Sup't  of  Schools  for 
Rockingham  County. 

From  the  Rockingham  Register  of  Dec.  14,  1860. 

In  the  same  issue  of  the  Register  the  school  teachers  of 
the  County  are  notified  that  all  claims  against  the  Board  of 
School  Commissioners  must  be  presented  each  year  by  the 
■October  Court;  the  notice  being  signed  by  M.  H.  Harris, 
president,  and  Chas.  A.  Sprinkel,  clerk. 

Although  there  was  less  prejudice  against  the  free  school 
system  of  1870  and  following  years  in  the  Valley  than  in  most 
other  sections  of  Virginia,  many  even  in  Rockingham  looked 
upon  it  with  misgiving,  fearing  an  aggravation  of  the  race 
problem,  a  weakening  of  the  moral  code,  and  various  other 
undesirable  things.  On  this  point  Rev.  W.  T.  Price,  of  Mar- 
linton,  W.  Va.,  for  16  years  a  prominent  citizen  of  Rocking- 
ham, said  in  a  recent  letter: 

When  the  pubHc  school  system  [of  1870]  was  first  mooted,  the  feeling 
quite  prevalent  among  the  more  influential  people  was  that  the  effect 
would  be  a  very  serious  one  upon  the  religious  interests  of  the  people, 
through  secular  education.  .  .  .  The  first  superintendent  of  schools 
[in  Rockingham]  was  the  Rev.  Mr.  Loose.  He  favored  all  efforts  to  have 
the  teachers  realize  their  moral  responsibility.  The  result  was  that  a  pre- 
dominating element  of  officers  and  teachers  were  in  control  of  the  system 
who  realized  this.  The  institutes  were  opened  with  prayer,  the  Bible 
was  read  in  all  the  schools  as  a  preliminary  exercise,  and  in  numerous  in- 



stances  the  school  would  be  lead  in  extempore  prayer,  or  the  Lord's 
Prayer  would  be  recited  in  concert.  As  time  passed  it  was  to  be  noticed 
that  the  moral  and  religious  features  became  more  evident,  and  the  bane- 
ful effects  of  mere  secularism  were  in  great  measure  prevented. 

In  January,  1871,  it  was  reported  that  there  were  7663 
white  and  965  colored  persons  in  the  county  of  school  age,  5 
to  21;  that  over  60  free  schools  were  in  operation  in  the 
county,  with  more  than  2000  children  in  attendance.  There 
were  at  this  time  two  free  schools  in  Harrisonburg  for  col- 
ored pupils,  but  as  yet  none  for  white  children. 

In  November,  1874,  there  were  112  teachers  of  free  schools 
in  Rockingham,  and  about  90  were  present  at  an  institute  in 

The  following  statistics  are  copied  from  the  county  super- 
intendent's report,  published  in  September,  1876,  for  the  year 
ending  July  31,  1876: 

Total  school  population,  aged  5  to  21,  9815. 

Total  number  of  public  schools,  157. 

Average  number  of  months  taught,  4.85. 

Average  number  of  pupils  enrolled  monthly,  5060. 

Average  daily  attendance,  3897. 

Total  enrolment  for  the  session,  6446. 

Average  monthly  salary  of  teachers,  $32.56. 

Amount  received  from  the  State,  $10,165. 

Amount  received  from  the  county,  $8809.17. 

Amount  from  district  tax,  $5818.95. 

Amount  of  supplements  paid  teachers,  $5050.50. 

Value  of  school  property  owned  by  districts,  $8985. 

Number  of  school  houses  owned  by  districts,  24. 

In  1889,  203  schools  were  open  to  white  and  16  to  colored 
pupils;  7348  white  pupils  and  617  colored  were  enrolled;  118 
men  and  85  women  (white),  6  men  and  10  women  (colored), 
were  employed  as  teachers;  the  total  amount  expended  in  the 
county  for  school  purposes  was  $42,833.78;  the  total  value  of 
school  property  was  $78,144. 

According  to  the  census  of  1905,  the  school  population  of 
the  county  was  9470;  the  number  of  illiterates,  443. 



The  present  widely  recognized  excellence  of  the  Har- 
risonburg public  schools  is  mainly  due  to  the  efficient  and  ener- 
getic principal,  William  H.  Keister,  who  came  here  in  1894. 
He  has  been  here  continuously  since  that  time,  and  has  built 
up  one  of  the  best  school  systems,  beginning  with  a  kinder- 
garten and  ending  with  a  high-school  following  eight  grades, 
in  the  State.  He  has  stood  by  the  school,  and  the  progressive 
school  board  has  stood  by  him.  The  people  have  stood  by 

In  1911  Harrisonburg  and  the  several  districts  of  the 
county  voted  for  compulsory  school  attendance  by  large  ma- 
jorities— Rockingham  being  the  second  county  in  Virginia  to 
adopt  the  compulsory  rule.  This  year  (1912)  the  school  board 
of  Harrisonburg  has  secured  an  aid  of  $250  a  year  for  five 
years  from  the  Slater  Fund  to  introduce  industrial  training 
into  the  colored  schools  of  the  tov/n. 

The  year  1911  also  marked  the  opening  of  the  splendid 
Waterman  School  in  the  northern  section  of  Harrisonburg, 
providing  for  a  second  kindergarten  and  a  number  of  the  lower 
grades.  In  1910  Mr.  Albert  G.  Waterman  of  Nev/  York  gave 
the  town  a  fine  lot  of  three  acres  or  more  for  a  school  site; 
and  the  town  at  once  erected  thereon  a  stone  building,  with 
most  approved  equipment,  for  a  school  of  the  sort  contem- 
plated. The  site  commands  a  wide  viev/  of  the  town  and  sur- 
rounding country,  and  is  only  a  fev/  hundred  yards  south  of 
the  old  Waterman  homestead,  where  the  house  and  farm 
buildings  burned  on  the  night  of  July  13,  1868.  '^ 

The  Harrisonburg  school  board,  composed  of  Messrs.  W. 
J.  Dingledine,  Wm.  Dean,  and  P.  F.  Spitzer,  are  setting  a 
pace  which,  if  generally  followed  over  the  State,  will  soon 

13-  Dr.  Asher  Waterman,  already  mentioned  in  this  book,  was  a  sur- 
geon in  the  Revolution.  He  came  to  Harrisonburg  about  1783.  August 
30,  1787,  he  married  Sarah  Lochart  of  Augusta  County.  Albert  G.  and 
Augustus  Waterman  were  his  sons,  the  latter  probably  living  at  the  old 
homestead  above  mentioned.  Annie  and  Isabella  were  his  daughters,  the 
former  marrying  Chas.  Douglas,  the  latter  Robt.  Gray.  Albert  G. ,  born 
at  Harrisonburg,  about  1800,  went  about  1827  to  Philadelphia,   where  he 


^^.^^^f^-^i-^  A:^e^^/iirA./f^ 

(Pages  288-292,  338) 

Engraving-  loaned  by  Henkel  &  Co. 

New  Market,  Va- 


place  Virginia  in  the  front  rank  of  educational  progress. 
Other  recent  members  of  the  board  were  Hon.  A.  H.  Snyder 
(1863-1910)  and  Dr.  T.  C.  Firebaugh.  Dr.  J.  M.  Biedler  de- 
serves special  mention  for  the  work  he  has  done  in  forwarding 
medical  inspection  in  the  schools  of  Harrisonburg  and  Rock- 
ingham County. 

Rockingham  County  has  had  a  notable  history  in  the 
normal  school  work  of  Virginia.  In  August,  1870,  E.  Arm- 
field  Legg  was  advertising  the  "Harrisonburg  Normal  School," 
the  next  session  of  which  was  to  begin  the  first  Monday  of 
September,  in  the  basement  of  the  Lutheran  Church,  and 
close  the  last  Friday  of  June,  1871.  Teachers'  institutes  were 
held  in  the  county  before  this  time,  and  many  short  summer 
sessions  have  been  offered  to  teachers  of  the  county  for  many 
years.  From  1884  to  1891  summer  normals  were  held  at 
Harrisonburg  under  provisions  of  the  Peabody  Fund,  as  many 
as  300  teachers  being  in  attendance  at  one  time.  From  1882  to 
1884,  and  thereabouts,  the  institution  now  Bridgewater  Col- 
lege was  called  the  "Virginia  Normal  School." 

Of  all  the  early  movements  for  the  professional  training 
of  teachers  the  most  notable  in  Rockingham,  perhaps  in  Vir- 
ginia, was  carried  on  at  Bridgewater  from  1873  to  1878  by 
Alcide  Reichenbach,i'*J.  D.  Bucher,!'^  A.  L.  Funk,  ^^^  Miss  Vir- 

died  February  16,  1862,  highly  honored  as  a  citizen  and  benefactor.  For 
24  years  preceding  his  death  he  was  on  the  board  of  managers  of  the 
Pennsylvania  Institution  for  the  Instruction  of  the  Blind.  His  son,  Mr. 
A.  G.  Waterman,  Jr.,  is  the  honored  patron  of  the  Harrisonburg  school 
bearing  his  name. 

14.  Alcide  Reichenbach,  A.  M.,  was  born  in  Switzerland  in  1845,  and 
enjoyed  excellent  advantages  for  training  in  both  Europe  and  America. 
For  a  number  of  years  he  has  been  a  professor  in  Ursinus  College,  Col- 
legeville.  Pa.,  where  he  still  lives. 

la-  Dr.  J.  D.  Bucher,  still  a  resident  of  Bridgewater,  was  born  in  Penn- 
sylvania, and  has  been  identified  for  many  years  with  various  phases  of 
educational  and  professional  work.  He  had  received  a  4-year  course  of 
training  in  the  Pennsylvania  normal  schools. 

16.    Prof.  A.  L.  Funk,  with  Prof.  G.  H.  Hulvey  and  others,  continued 



ginia  Paul,  ''^  Miss  Laura  O'Ferrall,  ^^  and  others.  In  outlining 
professional  courses  for  teachers,  one  covering  two  years, 
another  four,  catalogues  of  the  best  American  and  German 
normal  schools  were  consulted.  A  model  school  for  observa- 
tion, etc.,  was  conducted.  State  Supt.  Ruffner,  Maj.  Jed 
Hotchkiss,  Prof.  S.  T.  Pendleton,  of  Richmond,  Prof.  E.  V. 
DeGraff,  and  others  were  secured  as  special  lecturers.  Stu- 
dents were  in  attendance  from  a  number  of  counties  of  Vir- 
ginia, from  West  Virginia,  and  Ohio.  Some  of  the  pupils 
that  have  since  become  prominent  in  education  and  related 
work  are:  S.  F.  Lindsay,  Mrs.  G.  B.  Holsinger,  Miss  Fannie 
Lowman,  Miss  Fannie  Speck,  L.  J.  Heatwole,  J.  S.  McLeod, 
G.  R.  Berlin,  Cyrus  H.  Cline,  and  Rockingham  Paul.  In  1875 
Supt.  Ruffner  wrote  to  the  principal: 

Your  normal  school  has  been  a  most  useful  institution,  and  I  am 
greatly  pleased  that  you  intend  to  continue  it.  You  are  offering  advan- 
tages to  teachers  such  as  are  hard  to  find  anywhere  else  in  reach  of  them. 
They  could  well  afford  to  spend  a  large  portion  of  their  earnings  in  at- 
tending upon  your  school, 

A  detailed  history  of  the  Valley  Normal  School  should  be 
preserved  in  the  educational  records  of  Virginia.  It  was  per- 
haps the  first  in  the  State  to  do  real  normal  school  work. 

Shenandoah  Normal  College,   G.  W.  Hoenshel,^^  princi- 

normal  teaching  at  Bridgewater  and  other  places.  He  was  principal  of 
the  Harrisonburg  high-school  in  1878-9. 

17.  Miss  Virginia  Paul,  daughter  of  Peter  Paul,  sister  of  Judge  John 
Paul,  was  a  graduate  of  the  State  normal  school  at  Trenton,  N.  J.  She 
taught  in  the  Valley  normal  school  at  Bridgewater  from  1876  to  1878. 
She  died  at  Ottobine,  Nov.  14,  1879,  aged  26. 

18.  Miss  Laura  O'Ferrall  was  a  sister  to  Hon.  Chas.  T.  O'Ferrall,  gov- 
ernor of  Virginia,  1894-8. 

19.  George  W.  Hoenshelwas  bornat  Mendon,  Pa.,  Dec.  11,  1858.  After 
graduating  from  the  Danville,  Ind.,  Normal  School,  he  took  steps  toward 
organizing  a  similar  school  in  Virginia.  First  at  Middletown,  then  at 
Harrisonburg,  afterward  at  Basic  City  and  Reliance,  he  did  a  helpful 
work  for  the  teaching  profession  and  the  cause  of  education.  His  wife 
was  Miss  Carrie  Moffett,  of  New  Market.     He  died  at  Reliance,   April 



pal,  was  located  at  Harrisonburg,  on  W.  Market  Street,  from 
1887  to  1890.  Other  members  of  the  faculty  were  A.  P. 
Funkhouser,  I.  M.  Groves,  J.  J.  Corn  well,  Mrs.  Minnie  Funk- 
houser,  and  E.  U.  Hoenshel.  Some  of  the  students  in  1888 
were  D.  R.  Good,  I.  S.  Wampler,  T.  0.  Heatwole,  and  Orville 

When,  in  1904,  definite  steps  were  proposed  in  the  Vir- 
ginia Senate  for  establishing  another  State  normal  school  for 
women,  Harrisonburg  formally  entered  competition  for  the 
said  school.  The  town  council  offered  an  appropriation  of 
$5000,  the  county  supervisors  one  of  $10,000.  The  same  year 
a  committee  of  the  General  Assembly  visited  Harrisonburg, 
among  other  places,  to  compare  the  claims  of  the  respective 
localities.  It  was  not,  however,  until  March  14,  1908,  that 
Harrisonburg  was  designated,  by  Act  of  Assembly,  as  the 
place  for  a  new  State  normal.  April  15,  1909,  the  corner 
stone  was  laid;  and  on  September  28,  following,  the  first  ses- 
sion began.  At  present  (1912)  there  are  four  buildings,  three 
of  stone,  one  of  brick,  not  counting  several  smaller  structures. 
In  all,  1343  different  students,  representing  over  90  counties  of 
Virginia,  with  a  number  of  States  outside  of  Virginia,  have 
been  enrolled.  About  70  full  graduates  have  been  sent  out — 
two  years  of  work  upon  the  basis  of  a  4-year  high-school 
course  being  required  for  graduation.  Two  literary  societies 
(the  Lanier  and  the  Lee)  are  maintained  by  the  students,  who 
publish  a  splendid  annual,  "The  Schoolma'am. "  A  Y.  W. 
C.  A.,  an  athletic  association,  and  an  alumnae  association  are 
kept  up,  and  the  student  body  has  adopted  an  honor  system. 
Julian  A.  Burruss,  formerly  of  Richmond,  is  the  president 
and  efficient  organizer  of  the  school,  to  whom  is  due  the  chief 
credit  for  its  phenomenal  success.  He  is  assisted  by  a  corps 
of  20  specialists,  as  instructors  and  administrative  officers, 
together  with  a  number  of  student  assistants.  Hon.  Geo.  B. 
Keezell  is  president  of  the  board  of  trustees;  Hon.  Floyd  W. 

12,  1896.  Among  his  published  works  is  a  149-page  volume  entitled 
"X-Talks  and  Other  Addresses."  Dr.  E.  U.  Hoenshel  of  Dayton,  Va., 
well  known  as  an  educator,  traveler,  author,  and  lecturer,  is  a  brother. 



King  is  vice-president;  Hon.  Geo.  N.  Conrad  is  treasurer.  The 
late  Hon.  A.  H.  Snyder  was  a  most  helpful  member  on  the 
original  board  of  trustees. 

Two  sons  of  Rockingham  who  long  ago  became  famous 
as  educators  were  Henry  Tutwiler  and  Gessner  Harrison, 
both  born  in  Harrisonburg  in  1807,  one  the  son  of  the  post- 
master, Henry  Tutwiler,  the  other  the  son  of  the  doctor, 
Peachy  Harrison.  They  both  entered  the  University  of  Vir- 
ginia in  1825,  where,  in  due  time,  Tutwiler  got  the  M.  A.  and 
Harrison  the  M.  D.  degree.  It  is  said  that  Tutwiler  was  the 
first  to  receive  the  coveted  Master's  degree  from  the  nev/  in- 
stitution. Later  he  went  to  Alabama,  where  his  life  work 
was  given,  with  eminent  success,  to  educational  work.  His 
daughter,  Julia  Tutwiler,  is  to-day  accorded  first  honors  in 
Alabama  among  the  teachers  and  leaders  of  her  sex.  Henry 
Tutwiler  lived  till  1884. 

Gessner  Harrison  became  a  professor  in  his  alma  mater, 
and  was  chairman  of  the  faculty  a  number  of  years.  He  pre- 
pared serviceable  text-books,  and  taught  with  the  inspiring 
word  of  a  leader.  His  motto,  "Trust  God  and  work," 
explains  his  life  and  character.  He  died  in  1862,  The  sons  of 
Mars  dinned  men's  ears  at  the  moment,  but  upon  the  quiet 
lawn,  and  among  the  arcades  where  the  scholars  linger,  his 
voice  is  still  heard. 

Among  the  men  and  women,  native  or  not,  who  have 
made  notable  contributions  to  Virginia's  schools,  may  yet 
be  mentioned  the  following:  Geo.  A.  Baxter,  of  Rocking- 
ham; president  of  Washington  College,  now  Washington  and 
Lee  University,  1799-1829;  Hugh  Tagart,  first  a  Catholic 
priest,  then  a  school-master,  who  died  at  Harrisonburg  about 
1840;  Wm.  S.  Slusser  (1836-1898),  40  years  a  teacher  in 
Rockingham  and  Augusta;  R.  H.  Sheppe,  lately  deceased, 
prominent  fiist  as  an  educational  leader  in  Rockingham,  then 
in  the  State  at  large;  C.  E.  Barglebaugh,  long  well  known  as 
a  teacher  in  the  county,  and  still  in  active  life;  Miss  Belle  C. 
Hannah,  long  a  favorite  teacher,  now  the  wife  of  Sen.  G.  B. 
Keezell;  Chas.  G.  Maphis  (1865 — ),  a  native  of  Shenandoah,, 



but  from  1887  to  1890  principal  of  the  Harrisonburg  schools; 
now  professor  of  education  in  the  State  University ;  H.  M.  Hays, 
a  son  of  Rockingham  by  long  residence,  now  on  the  faculty 
of  the  University  of  Missouri;  W.  T.  Myers,  a  son  by  birth, 
now  on  the  faculty  of  the  University  of  Virginia;  I.  N.  H. 
Beahm  (1859 — ),  another  native,  a  founder  of  schools;  H.  S. 
Hooke,  long  in  Harrisonburg,  now  in  Roanoke;  J.  J.  Lincoln, 
well  known  in  the  State;  J.  W.  Basore,  of  Broadway  and 
Princeton ;  and  last,  but  not  least,  our  veteran  superintendent, 
Geo.  H.  Hulvey,  a  son  of  Rockingham  by  birth  and  service. 

References  have  already  been  made  to  the  colored  schools 
of  the  county  and  county-seat.  As  early  as  December,  1866, 
Mrs.  M.  W.  L.  Smith,  Miss  Phoebe  Libby,  and  Miss  Ellen 
Crockett,  from  Maine  and  New  Hampshire,  were  conducting 
a  school  in  Harrisonburg  for  colored  children:  82  being  in  at- 
tendance during  the  day,  100  at  night.  ^  They  were  teaching, 
it  was  said,  in  the  new  colored  church.  From  time  to  time 
the  school  seems  to  have  been  taken  from  place  to  place. 
Sometimes  it  was  held  in  the  basement  of  the  church  (North- 
ern Methodist,  later  Catholic)  that  stood  opposite  the  B.  &  0. 
station;  at  another  time  it  was  in  a  back  room,  somewhere, 
upstairs,  and  the  boys  and  girls  to  reach  it  had  to  "climb, 
jump,  and  stoop."    But  they  did  it  all  gladly. 

In  the  fall  of  1868  Watkins  James,  an  agent  of  the 
Freedmen's  Bureau,  established  a  colored  school  at  Bridge- 
water.  Just  before  Christmas  a  lot  of  white  fellows  wrecked 
the  furniture,  but  the  better  people  condemned  the  act.^^ 

Within  the  last  year  or  two  the  colored  people  of  Har- 
risonburg have  taken  notable  part  in  repairing  and  enlarging 
their  school  building,  which  is  now  a  handsome  and  com- 
modious structure.  The  efficient  principal  is  Mr.  H.  A.  M. 
Johns,  formerly  of  Hampton,  who  has  been  here  since  1908. 
Under  his  direction  the  work  is  making  fine  progress.-- 

20.  R.  Register,  Dec.  13,  1866.      21.  Old  Commonwealth,  June  6,  1869. 

22.  I  am  indebted  to  Prof.  U.  G.  Wilson  for  a  most  interesting  paper 
on  the  Harrisonburg  colored  schools;  it  is  withheld  from  publication  here 
only  for  lack  of  space. 




As  early  as  1822  there  was  in  Rockingham  an  auxiliary- 
colonization  society,  endeavoring  to  raise  money  to  establish 
and  support  an  "Infant  Colony"  at  Cape  Misurado,  on  the 
African  Coast.  Robert  Herron  was  treasurer.  This  society 
was  still  in  existence  in  1825. 

The  civil  war  of  course  produced  many  needs  for  charity, 
and  was  marked  throughout  by  organized  movements  aiming 
to  supply  those  needs.  Early  in  the  war  a  soldiers'  aid 
society  was  organized  in  the  county.  At  a  meeting  in  Har- 
risonburg, September  24,  1861,  the  following  officers  were 

President — Miss  Jeannetta  Conrad. 
Vice-Presidents — Mrs.  Amanda  Keezle,    Mrs.   Strother 

Recording  Secretary — Miss  M.  Byrd. 
Corresponding  Secretaries— Mrs.  Harriet  Ruffner,  Mrs. 
M.  Harvey  Effinger. 

Treasurer — Mrs.  Harriet  Warren. 
The  following  were  chosen  managers: 
Mrs.  James  Crawford  Mrs.  Margaret  Wartmann 

Mrs.  G.  Kratzer  Mrs.  Rebecca  Newman 

Mrs.  Dr.  Dinges  Mrs.  Henry  Ott 

Mrs.  Nelson  Sprinkel  Mrs.  Annie  Kenney 

Mrs.  Geo.  Christie  Mrs.  Lucy  Effinger 

Mrs.  Col.  Hopkins  Mrs.  Juliet  Strayer 

Mrs.  A.  Lincoln  Mrs.  Mary  Kyle 

Miss  Anna  Strayer  Maj.  L.  W.  Gambill 

Miss  Rebecca  Davis  Mr.  Peter  Woodward 

Miss  Annie  Jennings  Mrs.  Lizzie  Hudson 

Miss  O'Brien  Mrs.  Susan  Bear 

Mrs.  L.  Bryan  Mrs.  Malinda  Kite 


Most  of  the  ladies  named  lived  in  Harrisonburg  and 
vicinity;  some  were  from  other  parts  of  the  county.  At 
another  meeting  held  in  Harrisonburg,  October  29,  the  fol- 
lowing were  added  to  the  list  of  solicitors  for  the  county: 

Mrs.  Bramwell  Rice,  Rushville; 

Mrs.  E.  Bear,  North  Mountain; 

Mrs.  Fannie  Hopkins,  Mt.  Clinton; 

Mrs,  Kieffer,  Mountain  Valley; 

Mrs.  Mary  Lincoln,  Linvill's  Creek; 

Mrs.  A.  Brock,  Linvill's  Creek; 

Mrs.  Jane  Burkholder,  Linvill's  Creek; 

Mrs.  Christian  Coffman,  Linvill's  Creek; 

Mrs.  D.  C.  Byerly  Mrs.  Huldah  Heiskell 

Mrs.  Jacob  Byerly  Mrs.  Priscilla  Miller 

Mrs.  Lenion  Harman  Mrs.  Rankin 

Miss  Mary  Lewis  Miss  Dolly  McGahey 

Miss  Sarah  Weaver  (Mrs.  Fannie  Hopkins) 

The  object  of  the  society  was  to  provide  supplies  of 
various  kinds  for  soldiers  in  the  field  and  in  the  hospitals.' 

In  June,  1862,  C.  Clinton  Clapp,  a  Harrisonburg  mer- 
chant, made  the  first  subscription  ($50)  to  a  fund  for  the  pur- 
pose of  erecting  a  monument  upon  the  battlefield  where  the 
lamented  Turner  Ashby  fell.^ 

On  April  30  and  May  1,  1863,  the  ladies  of  Bridgewater 
gave  an  entertainment  in  the  M.  E.  church,  the  proceeds  to 
be  used  for  the  benefit  of  sick  and  wounded  soldiers.  In  the 
spring  of  1864  they  sent  30  pairs  of  socks  to  Co.  D,  10th  Va. 

In  February,  1864,  the  Misses  Ewing,  of  near  Harrison- 
burg, furnished  an  abundant  supply  of  warm,  woolen  socks 
to  Co.  A,  1st  Mo.  Cavalry.  This  was  the  famous  Woodson's 
Company,  McNeill's  Battalion,  partisan  rangers.  About  the 
same  time  D.  M.  Switzer  offered  to  cut  garments  free  for 
private  soldiers  of  Rockingham  in  limited    circumstances. 

1-  See  Rockingham  Register,  Oct.  4  and  Nov.  1,  1861. 
2  See  page  179  of  this  book. 



The  physicians  made  special  provisions  for  such  soldiers  and 
their  families.  Some  of  the  mills  in  the  county  did  grinding 
for  soldiers'  families,  free  of  toll. 

At  a  meeting  held  in  McGaheysville  February  21,  1864, 
residents  of  the  village  and  neighborhood  contributed  $1700 
for  the  aid  of  soldiers.  The  meeting  was  addressed  by  Rev. 
J.  L.  Stirewalt,  of  New  Market,  who  was  soliciting  funds  to  be 
used  in  purchasing  artificial  limbs  for  maimed  Confederates. 

November  28,  1864,  at  a  special  meeting  in  the  M.  E. 
church,  Port  Republic,  conducted  by  Rev.  J.  Stirevs^alt  and 
Pastor  J.  P.  Hyde,  $894.66  was  taken  up  for  the  help  of 
wounded  (maimed)  soldiers. 

After  the  battle  of  Nev/  Market,  May  15,  1864,  the  people 
of  Harrisonburg  and  vicinity  sent  a  lot  of  carriages  to  the 
battlefield,  specially  for  the  purpose  of  bringing  the  wounded 
men  of  Woodson's  company  to  Harrisonburg,  where  many  of 
them  were  cared  for  in  private  families. 

In  1865-6  the  merchants,  lav/yers,  doctors,  and  mechanics 
of  Harrisonburg  formed  a  Thespian  society,  for  the  relief  of 
widows  and  orphans  of  Rockingham  soldiers.  In  May,  1866, 
a  Thespian  society  was  formed  in  Bridgewater. 

In  the  summer  of  1866,  a  Rockingham  Memorial  Associa- 
tion was  organized  by  the  ladies  of  Harrisonburg,  This  was 
probably  the  beginning  of  the  Ladies'  Memorial  Association 
mentioned  on  pages  159,  169,  170,  above.  In  the  Old  Com- 
monwealth of  November  28,  1872,  appeared  a  tribute  to  Mrs. 
C.  C.  Strayer,  president  of  this  association. 

In  1878  liberal  contributions  were  sent  from  Rockingham 
to  the  yellow  fever  sufferers  in  the  South.  Up  to  October  17, 
$715.24  had  been  contributed  in  the  county  to  this  cause. 
Early  in  1880  a  meeting  was  held  in  the  Court  House  to 
organize  relief  for  the  victims  of  the  famine  in  Ireland. 

A  work  of  benevolent  character  that  must  not  be  over- 
looked in  this  connection  was  organized  and  led  for  many 
years  by  Mrs.  Lucy  G.  Chrisman,  in  cleaning  up,  beautifying, 
and  caring  for  the  cemeteries  of  the  county.     This   work 



probably  centered  at  New  Erection,  but  has  extended  far 
and  wide  with  most  beneficent  results. 

The  remainder  of  this  chapter  will  be  devoted  to  five 
particular  institutions,  which  typify  different  lines  of  benev- 
olent enterprise:  (1)  the  Harrisonburg-  almshouse,  (2)  the 
county  almshouse,  (3)  the  Old  Folks'  Home,  (4)  the  Orphans' 
Home,  (5)  the  Rockingham  Memorial  Hospital.  The  chief 
benevolent  institution  of  Rockingham  is  the  good  will  of  her 
citizens;  but  this  has  crystalized  in  various  definite  forms. 

The  almshouse  for  the  town  of  Harrisonburg  is  located 
on  the  Valley  Pike,  a  short  distance  southwest  of  town,  near 
the  toll  gate.  It  is  under  the  supervision  of  a  committee  of 
three  of  the  town  council,  who,  with  the  chief  of  police,  look 
after  the  poor  of  the  town.  The  inmates  usually  number 
only  five  or  six.  The  present  chief  of  police  is  Frank  L. 
Dovel;  the  superintendent  of  the  almshouse  is  David  Landes. 

The  almshouse  for  the  county  was  formerly  located  near 
Keezletown,  but  for  the  past  thirty  or  forty  years  it  has  been 
at  the  present  site,  one  mile  northeast  of  Pleasant  Valley. 
It  is  on  a  fine  farm  of  323  acres,  185  acres  of  which  are  under 
cultivation,  the  balance  being  in  timber.  The  number  of 
persons  cared  for  here  is  usually  46  or  47.  The  popular 
superintendent  is  C.  W.  Pence,  who  has  had  charge  of  the 
place  for  the  past  seven  years. 

At  Timberville  is  located  the  Old  Folks'  Home,  main- 
tained by  the  Church  of  the  Brethren.  Initial  steps  toward 
providing  such  an  institution  were  taken  in  1888,  when 
Michael  Zigler,  S.  F.  Miller,  and  N.  W.  Beery  were  appointed 
a  committee,  by  the  Second  District  of  Virginia,  to  take  the 
matter  under  advisement.  The  home  was  opened  March  1, 
1892,  with  Daniel  Wine  and  wife  in  charge.  The  number  of 
inmates  ranges  from  ten  to  tv/enty-five.  J.  W.  Lichliter  is 
the  present  superintendent. 

Near  the  Old  Folks'  Home,  at  Timberville,  the  Church 
of  the  Brethren  maintains  an  Orphans'  Home,  established  in 
1905.  The  present  building  was  completed  in  1910.  The 
plan  contemplates  a  home  and  industrial  school  for  orphan 



children,  regardless  of  religious  affiliation.  Altogether,  up 
to  March  31,  1912,  44  children  had  been  received  at  the  Home. 
Of  these,  24  have  been  placed  in  permanent  homes.  The 
original  trustees  of  the  institution  were  D.  H.  Zigler,  J.  W. 
Wampler,  J.  M.  Wampler,  M.  J.  Cline,  and  P.  S.  Thomas;  the 
present  trustees  are  D.  H.  Zigler,  S.  D.  Miller,  M.  J.  Cline, 
J.  J.  Conner,  and  P.  S.  Thomas.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  L.  Hol- 
singer  are  in  immediate  charge. 

On  October  1,  1912,  the  Rockingham  Memorial  Hospital, 
located  at  the  south  side  of  Harrisonburg,  adjoining  the 
grounds  of  the  State  Normal  School,  was  formally  opened. 
A  gift  of  $20,000  or  more,  by  will,  made  four  years  ago  by 
William  G.  Leake,  led  to  the  establishment  of  this  institu- 
tion. Of  Mr.  Leake  it  has  been  said,  "He  devoted  his  life 
to  honest  work,  and  his  wealth  to  relieve  human  suffering. 
The  Rockingham  Memorial  Hospital  is  his  Monument."  By 
his  own  request,  the  hospital  does  not  bear  his  name,  but 
inside  the  main  entrance  is  a  handsome  bronze  tablet,  bearing 
the  following  inscription: 





















At  another  place  in  the  hall  is  a  marble  tablet,  inscribed 
as  follows: 

r~ — ~ — >k 


Board  of  Trustees 

J.  Wilton— President 

T.  N.  Haas— Vice-President 

J.  M.  BiEDLER— Secretary 

E.  R.  MILLER— Treasurer 
W.  J.  Dingledine  T.  0.  Jones 

George  E.  Sipe  Layton  B.  Yancey 

Elmer  U.  Hoenshel  John  S.  Funk 

Walter  B.  Yount  John  H.  Hoover 

Building  Committee 

J.  Wilton  W.  J.  Dingledine 

E.  R.  Miller  E.  U.  Hoenshel 

T.  N.  Haas  J.  M.  Biedler 

Architects— Corneal  &  Johnston 
Builders— W.  M.  Bucher  &  Son 


At  present  Julian  A.  Burruss  and  Jacob  S.  Sellers  are 
members  of  the  board  of  trustees. 

All  over  the  county,  churches,  benevolent  organizations, 
and  generous  individuals  have  made  donations  to  the  hos- 
pital. Within  the  past  year  the  ladies'  auxiliary  of  Harrison- 
burg has  raised  $2575  for  the  institution.  The  president  of 
this  organization  is  Mrs.  Russell  Bucher;  Mrs.  Julian  A.  Bur- 
russ is  secretary,  and  Mrs.  E.  Purcell,  treasurer.  Among  the 
number  of  ladies  who  have  rendered  notable  service,  it  will 
not  be  invidious  to  mention  the  name  of  Mrs.  B.  Ney.  The 
superintending  nurse  in  charge  of  the  hospital  is  Miss  Nan 




A.    A  List  of  Writers  and  Their  Works. 

Beahm,  Isaac  N.  H. :  Born  near  Good's  Mill,  May  14, 
1859;  educator,  traveler,  and  lecturer;  writer  on  various  edu- 
cational and  social  topics;  address,  Trevilians,  Va. 

Bowman,  Peter:  Located  in  Rockingham  about  1785;  in 
1817  published  (Laurentz  Wartmann,  Harrisonburg,  printer)  a 
book  entitled  "Ein  Zeugniss  von  der  Taufe." 

Braun,  Johannes:  From  1800  to  1850  a  leader  of  the 
German  Reformed  Church  in  Rockingham;  in  1818  he  pub- 
lished (Laurentz  Wartmann,  Harrisonburg,  printer)  a  16mo 
book  of  419  pages,  entitled  "Circular-Schreiben  an  die  Deut- 
schen  Einwohner  von  Rockingham  und  Augusta,  und  den 
benachbarten  Counties:  Erster  Band,"  In  1830  Wartmann 
printed  for  him  "Eine  kurze  Unterweisung  Christlichen 
Religion,"  etc.,  a  16mo  book  of  72  pages. 

Brown,  T.  H.  B. :  Born  in  Albemarle  County,  Va. ,  Sept. 
25,  1835;  died  at  his  home  in  Bridge  water,  Aug.  12,  1900;  a 
resident  of  Rockingham  from  1859  or  1860;  a  physician,  a 
skilled  journalist  ("N.  W.  Orb"),  and  a  contributor  for  many 
years  to  the  Rockingham  Register  and  different  metropolitan 

Bryan,  Daniel:  Born  in  Rockingham  about  1795,  son  of 
Maj.  William  Bryan;  brother  of  Allan  C.  Bryan;  named  after 
Daniel  Boone;  graduated  from  Washington  College  (now  W. 
&  Lee  University)  1807;  merchant,  lawyer,  poet;  colonel  in 
War  of  1812;  postmaster  at  Alexandria  many  years;  died  in 
Washington  City,  December,  1866;  author: 

1813— "The  Mountain  Muse"  (16mo,  252  pp.);  printed  at 
Harrisonburg,  by  Davidson  &  Bourne. 


"Lay  of  Gratitude"  (greeting  to  Lafayette). 

1826— "Appeal  for  Suffering  Genius." 
1830— "Thoughts." 

"Education,"  etc.^ 

"The  Mountain  Muse,"  dealing  in  heroic  verse  with  the 
adventures  of  Daniel  Boone,  was  sold  in  no  less  than  nine  or 
ten  States  outside  of  Virginia.  Considering  the  difficulties  of 
travel,  transportation,  and  communication  in  those  days, 
we  cannot  help  wondering  how  Mr.  Bryan  secured  such  a 
wide  circulation  for  his  little  book.  The  matter  may  be 
explained  in  some  measure,  no  doubt,  by  the  fact  that  the 
number  of  books  put  upon  the  market  then  was  small  in 
comparison  with  the  number  that  are  bidding  now  in  sharp 
competition  for  the  reader's  notice.  In  one  copy  of  "The 
Mountain  Muse"  that  the  writer  has  seen,  and  in  only  one,  is 
printed  the  list  of  the  subscribers'  names.  They  total  about 
1350,  and  belonged  for  the  most  part,  to  the  people  of  Vir- 
ginia: eastern  Virginia  as  well  as  the  Valley.  About  150 
belonged  to  residents  of  Tennessee;  about  100  to  residents  of 
Ohio;  while  the  remainder  were  distributed  among  Pennsyl- 
vania, Maryland,  New  York,  South  Carolina,  North  Carolina, 
Connecticut,  Louisiana,  and  Mississippi  Territory. 

Hon.  Chas.  Page  Bryan,  ambassador  to  Japan,  is  a  grand- 
son of  Daniel  Bryan, 

Bryan,  Mrs.  Emma  Lj^on:  Native  of  Richmond;  a  resi- 
dent of  Harrisonburg  since  her  marriage  in  1864  to  Pendleton 
Bryan   (son  of  Allan  C.  Bryan);  artist,  composer,  author: 

1879— "My  Sunflower's  Fan"  (illustrated  by  herself; 
published  in  St.  Nicholas,  December). 

1892— "A  Romance  of  the  Valley  of  Virginia"  (a  story 
of  the  war  of  1860-5;  12mo,  228  pp.;  printed  on  Confederate 


1867— "Harrisonburg,  Looking  Eastward." 

1-  References:  Washington  and  Lee  Catalogue  of  Alumni,  p.  59; 
Painter's  Poets  of  Virginia,  pp.  57-59;  Rockingham  Register,  Jan.  3,  1867, 
and  May  7,  1868. 



1886— "Sunrise  at  Lover's  Leap." 

1886— "Where  Ashby  Fell"  (original  owned  by  Mis^ 
Lucy  Shacklett,  Harrisonburg;  copies  in  the  Confederate 
Museum  at  Richmond,  and  elsewhere). 

Burkholder,  Newton  M. :  Born  at  Fort  Lynne,  near 
Greenmount,  Jan.  17,  1844;  son  of  John  Burkholder;  was  a 
C.  S.  A.  soldier,  and  a  telegraph  operator  at  Harrisonburg 
from  Jan.  1,  1863,  till  the  close  of  the  war;  graduated  in 
dentistry  (1867)  from  the  Bait.  College  of  Dent.  Surgery;  in 
1865  married  Miss  Ella  Moore,  who  died  in  1897;  in  1899 
married  Miss  Cornelia  Switzer  who  survives  him;  he  died 
Dec.  8,  1900,  at  Harrisonburg;  was  a  frequent  contributor  to 
the  Rockingham  Register,  the  Central  Presbyterian  (Rich- 
mond), etc.;  in  1899-1900  he  wrote  a  series  of  articles  for  the 
Richmond  Dispatch,  on  episodes  of  the  war. 

Burkholder,  Peter:  Long  a  resident  of  Rockingham;  in 
1816  he  published  a  treatise  on  water-baptism,  etc. ,  comprising 
60  16mo  pages,  which  was  printed  in  Harrisonburg  by  Lau- 
rentz  Wartmann;  was  the  author  of  "Nine  Reflections," 
published  in  English  by  Joseph  Funk  in  1837. 

Byerly,  Frank  Aubrey:  A  native  of  Rockingham,  and 
many  years  a  teacher  in  the  county,  now  in  West  Virginia; 
published  in  1910  "Hints,  Helps,  Devices,  and  Suggestions 
for  School  Work"  (16mo,  32  pp  ).  Has  been  a  frequent 
contributor  to  the  Rockingham  Register  and  other  periodicals 
on  educational  topics. 

Chrisman,  George:  Born  in  Rockingham,  June  2,  1832; 
son  of  Geo.  H.  and  Martha  Herring  Chrisman;  captain  of 
"Chrisman's  Infantry"  (1861)  and  the  "Boy  Company"  of 
cavalry  (1864);  married  Lucy  Gilmer  Grattan,  Nov.  13,  1867; 
for  many  years  a  writer  on  farming  and  stock  raising. 

CHne,  Justus  H. :  Born  near  Timberville,  Oct.  14,  1875; 
minister,  teacher,  and  author: 

1905 — "Some  Benefactors  of  Bridge  water  College." 

1912 — "Geological  Features  of  Rockingham  County"  (see 
pp.  21-31  above). 

1912 — "Dikes  of  the  Shenandoah  Valley"  (in  preparation 
with  Dr.  Thos.  L.  Watson). 



Address,  Stuart's  Draft,  Va. 

Compton,  Geo.  F. :  Long  a  resident  of  Harrisonburg,  now- 
living  in  Charlottesville;  wrote  27  articles  on  the  early  history 
of  Rockingham  County,  published,  1885,  in  the  Rockingham 

Conn,  Miss  Ruth  Randolph:  Born  at  McGaheysville,  1893; 
author  of  "Swords  and  Roses"  (story),  "The  Making  of  the 
Flowers,"  "October  Woods,"  "A  Blink  o'  Rest"  (poems); 
etc.;  a  contributor  to  this  book  (page  32). 

Conrad,  Miss  Mary  Lynn:  A  native  of  Rockingham,  and 
a  resident  of  Harrisonburg;  author  of  "Confederate  Banners" 
(12mo,  20  pp.,  illust). 

Converse,  Henry  Augustus:  Born  in  Philadelphia,  May 
8,  1839;  died  Dec.  5,  1880,  in  Harrisonburg,  where  he  had 
lived  from  January,  1879,  and  where  he  compiled  his  valuable 
work  for  the  members  of  his  profession:  "Indexes  to  the 
Virginia  and  West  Virginia  Reports"  (8vo,  381pp. ;  Rich- 
mond, 1881). 

Cox,  S.  K.:  Born  in  Baltimore,  July  16,  1823;  died  in 
Harrisonburg,  Nov.  27,  1909;  clergyman,  journalist,  poet. 
Dr.  Cox  came  in  1888  to  Harrisonburg,  where  he  had  his  home 
the  remainder  of  his  life.  In  1892  he  married  Miss  Bryan 
Moffett,  who  survives  him.  For  a  number  of  years  he  was 
associate  editor  of  the  Baltimore  and  Richmond  Christian 
Advocate;  he  wrote  much  in  prose  and  verse,  of  high  merit. 

Daingerfield,  Foxhall  A. :  Born  in  Rockingham,  Feb.  8, 
1839;  married  Nettie  Gray,  Nov.  4,  1863;  lawyer,  soldier, 
writer;  contributor  to  agricultural  papers,  specially;  residence, 
Castleton,  Lexington,  Ky. 

Daingerfield,  Mrs.  Nettie  Gray:  Born  in  Harrisonburg, 
daughter  of  Col.  A.  S.  Gray;  wife  of  Capt.  F.  A.  Dainger- 
field; address,  Castleton,  Lexington,  Ky. ;  author: 

1903— "That  Dear  Old  Sword"  (12mo,  99  pp.). 

1906— "Our  Mammy"  (8vo,  143  pp.). 

1909— "Frescati"  (12  mo,  71  pp.). 

Early,  Henry  C. :  Born  in  Augusta  County,  Va.,  May  11, 
1855;   for  many  years  a  resident  of  Rockingham.     Long  a 



contributor  to,  and  recently  an  editor  of,  the  Gospel  Messenger, 
he  writes  with  force  and  grace.  He  is  the  author  of  Chapter 
5  in  "Two  Centuries"  (8vo,  398  pp.;  Elgin,  111.,  1808). 

Flory,  J.  S. :  Born  in  Rockingham,  March  28,  1836;  in 
1881  was  editor  of  the  Home  Mirror,  Longmont,  Colo.,  in 
1883,  of  the  Longmont  Press;  the  latter  year  he  contributed 
a  series  of  letters  to  the  Rockingham  Register  on  '  'Western 
Rambhngs";  author: 

"Echoes  from  the  Wild  Frontier." 

1897- "Mind  Mysteries"  (12mo,  221  pp.). 

Flory,  John  S. :  Born  in  Rockingham  in  1866:  Ph.  D.  of 
the  University  of  Virginia,  1907;  now  president  of  Bridge- 
water  College;  author  of: 

1903— "The  Turleytown  Blockhouse"  (in  U.  Va.  Mag.. 

1903- "Gray's  Relation  to  His  Time"  (in  U.  Va.  Mag., 

1904— "The  First  University  Planned  for  America"  (in 
Southern  History  Magazine,  Washington,  Jan.). 

1904— "John  Wilson  as  an  Essayist"  (in  Sewanee  Re- 
view, Oct.). 

1906 — "The  German  Folksong"  (in  Sewanee  Review, 
Jan. ) . 

1908— "Literary  Activity  of  the  Brethren  in  the  18th 
Century"  (12mo,  347  pp.). 

1908— "Our  Present  Educational  Activity"  (pp.  331-339 
of  "Two  Centuries,"  Brethren  Pub.  House,  Elgin,  111.). 

1911— "The  Junior  and  Senior  Years  of  the  College 
Course"  (in  the  Inglenook,  August). 

Funk,  Benjamin:  Born  at  Singer's  Glen,  Dec.  29,  1829; 
died  in  1909;  compiled  "Life  and  Labors  of  Elder  John 
Kline,"  an  octavo  volume  of  480  pages,  published  at  Elgin, 
III,  in  1900. 

Funk,  Joseph:  Born  in  Berks  County,  Pa.,  March  9, 
1777;  died  at  his  home  in  Singer's  Glen,  Dec.  24,  1862; 
teacher,  author,  translator,  compiler,  and  publisher.  His 
printing  establishment,  opened  at  Mountain  Valley  (Singer's 


(Pages  m^.  :W-J) 
By  per.  of  J.  S.  Patton,  U.  Va. 


Glen)  in  1847,  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  Mennonite  printing 
house  in  America;  this  was  kept  up  by  himself  and  his  sons 
till  1863,  and  then  by  his  sons  till  1878.  The  Ruebush-Kieffer 
press,  established  at  Dayton  in  1878,  continues  his  work  into 
the  present.  More  concerning  him  is  given  in  this  chapter, 
in  the  list  of  Rockingham  periodicals,  and  in  Chapter  18, 
under  the  head  of  Rockingham  singers;  following  is  a  list  of 
his  more  important  writings,  compilations,  etc. : 

1816  (traditional  date) — A  collection  of  hymns,  in  Ger- 
man, set  to  music,  entitled  "Choral-Music";  88 pages;  printed 
at  Harrisonburg  by  Laurentz  Wartmann.^ 

1832— First  edition  of  "Genuine  Church  Music,"  208 
pages;  later  called  "Harmonia  Sacra,"  the  last  (17th)  edition 
appearing  after  1870.  The  first  two  editions  were  printed  at 
Winchester;  the  third  at  Harrisonburg  (1842),  by  Wart- 
mann  &  Way;  the  rest,  beginning  with  the  4th  in  1847,  at 
Singer's  Glen. 

1837- "Mennonite  Confession  of  Faith,"  with  Burkhold- 
er's  "Nine  Reflections"  (12mo,  460  pp.);  a  translation  from 
the  German;  including  a  historical  introduction,  written  by 

1857 — "The  Reviewer  Reviewed";  a  work  in  controversial 
theology,  directed  against  Eld.  John  Kline's  "Review"  of 
Eld.  Henry  Funk's  "Treatise  on  Baptism";  16mo,  309  pages; 
printed  by  Joseph  Funk  &  Sons,  at  Mountain  Valley. 

Funkhouser,  Jacob:  Born  in  Rockingham  about  1833;  died 
July,  1903;  compiled  and  published  (Harrisonburg,  1902)  "A 
Historical  Sketch  of  the  Funkhouser  Family"  (8vo,  100  pp.). 

Garber,  Jacob  A. :  Born  near  Mt.  Crawford,  Jan.  25,  1879; 
residence,  Timberville;  occasional  writer  of  prose  and  verse; 
formerly  editor  of  Emerson  College  Magazine,  etc. 

Garber,  W.  A.:  Minister,  lecturer,  writer;  among  other 
things,  has  published  "The  Passion  Play  Graft"  (12  mo,  64 
pp. ;  1911) ;  address,  Dayton,  Va. 

2.  Mr.  Noah  Blosser,  Dale  Enterprise,  has  kindly  loaned  a  copy  of  this 
book.  It  bears  no  date,  but  Mr.  John  Funk,  a  son  of  the  compiler,  says 
it  was  published  in  1816. 




Grattan,  Geo.  G. :  Born  in  Rockingham,  February  12, 1839; 
lawyer  and  soldier;  judge  of  the  Rockingham  County  Court, 
1885-1904;  brother  of  Charles  and  nephew  of  P.  R.  Grattan; 
pubHshedin  1912  "The  Battle  of  Boonsboro  Gap"  (8vo,  12  pp., 
illust);  address,  Harrisonburg. 

Grattan,  Peachy  R.:  Born  in  Rockingham,  1801;  died  near 
Richmond,  1881;  famous  in  Virginia  history  as  a  statesman 
and  as  the  compiler  of  Grattan's  Reports. 

Hall,  J.  H. :  A  native  of  Rockingham,  and  a  resident  of 
Dayton ;  compiler  of  "Golden  Thoughts  and  Memoirs"  (16mo, 
125  pp.),  published  in  1905  by  the  Ruebush-Kieffer  Company, 
Dayton;  has  in  preparation  a  history  of  popular  Gospel  songs. 
— See  Chapter  18,  for  additional  facts  of  biography. 

Harrison,  Gessner:  Born  in  Harrisonburg,  June  26,  1807; 
died  near  Charlottesville,  April  7,  1862;  physician,  educator, 
and  author: 

1848— "On  Greek  Prepositions." 

1852— '  'Exposition  of  Some  of  the  Laws  of  Latin  Gram- 

Hays,  Daniel:  Born  in  Hampshire  County,  Va.,  now  W. 
Va.,  May  16,  1839;  for  many  years  past  a  resident  of  Rock- 
ingham; postofiice,  Broadway.  Eld.  Hays  has  long  been 
recognized  as  one  of  the  best  writers  in  the  Church  of  the 
Brethren,  and  has  been  a  frequent  contributor  to  the  church 
papers,  especially  the  Gospel  Messenger.  In  1908  he  con- 
tributed chapter  8  to  "Two  Centuries,"  a  volume  of  church 
history;  the  year  before  (1907)  he,  with  Eld.  S.  F.  Sanger, 
published  "The  Olive  Branch"  (12mo,  232  pp.);  and  he  now 
has  ready  for  the  press  '  *A  Silver  Thread  of  History  in  a 
Golden  Cord  of  Doctrine." 

Hays,  Heber  M. :  Born  in  Shenandoah  Co.,  Va.,  May  7, 
1876;  long  a  residentof  Rockingham;  Ph.  D.,  Univ.  of  Chicago, 
1912;  member  of  the  faculty,  Univ.  of  Missouri;  teacher  and 

1908— "On  the  German  Dialect  Spoken  in  the  Valley  of 
Virginia"   (in  Dialect  Notes,  Vol.  3). 

1910  (?) — A  genealogy  of  the  John  Myers  Family  (in 
Penn-Germania) . 



1912— An  edition  of  Hesiod's  Works  and  Days,  with  intro- 
duction, explanatory  notes,  etc.,  comprising  about  200  pages. 

Heatwole,  Cornelius  J.:  Born  at  Dale  Enterprise,  Oct. 
20,  1868;  teacher  and  educator;  published  "History  of  the 
Heatwole  Family"  (Svo,  274  pp.),  in  1907;  a  special  con- 
tributor to  this  volume  (see  Chapter  21). 

Heatwole,  D.  A.:  Published  a  history  of  the  Heatwole 
family  (16mo,  24  pp.),  in  1882.— See  note  7,  page  224. 

Heatwole,  Lewis  J.:  Born  at  Dale  Enterprise,  Dec.  4, 
1852,  eldest  son  of  D.  A.  Heatwole  (p.  224) ;  teacher,  pastor, 
astronomer,  author;  has  been  a  volunteer  weather  observer 
for  30  years;  makes  calculations  annually  for  a  large  number 
of  almanacs,  etc.,  in  the  United  States  and  Canada;  is  a  fre- 
quent contributor  to  periodicals;  he  has  published  the  follow- 
ing books; 

1907- "Moral  Traininginthe  Public  Schools"  (12mo,  109 

1908— "Key  to  the  Almanac"  (12mo,  238  pp.). 

1910— "A  History  of  theMennonite  Conference  of  Vir- 
ginia" (8vo,  117  pp.).— The  last  with  C.  H.  Brunk  and  Chris- 
tian Good. 

At  present  Bishop  Heatwole  is  perfecting  the  "Perpetual 
Calendar,"  which  has  already  attracted  wide  attention  be- 
cause of  its  simplicity,  accuracy,  and  convenience,  and  which 
may  become  epoch-making  in  the  annals  of  time. 

Hoenshel,  Elmer  U. :  Home  address,  Dayton,  Va. ;  several 
years  principal  of  Shenandoah  Collegiate  Institute;  traveler, 
lecturer,  and  author: 

1909— "My  Three  Days  in  Gilead"  (16mo,  85  pp.). 

1910- "By  The  Overflowing  Nile"  (16mo,  133  pp.). 

1912— "The  Crimson  Trail"  (12mo,  141  pp.). 

Hoenshel,  George  W. ;  Born  in  Pennsylvania,  1858;  died 
at  Reliance,  Va.,  1896;  at  Harrisonburg,  1887-1890;  in  1888 
published  "Education of  Girls."  In  1900 Mrs.  Hoenshel  pub- 
lished his  "X-Talksand  Other  Addresses"  (16mo,  149  pp.)  at 
New  Market,  Va. 

Hott,  George  P.:  Residence,  Dayton;  clergyman,  educa- 

— 323  - 


tor,  author;  a  frequent  contributor  to  magazines,  and  a 
writer  of  a  number  of  excellent  hymns;  author  of  "Christ 
the  Teacher"  (12mo,  138  pp.),  1900. 

Jeifries,  Thomas  Fayette:  Known  as  "Crippled  Fayette" 
and  "Roaming  Invalid. "  His  home  was  at  or  near  Keezle- 
town,  but  he  spent  most  of  his  time  traveling,  selling  his 
writings,  showing  stereoscopic  views,  etc.  He  was  a  fre- 
quent contributor  of  travel  sketches  (from  many  different 
States)  to  the  Register,  the  Old  Commonwealth,  etc.,  during 
the  60's  and  70's— perhaps  during  the  80's  also.  He  died  in 
Georgia  15  or  20  years  ago.     He  published  at  least  two  books: 

1856- "Nine  Years  in  Bed"  (16mo,  72  pp.);  printed  by 
Jos.  Funk  &  Sons,  Mountain  Valley. 

"Invalid's  Offering"  (16mo,  150  pp.);  date  and  place 

of  publication  not  known. 

These  books  contain  interesting  notes  of  travel. 

Johnston,  James  C. :  Educator  and  writer;  residence, 
Harrisonburg;  contributor  to  periodicals,  and  editor  of  classics 
for  school  use. 

Kemper,  Charles  Edward:  Born  near  Cross  Keys,  June 
5,  1859,  son  of  Edward  S.  and  Susan  Craig  Kemper;  gradu- 
ated in  law  at  Washington  and  Lee,  1882;  practiced  10  years 
in  Staunton;  in  1893  appointed  Assistant  and  Chief  Clerk  in 
the  office  of  the  Supervising  Architect,  U.  S.  Treasury  Dept. ; 
in  1894  appointed  chief  of  this  office,  holding  the  position  till 
March,  1911,  when  he  resigned  on  account  of  poor  health;  on 
July  16,  1912,  re-entered  the  service,  and,  by  special  designa- 
tion of  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  placed  on  the  Board  of 
Award,  to  award  all  contracts  for  the  construction  of  public 
buildings.  During  his  service  in  the  above  department,  Mr. 
Kemper  has  been  directly  connected  with  the  erection  of  post- 
offices,  courthouses,  custom  houses,  and  marine  hospitals  for 
the  United  States,  costing  in  the  aggregate  more  than  $160,- 
000,000;  and  served  on  the  U.  S.  Boards  of  Management  for 
the  expositions  held  at  Atlanta,  Nashville,  and  Omaha.  He 
was  a  contributor  to  Boogher's  "Gleanings  of  Virginia  His- 



tory"  (Washington.  1903);  and  edited,  with  valuable  notes, 
the  following: 

"The  Record  of  Peaked  Mountain  Church"  (William  and 
Mary  College  Quarterly,  Vol.  14). — See  pages  61-63,  above. 

"Moravian  Diaries  of  Travel  through  Virginia"  (Virginia 
Magazine  of  History  and  Biography,  Vols.  11  and  12).— See 
pages  45-51,  above. 

"The  Early  Westward  Movement  of  Virginia"  (Va.  Mag., 
Vol.  13).— See  pages  35,  36,  above. 

In  addition,  he  has  frequently  written  articles  of  special 
historical  interest  and  value. 

Kieffer,  Aldine  S.  (1840-1904) :  musician  and  poet;  pub- 
Hshed  "Hours  of  Fancy,  or  Vigil  and  Vision"  (16mo,  237  pp. ) 
at  Dayton  in  1881. — See  next  chapter  for  a  more  extended 

Kieffer,  H.  Prime:  Born  at  Singer's  Glen,  July  23,  1880, 
son  of  Rollin  and  Jennie  Stinespring  Kieffer;  nephew  of 
Aldine  S. ;  educated  in  Lafayette,  Indiana,  high-school  and 
Purdue  University;  contributor  to  leading  magazines;  traveled 
in  Canal  Zone  and  Europe  as  special  correspondent  for  N.  Y. 
papers;  residence,  New  York. 

Langhorne,  Mrs.  Orra  Gray:  Born  in  Harrisonburg, 
daughter  of  Col.  A.  S.  Gray;  lived  in  Lynchburg;  wrote  sev- 
eral small  volumes,  and  was  a  contributor  to  high-class  peri- 

Lilly,  Malcolm  G. :  Well  known  as  a  teacher  at  Clover  Hill 
and  other  places  in  Rockingham;  occasional  writer  of  verse; 
has  in  preparation  a  volume  on  U.  S.  history  and  teaching  de- 

Long,  Isaac  S. :  Born  near  Port  Republic,  May  13,  1875; 
since  1903  a  missionary  in  India ;'present  address,  Pimpalner; 
lecturer  and  writer  on  subjects  relating  to  India. 

Long,  Mrs.  Isaac  S. :  Born  near  Scott's  Ford,  Rocking- 
ham County;  since  1903  a  missionary  in  India;  writer  on  India, 
Babylonia,  etc. 

Mauzy,  Richard :  Born  at  McGaheysville,  June  17,  1824. 
son  of  Col.  Jos.  Mauzy;  editor  and  journalist;  from  1860  to 



1895  was  owner  and  editor  of  the  Staunton  Spectator;  in  1911 
he  published  a  history  (8vo,  127  pp. )  of  the  Mauzy  and  Kis- 
ling  families  (printed  at  Harrisonburg,  bound  at  Dayton); 
he  is  a  special  contributor  to  this  volume  (see  pp.  194, 195,  etc) . 
Present  address,  McGaheysville. 

Myers,  Weldon  Thomas:  Born  at  Broadway,  Oct.  25, 1879; 
Ph.  D.,  Univ.  of  Va.,  1912;  adjunct  professor,  English  Liter- 
ature, U.  Va. ;  occasional  writer  of  prose  and  verse. 

1905 — Two  chapters  in  "Bridgewater  College,  Past  and 

1908-"Aldine  S.  Kieffer,  the  Valley  Poet,  and  His 
Work"  (in  Musical  Million,  August). 

1909 — An  article  on  Amelia  B.  Welby,  in  the  "Library  of 
Southern  Literature." 

1912 — "The  Relations  of  Latin  and  English  as  Living 
Languages  in  England  during  the  Age  of  Milton." 

Neff,  John  H. :  Born  near  Mt.  Jackson,  Va.,  1842;  mar- 
ried Miss  Brownie  Morrison,  Nov.  1,  1883;  died  at  Charlottes- 
ville, March  18,  1912;  for  many  years  a  prominent  physician 
of  Harrisonburg  and  Virginia;  wrote  "Typhoid  Fever," 
pubhshed  by  Va.  Med.  Soc,  1893;  "The  Proper  Mode  and 
Place  for  Inflicting  the  Death  Penalty,"  pubhshed  by  Vir- 
ginia Board  of  Health,  1901. 

O'Ferrall,  Chas.  T.  (See  chapter  XIX  for  sketch) :  Author 
of  '  'Forty  Years  of  Active  Service, "  a  volume  of  367  8vo  pages, 
published  by  Neales  in  1904. 

Palmer,  Olin  Austin:  Of  Port  Republic,  printer  and 

1912— "At  the  Mercy  of  Fate"  (8vo,  210  pp.);  a  tale  of 
the  Shenandoah  Valley;  printed  by  Mr.  Palmer  at  Port  Re- 

1912 — "The  Mystery  of  Chesney  Hall";  in  preparation. 

Paul,  Mrs.  K.  S. :  Miss  Katherine  Green,  of  Front  Poyal, 
Va.,  married  Hon.  John  Paul,  of  Rockingham,  in  1872;  com- 
piled a  list  of  about  500  Virginia  writers  in  1893  for  the 
World's  Fair;  was  a  member  of  the  executive  committee  of 



the  board  of  lady  commissioners;  a  writer  of  both  prose  and 
verse;  address,  Harrisonburg. 

Price,  Wm.  T. :  Clergyman,  editor,  and  author;  born  near 
Marlinton,  W.  Va.  (his  present  home),  July  19, 1830;  from  1869 
to  1885  was  a  citizen  of  Rockingham — pastor  at  New  Erection. 
During  this  period  he  published  the  Young  Virginian  (q.  v. ) ; 
he  also  took  much  interest  in  education  (see  page  302,  above). 
He  has  contributed  extensively  to  periodicals,  and  is  author 

"Memoirs  of  Rev.  John  Pinkerton"  (pastor  of  Mossy 
Creek  Church,  Va.). 

"Memoirs  of  Dr.  J.  H.  Scott"  (of  Beverly,  W.  Va.). 

"History  of  Pocahontas  County." 

"Semicentennial  History  of  Greenbrier  Presbytery." 

"Onto  Grafton."    Etc. 

Richcreek,  W.  A. :  A  resident  of  Bridgewater;  for  many 
years  a  contributor  to  the  press,  local  and  national. 

Rohr,  Wilis.:  Under  pseudonym  "Singlesticks"  wrote 
"The  Mountaineer,"  a  tale  of  the  war,  published  as  a 
continued  story  in  1866  in  the  Old  Commonwealth;  in  1868  was 
associate  editor  of  the  Southern  Musical  Advocate,  in  which 
he  published  "Wishtaneta, "  a  serial,  founded  on  a  legend  of 
the  Joe's  Creek  Valley. 

Roller,  John  Edwin:  Born  nearMt.  Crawford,  1845,  son  of 
Peter  S.  and  Frances  Allebaugh  Roller;  graduate,  Va.  Mili- 
tary Institute,  1863;  soldier,  C.  S.  A.;  member  of  Va.  Senate, 
1869-1873;  appointed  major-general  of  the  3d  division  of  the 
Virginia  militia,  January,  1872;  lawyer,  lecturer,  antiquarian. 
He  has  made  a  collection  of  rare  books,  manuscripts,  etc., 
that  cannot,  perhaps,  be  duplicated  in  America.  Among  his 
published  addresses  are  the  following: 

1900— "The  Reformed  Church  in  Schlatter's  Day." 

1907- Address  before  Neif-Rice  Camp,  U.  C.  V.,  New 
Market,  Va. 

1909— Address  of  welcome,  made  at  Harrisonburg  before 
the  annual  conference  of  the  Church  of  the  Brethren. 

See  page  282  above. 



Roller,  Robt.  Douglas:  Born  in  Rockingham,  near  Mt. 
Crawford;  received  degree  of  D.  D.  from  W.  Va.  University, 
1894;  now  rector  of  St.  John's  Episcopal  Church,  Charleston; 
has  served  in  various  honorable  and  responsible  positions  in 
the  councils  of  the  church;  author: 

"Richardson— De  Priest  Family"  (8vo,  50pp.);  gave  val- 
uable assistance  to  Bishop  Peterkin  in  the  preparation  of  "A 
History  and  Record  of  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church  in  the 
Diocese  of  West  Virginia"  (Svo,  876  pp.,  1902).  Dr.  Roller 
is  a  brother  of  Gen.  John  E.  Roller,  of  Harrisonburg. 

Salyards,  Joseph  (.1808-1885):  Scholar,  teacher,  philoso- 
pher, poet;  writer  of  prose  and  verse;  in  1874  his  chief  work, 
"Idothea;  or.  The  Divine  Image"  (16  mo,  308  pp.),  was  pub- 
lished by  Henkel,  Calvert  &  Co.,  New  Market— See  pages 
288-292,  above. 

Showalter,  William  Joseph:  Journalist  and  author;  born 
near  Dale  Enterprise,  July  10,  1878;  present  address,  Wash- 
ington City.  For  a  number  of  years  Mr.  Showalter  has  been 
one  of  the  best  known  syndicate  writers  of  the  national  cap- 
ital. His  schooling  was  received  at  Bridgewater,  Mt.  Clinton, 
and  other  places  in  Rockingham,  and  his  first  experience  in 
newspaper  work  in  Harrisonburg.  His  great  book,  "The 
American  Government"  (1911),  written  for  F.  J.  Haskin,  is 
attracting  unusual  attention.  His  articles  on  the  Panama  Canal 
are  regarded  as  among  the  best,  if  not  the  best,  published. 
One  appeared  in  the  National  Geographic  Magazine  for  Feb- 
ruary, 1912.  Mr.  Showalter  is  now  publishing  a  large  volume 
on  the  Panama  Canal.  His  reputation  is  becoming  not  only 
national,  but  international. 

Snell,  WalsteinM.:  Born  in  Harrisonburg,  Oct,  7,  1888; 
business  man  and  occasional  author: 

1911— "The  New  Tutor"  (played  in  Harrisonburg;  sold  to 
a  New  York  firm) . 

1912— "The  Artist's  Model"  (played  in  Harrisonburg). 

1912— "The  Freshman's  Prestige"  (in  preparation). 

Strayer,  Joseph  S. :  Born  in  Rockingham,  1853;  died  near 
Port  Republic,  July  25,  1896;  wrote  much,  and  very  well,. 



under  the  name  of  "Wyndham,"  for  the  Rockingam  Register. 

Wartmann,  Henry  T. :  Born  in  Harrisonburg,  Nov.  8, 
1823,  the  son  of  Laurentz  Wartmann;  after  m.ore  than  50 
years  in  the  place  of  his  nativity,  he  moved  to  Citra,  Fla.,  in 
1879,  where  he  served  as  school  trustee,  tax  collector  of 
Marion  County,  etc. ;  he  died  in  Citra,  Febr.  27,  1905.  At 
Harrisonburg  he  was  associated  with  his  brother,  J.  H. 
Wartmann,  in  the  publication  of  the  Rockingham  Register.  For 
twenty  years  (1861-1881),  perhaps  longer,  he  was  a  frequent 
contributor  to  the  Register,  under  the  pseudonym  of  *  'Jona- 
than Sykes  of  Zekelville."  A  really  fine  wit  was  sharpened 
by  a  facile  pen.  His  writings  were  a  feature  of  the  paper. 
More  is  given  concerning  him  in  Chapter  18. 

Wenger,  Joseph  H.:  Born  near  Edom,  Nov.  15,  1835;  now 
a  resident  of  South  English,  Iowa;  author: 

1905— "Descendants  of  Abraham  Beery"  (12mo,  328  pp.). 

1911— "Descendants of  Nicholas  Beery"  (12mo,  496  pp.). 

Winfield,  Miss  Paulina:  Daughter  of  Capt.  John  Q.  Win- 
field  (p.  134);  address,  Broadway;  author  of: 

"With  Washington  in  the  Valley  of  Virginia"  (in  Things 
and  Thoughts,  Winchester). 

1909— "On  the  Primrose  Way"  (in  The  People,  Franklin, 
Pa.,  Jan.). 

1909— "ThelncreduHtyof  Ford's  John"  (in  Pictorial  Re- 
view, N.  Y.,  March). 

1910— "In  Lieu  of  a  Pig"  {in Pictorial  Review,  October). 

1912— "When  Boys  Went  Forth  to  Battle"  (to  appear  in 
Adventure) . 

And  other  pieces  in  prose  and  verse. 

Zigler,  David  H. :  A  native  of  Rockingham,  and  a  resident 
of  Broadway;  published  in  1908  "A  History  of  the  Brethren 
in  Virginia"  (12mo,  278  pp.). 

Bocock,  John  Paul:  Editor  and  poet,  born  at  Harrison- 
burg, 1856,  son  of  Rev.  J.  H.  Bocock.  Educated  for  law, 
but  turned  to  letters;  member  of  staff  of  Philadelphia  Press, 
later  of  N.  Y.  World;  contributed  to  leading  magazines;  died 



1903.     His  wife  issued    his    poems:     "Book    Treasures  of 
Maecenas. ' ' 

B.    A  List  of  Periodicals. 

From  1818  to  1820,  etc. ,  Ananias  Davidson  had  a  printing^ 
establishment  in  Harrisonburg.  In  1818  he  printed  a  second 
edition  of  "The  Mountaineer"  (16mo,  240  pp.);  in  1820  he 
printed  the  "Life  and  Labors  of  Rev.  Benj.  Abbott"  (16  mo, 
292  pp.),  for  James  A.  Dillworth;^  and  it  is  said  that  he  was 
printing  the  "Kentucky  Harmony"  and  other  musical  works 
about  1821.'* 

1822 — Rockingham  Weekly  Register — Harrisonburg;  first 
issue,  Saturday,  July  27;  4  pages,  each  lOJxlT  inches; 
Lawrence  Wartmann,  printer  and  publisher;  Lawrence 
Wartmann  was  still  the  publisher  in  1838;  in  1841  Wart- 
mann, Way,  &  Wartmann  were  the  publishers.  There  were 
86  subscribers  at  the  start;  in  October,  1874,  Jacob  D.  Wil- 
liamson of  Rockingham  had  been  a  subscriber  52  years,  and 
was  the  only  one  of  the  original  subscribers  then  living.  In 
1841  the  size  of  the  paper  was  16x21.  In  1833  the  title  was 
Rockingham  Register;  in  1842,  Rockingham  Register  and  Valley 
Advertiser;  in  1860,  Rockingham  Register  and  Advertiser;  in 
1861  Rockingham  Register  and  Virginia  Advertiser;  in  1862, 
Rockingham  Register  and  Advertiser;  in  1863,  Rockingham. 

In  1861  and  1864  it  was  asserted  that  the  Register  had  a 
larger  circulation  than  any  other  country  paper  in  the  State; 
in  1871  the  number  of  subscribers  was  said  to  be  over  2000. 
In  December,  1864,  the  subscription  price  was  $10;  in  March, 
1865,  $20. 

In  1842  J.  H.  Wartmann  was  publisher;  in  1844,  J.  H, 
Wartmann  &  Brothers;  in  1854,  J.  H.  Wartmann  and  Wm.  G. 
Stevens;  in  1863-4,  J.  H.  Wartmann  &  Co.;  in  1866-7,  J.   H. 

3.  I  am  indebted   to  the  kindness  of  Messrs.  E.  M.  Whitesel  and  Q. 
G.  Kaylor  for  a  loan  of  the  two  books  named. 

4.  See  Rockingham  Register,  Oct  5,  1876. 

— 33(>- 


Wartmann  &  S.  M.  Yost;  in  1867-8,  J.  H.  Wartmann,  Hern 
&  Co. ;  in  January,  1868,  Giles  Devier  entered  the  firm,  suc- 
ceeding Hern  and  Guiheen;  in  October,  1875,  Giles  Devier 
succeeded  J.  H.  Wartmann  &  Co. ;  in  1878  Devier  &  Dechert 
were  proprietors;  in  1883,  Devier  and  John  P.  Kerr;  in  1890, 
Devier  and  A.  H.  Snyder;  in  1900  Snyder  became  sole  owner. 
Since  1903  the  paper  has  been  published  by  the  News-Register 
Co.  In  1895  the  Register  was  said  to  be  the  fifth  newspaper 
in  Virginia  in  age. 

About  1868  Maj.  S.  M.  Yost  was  connected  with  the  St. 
Louis  Times.  In  1897  J.  Harvey  Wartmann  was  living  in  St. 

Adolph  Heller  Snyder,  born  in  Woodstock,  Oct.  22,  1863, 
died  in  Harrisonburg,  January  18,  1910,  shortly  after  his 
election  to  the  Virginia  House  of  Delegates.  He  was  a  gen- 
tleman journalist. 

Giles  Devier  was  born  July  24,  1820,  near  Bridgewater, 
son  of  Allen  Devier;  he  died  at  Harrisonburg,  Sept.  3,  1906, 
one  of  the  best  known  citizens  of  Rockingham. 

Lawrence  Wartmann,  founder  of  the  Register,  had  first 
worked  at  New  Market  with  Ambrose  Henkel— probably 
learned  his  trade  there.  He  was  established  at  Harrisonburg 
as  early  as  1813,  since  in  that  year  he  printed  a  book  con- 
taining a  sermon  by  Rev.  A.  B.  Davidson.-^  In  1849  J.  H. 
Wartmann  &  Bros,  printed  a  16mo  book  of  476  pages,  entitled 
"Sketches  on  a  Tour  Through  the  Northern  and  Eastern 
States,  The  Canadas  &  Nova  Scotia,"  by  J.  C.  Myers,  of  New 
Hope,  Va.     Funks  bound  this  book. 

Mrs.  Carr  gives  the  following  interesting  account  of  the 
early  Register: 

The  next  building  on  the  N.  W.  corner  of  the  Main  street  was  a 
large  log  house.  The  first  newspaper  in  Harrisonburg  was  printed  in 
this  building,  on  the  second  floor  in  the  S.  end.  The  Editor,  Mr.  Wart- 
man,  was  proprietor,  printer,  and  everything  else.  I  often  went  to  look 
at  him.  He  had  a  small  folding  press  on  a  table  in  the  middle  of  the 
room;  in  either  hand  he  held  a  leather  ball,  which  was  used  to  ink  the 

5.  Rockingham  Register,  Feb.  22,  1901. 



type.  Then  he  placed  the  dampened  paper  on  the  type,  and  turning  over 
the  top  of  the  press,  screwed  it  down  tight,  until  the  impression  was 
taken;  removed  the  paper  and  went  on  this  way  until  one  side  of  the 
edition  was  finished;  then  he  set  the  type  for  the  other  side  of  the  paper, 
and  proceeded  in  the  same  way  until  the  whole  edition  was  finished.  On 
Saturday  Harvey,  his  son,  about  ten  years  old,  would  deliver  the  papers 
to  the  subscribers:  I  do  not  think  there  were  more  than  one  hundred. 
New  Years  some  one  would  write  an  address  for  Harvey  to  deliver  to 
the  subscribers,  and  receive  a  small  amount  of  money  from  them.  I 
have  so  often  looked  at  the  patient  old  man,  going  through  his  work  so 
systematically,  and  thought  it  [a  very  grand  thing  to  be  a  newspaper 
publisher.  If  his  spirit  could  visit  a  steam  printing  oflSce  and  see  the 
hundreds  of  thousands  of  papers  turned  out  daily,  it  would  make  his  hair 
stand  on  end. 

1844 — The  Republican — Harrisonburg;  first  issue  about 
June  18;  published  every  Tuesday  morning  by  W.  S.  Ward; 
office,  opposite  Pollock's  Hotel,  Main  St.  (from  No.  6,  Vol.  I, 
July  23,  1844);  4  pages;  in  January,  1847,  Maupin  &  Gilmer 
were  publishers;  seems  to  have  been  running  in  1854. 

1854 — Valley  Democrat — Harrisonburg;  in  the  Register 
of  May  27,  Samuel  T.  Walker  and  Samuel  M.  Sommers  an- 
nounce that  they  will  remove  the  office  of  the  Valley  Democrat 
from  New  Market  to  Harrisonburg  soon;  in  1859  Walker  & 
Bridegame  were  publishing  the  said  paper  at  Harrisonburg. 

Col.  S.  T.  Walker  was  killed  at  Chancellorsville,  May  3, 
1863  (seep.  138). 

1859 — The  Southern  Musical  Advocate  and  Singer's  Friend 
— Mountain  Valley  (Singer's  Glen) ;  monthly  magazine;  first 
issue,  July;  Joseph  Funk  &  Sons,  publishers;  continued  till 
March,  1861;  resumed  for  a  year  or  so  in  1867;  Aldine  S. 
Kieffer  and  Wm.  S.  Rohr  were  editors  in  January,  1868. 

The  Funk  printery  and  bindery  were  busy  from  the  first. 
In  1848  "Sturm's  Reflections,"  an  octavo  of  490  pages,  bound 
in  leather,  was  published.  In  1850  was  bound  the  second 
edition  of  Kercheval's  History  of  the  Valley  of  Virginia.  In 
1853  "Dialogues  of  Devils"  (Vol.  I,  16mo,  336  pp.)  was 
given  to  the  public  by  Andrew  Hess  and  Henry  A.  Showalter, 
through  the  Funk  press.  The  '  'Harmonia  Sacra' '  had  reached 
the  10th  edition  by  1860;  in  1872  the  firm  brought  out  the  6th 



edition  of  the  Mennonite  Hymn  Book,  partly  in  German. 
These  random  instances  will  indicate  the  scope  and  volume  of 
the  work  done  by  the  Funks  as  printers  and  binders. 

1862 — The  Stonewall— Harrisonburg;  4-page  weekly;  No. 
4,  Vol.  I,  was  dated  January  15,  1863;  Saml.  J.  Price  was 
editor  and  proprietor;  it  was  not  long  continued;  the  editor, 
Mr.  Price,  was  later  in  charge  of  the  Page  Valley  Courier, 
Luray,  Va. 

1865— The  Old  Commonwealth — Harrisonburg;  4-page 
weekly;  first  issued  about  Oct.  10;  Cushen  &  Sheiry  publish- 
ers and  proprietors  in  October,  1866;  in  1870  Capt.  John  Gate- 
wood  and  Capt.  Ran  D.  Cushen  were  editors;  in  the  fall  of 
1871  W.  H.  Effinger  and  W.  S.  Lurty  took  the  place  of  Gate- 
wood,  being  associated  with  Cushen;  about  Jan.  1,  1872, 
Effinger  became  sole  editor;  from  January  to  May,  1873,  J. 
N.  Liggett  was  editor;  about  May  1  (1873)  Chas.  H.  Vander- 
ford  became  owner  and  editor;  Vanderford  sold  to  J.  K. 
Smith  and  P.  B.  Dulaney,  May,  1878;  Smith  was  still  editor 
in  November,  1883;  in  1884  the  paper  was  sold  at  public 

1866 — The  American  Union — Harrisonburg;  Geo.  K.  Gil- 
mer, publisher;  Smith  &  Gatewood  reported  proprietors  in 

Dr.  Geo.  K.  Gilmer  was  appointed  P.  M.  of  Richmond  in 

1869 — The  Musical  Million— Dayton;  monthly  magazine, 
devoted  to  music  and  literature;  published  at  Singer's  Glen, 
by  Ruebush,  Kieffer  &  Co.,  till  1878;  then  at  Dayton;  present 
editor,  Joe  K.  Ruebush,  of  the  Ruebush-Kieffer  Co. ;  probably 
the  oldest  music  journal  in  America. — Ephraim  Ruebush,  one 
of  the  original  firm  of  Ruebush,  Kieffer  &  Co. ,  was  born  near 
Church ville,  Augusta  Co.,  Va.,  Sept.  26,  1833,  the  son  of 
John  and  Mary  Huffman  Ruebush;  he  married  at  Singer's 
Glen,  March  28,  1861,  Virginia  Kieffer,  a  granddaughter  of 

6.  Thanks  are  due  to  Hon.  Geo.  E.  Sipe  for   lending  files  of  the  Old 



Joseph  Funk,  and  a  sister  of  Aldine  S.  Kieffer,  the  poet. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ruebush  have  been  living  at  Dayton  since  1878. 
A  sketch  of  Aldine  Kieffer,  another  member  of  the  firm 
named  above,  will  be  found  in  Chapter  18. 

1869 — Harrisonburg  Enterprise;  5-column,  4-page  weekly; 
Gideon  Sheiry,  propr. ;  '  'Published  every  Friday  morning  . 
.  .  Office  in  Paul's  Building,  over  C.  F.  Dutrow's  store." 
-From  No.  43,  Vol.  4,  Nov.  15,  1872.  Last  issue  about  Nov.  30, 
1872.  For  some  time,  beginning  about  September  15,  1870,  the 
Enterprise  was  semi-weekly,  Geo.  S.  Null  and  John  F.  Sheiry 
being  associated  at  different  times  with  G.  Sheiry;  publica- 
tion stopped  a  month  by  fire  of  Dec.  25,  1870. 

"Rose  Thornton,"  a  camp  novelette,  was  pubhshed  by 
Harry  &  Sheiry,  Harrisonburg,  in  1864. 

1872— The  Lily  of  the  Valley — Harrisonburg;  a  32-page 
monthly  magazine,  historical,  literary,  agricultural;  first  issue, 
January;  G.  Sheiry  &Co.,  publishers;  still  running  in  August. 

1872 — The  Rural  Virginian — Harrisonburg;  monthly;  J.  S. 
Trout,  editor;  Sheiry,  publisher.  May  issue  noticed  in  Register 
of  May  10. 

1874 — The  Young  Virginian — Mt.  Clinton;  8-page  monthly; 
first  issue,  January;  editor  W.  T.  Price;  printed  by  Ruebush, 
Kieffer  &  Co.,  Singer's  Glen;  published  3  years. — Contained 
numerous  pieces  of  local  interest,  especially  sketches  of  Pres- 
byterian churches  in  northern  Virginia. 

1875— The  Ray  of  Hope — Harrisonburg;  a  semi-monthly, 
issued  first  Jan.  1;  a  temperance  paper;  S.  J.  Price  and  W.  J. 
Points,  editors. 

1877-The  Faithful  Word— Mt.  Clinton;  8-page  monthly; 
first  issue,  January;  W.  T.  Price,  editor;  Ruebush,  Kieffer  & 
Co.,  Singer's  Glen,  printers. 

-  1878— Spirit  of  the  Valley — Harrisonburg;  weekly;  first 
issue  in  September;  Daniel  Dechert  &  Son,  publishers;  pur- 
chased by  D.  S.  Lewis,  1886;  converted  into  the  Daily  Times, 
1905.— Daniel  Sheffey  Lewis  was  born  atlLynnwood,  Oct.  17, 
1843;  died  at  Clifton  Forge,  Oct.  3,  1912;  lawyer  and  journal- 



ist;  son  of  Sen.  John  F.  Lewis. — See  page  127  above,  and 
Chapter  XIX,  following. 

1878 — The  Bridgewater  Enterprise;  4  pages;  No.  1,  Vol. 
I,  Sept.  11;^  E.  Smith  Dinkle  propr.;Dr.  T.  H.  B.  Brown, 
editor;  J.  E.  Braithwaite,  asso.  ed.  and  bus.  mgr.  In  1879 
Lambert  &  Burwell  ran  the  paper  a  short  time,  then  John  B. 
F.  Armstrong  succeeded,  changing  the  name  to  the  Journal, 
Sept.  4,  1879.8 

1879 — The  Star — Bridgewater;  "a  diminutive  though  spicy 
sheet";  first  issue,  July  4;  J.  B.  Burwell,  publisher. 

1879 — The  Bridgewater  Journal;  succeeds  Bridgewater 
Enterprise,  Sept.  4;  E.  S.  Dinkle,  propr.,  J.  B.  F.  Armstrong, 
editor.  In  September,  1880,  Armstrong,  who  was  a  young 
lawyer,  died;  in  October  (1880)  G.  T.  Barbee  purchased  the 
Journal,  and  published  it  till  Nov.  30,  1883;  then  G.  R.  Berlin 
published  it  till  Nov.  30,  1885. 

1880  —  Rockingham  Advertiser — Bridgewater;  semi- 
monthly; G.  R.  Berlin,  publisher.  Register  announced  re- 
ceipt of  first  number,  July  8, 

1881 — The  Valley  Herald — Bridgewater;  weekly;  pub- 
lished during  June,  July,  August,  by  G.  R.  Berlin. 

1881 — The  Pearl  Press — Mt.  Crawford;  first  issue,  July; 
Pearl  Press  Pub.  Co. 

1881 — The  Watchful  Pilgrim — Dale  Enterprise;  a  religious 
monthly;  first  issue,  August;  Abraham  Blosser  printer  and 
publisher;  24  pages  and  cover  till  December;  16  pages  from 
December  (1881)  till  April,  1883;  after  this,  8  pages,  twice  a 
month;  last  number  seen,  Dec.  15,  1886.  Abram  Blosser  did 
job  printing,  also;  he  had  the  press  that  was  set  up  by  Jos. 
Funk  &  Sons,  at  Mountain  Valley,  in  1847.  His  paper  cir- 
culated in  Virginia,  Pennsylvania,  Ohio,  Indiana,  Kansas,  and 

7.  Thanks  are   due  Mr.  Paul  Miller,  Bridgewater,   for  a  loan  of  the 
above  paper. 

8.  Information  by  Mr.  S.  G.  Dinkle,  Bridgewater. 

9-  Special  acknowledgement  is  due  Mr.  Noah  Blosser  and  Rev.  L.  J. 
Heatwole,  Dale  Enterprise,  for  lending  files  of  the  Watchful  Pilgrim. 



1882— Virginia  Post— Harrisonburg;  published  by  R.  B. 
and  M.  L.  Robinson  (colored) ;  moved  to  Alexandria. 

1883— The  People— Harrisonburg;  4-page  weekly;  first 
issue,  Dec.  8;  A.  P.  Funkhouser  and  C.  I.  B.  Brane,  editors; 
absorbed  by  the  State  Republican,  1886. 

1884— The  Postal  Card— Mt.  Crawford;  a  semi-monthly, 
published  by  W.  H.  Foley;  first  issue  in  March. 

1885— Farm  and  Home— Harrisonburg;  8-page  weekly; 
first  issued  in  January;  J.  K.  Smith,  editor  and  propr. ;  sold 
to  Thomas  &  Yancey,  1886.— Jos.  K.  Smith,  who  had  also  been 
associated  with  the  Register,  died  at  Winchester,  Va.,  in 
February,  1905. 

1885— The  Sentinel— Harrisonburg;  H.  M.  Roudabush, 
editor;  announced  in  September. 

1886— Our  Monthly— Bridge  water;  G.  R.  Berlin,  pub- 
lisher;  issued  12  months. 

1886— The  Independent — Port  Republic;  48-column  weekly 
newspaper,  published  by  Holsinger  &  Bowman. 

1886— The  State  Republican— Harrisonburg;  founded  by 
A.  P.  Funkhouser;  W.  C.  Elam,  editor;  1891,  Funkhouser  & 
Snavely,  publishers;  1893,  leased  to  Hughes  &  Hinde;  1894, 
Funkhouser  resumed  management;  in  June,  1899,  Saml.  J. 
Price,  editor,  died;  W.  W.  Roller  (1856-1897)  was  some  time 
connected  with  the  paper  as  associate  editor,  etc. 

1887— People's  Educational  Quarterly— Dayton;  published 
by  Fries  &  Ruebush. 

1888— The  Broadway  Enterprise;  first  issued  in  January; 
E.  D.  Root  was  publisher  in  1892  and  1893— perhaps  from  the 
beginning;  purchased  in  November,  1893,  by  I.  C.  Wade;  dis- 
continued, probably  in  December,  1894. 

1890— The  Broadway  News;  Geo.  L.  Jameson  and  John 
S.  Fravel,  publishers;  later  Kline  &  Kline  were  publishers; 
discontinued  in  December,  1893— sold  to  I.  C.  Wade,  editor  of 
the  Broadway  Enterprise. 

1890— Harrisonburg  Progress;  a  monthly. 

1891— The  Elkton  Index;  first  issued  in  January;  contin- 
ued at  least  till  June,  1892. 



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ofmrab-    outMighbor.  inactBnap«lheaquart.twl«»ii>fconw 
Mr    Stcvrn**     hio  ai  we  would   wiah  he   ahould  do  ur'o  «>  -  And  t9 
In  TOT  behalf  1  „„^ 


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in  aToiding  all  lTrv);utanij 
^j  I  wb^ch  iDi|>ht  impair  oor  hcvliiri  or 
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and  juH  to  oar  coaatry  ;  Wo  w%  rvquucd  re  hoM  out 
the  baadof  charity  to  tbc  «^a  vorld.  but  lo  a  ,->anico- 
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ill  uur  social  dutiea  la  tliero'any  ihtD(  iruonwotvnC 
with  (f)c  aptrit  of  cbrlatlanity  io  llua  t  On  ibr  coiitary, 
doca  It  ckA  breathe  •  reXi|toa  aa  pvn  and  u'rlrgled  aM 
IbeoM  UOKbt  by  oar  bfcvacd  Rr4e«^..err  Ourcero* 
ntoniea,  that  to  fbo  world  aay  ponibly  appear  n  Ir  «i«| 
fvdicnlou,  at|  coBvty  tome  important  ksaou  af  m<'<  sUf. 
Klbl»|[  saperffsoMa  ta  admitted  mtoiKem.  The  •<  Ttt 
Ifan  foraa  tbo  aacrvl  chain  b;  BMch  *r  are  aei^u  ta 
eacboiber  haadeacendcd  M  u*  (bo  'n  tt-.i)  nnimp-.k^ 

iwppUcd   wiib   adticc    and     Mcdictne 

Oldest  Known  copy  of  Rockingham  Register 
Front  page 

(See  pages  330-332) 


1891— The  Shendun  News;  first  heard  of  in  February, 
1891;  the  first  editor  and  manager,  L.  A.  Frazier,  was  suc- 
ceeded as  editor  by  J.  A.  Phillips,  October,  1891;  in  June, 
1892,  it  was  changed  from  a  weekly  to  a  semi-monthly;  in 
December,  1892,  Mr.  Coles  was  editor;  ordered  discontinued 
by  directors,  March,  1893. 

1891— The  Monthly  Call— Bridgewater;  8- pages;  started 
in  April  by  Rev.  A.  R.  Thompson. 

1891 — Harrisonburg  Free  Press;  weekly;  H.  B.  Miller, 
publisher,  succeeds  Miller  &  Snavely  March,  1897;  W.  I.  Good 
was  business  manager  in  1900;  the  Free  Press  was  made  a 
daily  about  March  20,  1904.  It  has  not  been  published  for 
several  years  past. 

1893— The  Elkton  News;  ran  at  least  from  August,  1893, 
till  January,  1894. 

1894— The  Bridgewater  Herald;  first  issue,  Feb.  2;  G.  R. 
Berhn,  publisher;  last  issue,  Sept.  15,  1906. —Mr.  Berlin  is  a 
skilled  job  printer,  as  well  as  a  publisher. 

1895 — The  Evening  Glance — Harrisonburg;  4-column  af- 
ternoon daily;  first  issue,  June  17;  last,  Jan.  8,  1896;  Weis- 
hampel  &  Hinde,  publishers. 

1895— The  Virginia  Echo — Broadway;  W.   Grim,  editor. 

1896 — Philomathean  Monthly — Bridgewater;  first  issue, 
May;  published  by  the  literary  societies  of  Bridgewater  Col- 
lege; issued  every  month  the  first  three  years,  8  or  9  times  a 
year  since  1899. 

1896— The  Broadway  Echo;  Mr.  Grim,  publisher. 

1898 — Harrisonburg    Daily    News;    founded  by  R.    B, 
Smythe,  the  present  manager;  first  called  the  Evening  News; 
editor,  1903-10,   A.   H.  Snyder;    editor,    1910-11,  James    C 
Johnston;  present  editor,  J.  H.  Robertson. 

1898 — Our  Assistant— Mt.  Crawford;  4-page  monthly; 
Rev.  A.  D.  Wolfinger,  publisher;  ran  at  least  till  May,  1899. 

1898 — The  Illuminator — Dayton;  8-page  quarterly,  edited 
by  E.  U.  Hoenshel  and  E.  T.  Hildebrand. 

1899— College  Life— Bridgewater;  educational  quarterly; 
published  by  the  faculty  of  Bridgewater  College. 



1905 — Harrisonburg  Daily  Times;  founded  by  D.  S.  Lewis r 
present  publishers,  Rickard  &  Voorhees;  editor,  D.S.  Lewis,  Jr. 

1906— Old  Dominion  Home — Dayton;  published  for  a  few 
months  by  Taylor  &  Kieffer. 

1907— The  National  Poultry  Journal  —  Harrisonburg; 
monthly;  founded  about  1907,  by  C.  0.  Hen  ton;  continued  till 
1911,  E.  V.  Crist,  R.  B.  Smythe,  R.  C.  Hughes,  and  Chas. 
Turner  having  successive  parts  in  the  enterprise;  office  of 
issue,  Elkton. 

1909— Our  Mountain  Work— Elkton;  4-page  monthly;  F. 
W.  Neve  and  J.  R.  Ellis,  publishers;  in  fall  of  1911  moved  to 

1911— The  Sunday-School  News— Elkton;  G.  M.  Keezel, 

1911 — Rockingham  Daily  Record — Harrisonburg;  H.  W. 
Bertram  and  C.  C.  Herring,  editors;  Geo.  W.  Berry,  business 


It  has  been  asserted  (see  page  183)  that  there  are  prob- 
ably more  people,  old  and  young,  in  Rockingham  who  can 
sing,  and  who  love  music,  than  in  any  other  section  with  the 
same  population  in  America,  This  assertion  is,  of  course, 
beyond  either  proof  or  disproof,  but  it  is  made  advisedly, 
and  is  believed  to  be  warranted  by  known  facts.  For  ex- 
ample, a  year  or  two  ago  a  dozen  competent  judges  weBe  asked 
to  vote  for  the  twelve  leading  singers  and  musicians  of  Rock- 
ingham, natives  or  long  residents  of  the  county,  and  to  name 
others  deemed  worthy  of  special  mention.  In  all,  about  80 
different  men  and  women  were  named.  So  many  teachers 
and  leaders  of  song  would  not  be  found  apart  from  a  large 
number  of  learners  and  lovers  of  song.  Most  of  the  people 
of  the  county  are  church-goers,  and  nearly  every  member  of 
every  congregation  sings.  Singing  is  a  common  pastime  in 
many  homes,  and  singing  classes  are  frequently  conducted 
in  the  churches  as  well  as  in  the  schools.  All-day  singings  at 
churches  are  not  uncommon.  Singing  books  were  printed  by 
Lawrence  Wartmann  and  Ananias  Davisson  a  century  ago; 
Joseph  Funk  and  Sons  printed  tens  of  thousands  of  music 
books  and  music  journals  from  1832  to  1878;  and  since  that 
time  the  Ruebush-Kieffer  Company  have  sent  out  hundreds 
of  thousands  more.  The  output  to-day  is  greater  than  ever. 
The  music  departments  of  Shenandoah  Collegiate  Institute  and 
Bridgewater  College  have  attracted  many  students  for  many 
years;  the  Funk  school  at  Singer's  Glen  was  widely  known  of 
old;  the  new  State  Normal  School  at  Harrisonburg  has  large 
classes  in  music;  and  occasionally,  for  the  past  forty  years  or 
more,  summer  normals  for  music  teachers  have  been  held  in 
and  near  the  county.  For  example,  in  the  early  70 's,  Chester  G. 


Allen,  P.  J.  Merges,  B.  C.  Unseld  and  others  held  several  ses- 
sions of  a  music  normal  at  New  Market;  and  from  1894  to 
1896  G.  B.  Holsinger,  B.  C.  Unseld  and  others  held  summer 
music  schools  at  Bridgewater.  For  three-quarters  of  a  cen- 
tury Joseph  Funk,  his  sons,  his  grandsons,  and  their  pupils 
went  all  over  Rockingham  and  neighboring  counties  teaching 
the  art  of  song. 

While  the  music  cultivated  in  Rockingham  has  been  mostly 
church  music  in  its  simpler  forms,  classical  forms  of  music 
and  famous  musicians  are  not,  and  have  not  been,  unknown. 
Within  the  writer's  own  recollection  Sidney  Lanier,  Edward 
Remenyi,  Creatore  and  his  band,  and  the  Conradis  have 
delighted  Rockingham  audiences.  A  few  famous  songs  have 
also  had  their  genesis  in  Rockingham;  '  'Twilight  is  Falling, ' ' 
by  Kieffer  and  Unseld,  and  "The  Everlasting  Arms,"  by 
Hoffman  and  Showalter,  have  probably  been  sung  around  the 

In  November,  1867,  a  great  musical  convention  was  held 
in  Harrisonburg,  in  Rev.  T.  D.  Bell's  (Presbyterian)  church. 
The  session  continued  for  four  days;  122  delegates  from  Har- 
risonburg, Dayton,  McGaheysville,  Bridgewater,  New  Erec- 
tion, Singer's  Glen,  Cross  Keys,  Union  church,  and  Edom,  in 
Rockingham,  and  from  Mossy  Creek,  Parnassus,  Augusta 
church,  and  Bethel  church,  in  Augusta  County,  were  present. 
A  constitution  was  adopted  and  a  permanent  organization 
effected.  Rev.  T.  D.  Bell  was  elected  president;  Rev.  T.  U. 
Dudley,  Maj.  J.  H.  Irvine,  Emmet  Guy,  and  Capt.  J.  P.  Rals- 
ton, vice-presidents;  H.  T.  Wartmann,  secretary;  and  G. 
Fred  Mayhew,  treasurer.  Subsequent  meetings  of  the  organ- 
ization, which  was  known  as  the  Valley  Musical  Associ- 
ation, were  held  at  Mossy  Creek  (1868),  Harrisonburg  (1869), 
Bethel  church  (1870),  and  Tinkling  Springs  (1872).  W.  H. 
Evans  was  director  of  the  chorus  in  1869,  etc.  It  may  be  of 
interest  to  state  in  this  connection  that  an  oratorio  society  has 
just  been  organized  in  Harrisonburg,  with  Miss  Julia  Starr 
Preston  and  Rabbi  Schvanenfeld  as  directors. 

The  twelve  singers  and  composers  of  Rockingham  receiv- 

— 340— 



ing  the  highest  number  of  votes  in  the  election  referred  to 
above  were  the  following: 

J.  M.  Bowman.  G.  B.  Holsinger. 

J.  D.  Brunk.  A.  S.  Kieffer. 

Joseph  Funk.  J.  H.  Ruebush. 

Timothy  Funk.  W.  H.  Ruebush. 

J.  H.  Hall.  A.  J.  Showalter. 

E.  T.  Hildebrand.  J.  Henry  Showalter. 

Four  are  dead,  eight  are  living;  and,  of  the  latter,  four 
are  now  residents  of  the  county. 

Bowman,  John  Michael:  Born  near  Harrisonburg,  June 
11,  1859;  at  the  age  of  18  attended  the  music  normal  of  Unseld 
and  Merges  at  New  Market;  has  since  studied  with  a  number 
of  America's  foremost  teachers.  Every  year  he  conducts  a 
number  of  music  normals  in  the  Southern  States.  He  is  a 
skilled  tuner  of  pianos;  has  written  a  number  of  popular  pieces 
of  music;  and  is  author,  or  associate  author,  of  several  books 
of  hymns,  songs,  and  choruses.     Residence,  Harrisonburg. 

Brunk,  John  David:  Born  near  Harrisonburg,  March  13, 
1872,  a  great-grandson  of  Peter  Burkholder  (see  p.  318) ;  has 
had  training  in  the  New  England  Conservatory  of  Music,  and 
in  other  high-class  schools;  he  is  a  teacher  and  composer  of 
ability,  and  possesses  unusual  skill  in  directing  choruses;  he  has 
compiled  and  edited  several  excellent  books;  for  the  past  six 
years  or  more  he  has  been  director  of  music  in  Goshen  Col- 
lege, Indiana. 

Funk,  Joseph:  A  native  of  Pensylvania,  but  an  almost 
life-long  resident  of  Rockingham.  On  December  25,  1804, 
he  married  Elizabeth  Rhodes:  children,  Jonathan  (1806-1874), 
Henry  (1807-1813),  Elizabeth  (1808-1870),  Susan  (1810-1815), 
Barbara  (1812-1850);  on  Sept.  6,   1814,  he  married  Rachel 

Britton:    children,  Mary   (1815-1888),   Joseph   (1816 ?), 

David  (1818-1870),  Samuel  (1819 ),  Hannah  (1821 ?), 

John  (1822 ),  Timothy  (1824-1909),  Solomon  (1825-1880), 

Benjamin  (1829-1909). 

For  46  years  Joseph  Funk  was  a  teacher  of  music,  a 
trainer  of  music  teachers,  and  a  publisher  of  music  books  and 



periodicals.  By  1858  he  and  his  sons,  particularly  Timothy, 
had  taught  music  classes  in  at  least  10  counties  of  Virginia, 
besides  Rockingham;  records  show  that  by  the  same  year  his 
books  had  been  sold  and  used  in  37  counties  and  cities  of  Vir- 
ginia, as  well  as  in  Georgia,  Illinois,  Ohio,  Maryland,  North 
Carolina,  Indiana,  Pennsylvania,  Iowa,  Missouri,  and  Canada 
West.  By  the  70 's,  between  75,000  and  100,000  copies  of 
his  famous  book,  "Harmonia  Sacra, "  had  been  sold.  It  is  still 
used  in  old-folks'  all-day  singings  in  Rockingham  and  adja- 
cent sections. 

One  of  the  12  men  now  under  review  (Timothy  Funk) 
was  Joseph  Funk's  son;  one  (A.  S.  Kieffer)  was  his  grandson; 
two  (J.  H.  and  W.  H.  Ruebush)  are  his  great-grandsons;  two 
(A.  J.  and  J.  H.  Showalter)  are  great-grandsons  of  his  sister 
Elizabeth;  others  of  the  12  are  related  to  his  family,  and  all 
have  come  more  or  less  directly  under  his  influence.  He  may, 
with  justice,  be  called  the  father  of  song  in  Northern  Virginia; 
he  more  than  any  other  man,  has  made  Rockingham  a  land 
of  singers,  and  he  was  himself  one  of  her  greatest  citizens.  ^ 

Funk,  Timothy:  Born  at  Singers  Glen,  Jan.  29, 1824;  died 
at  the  same  place  in  1909;  after  his  father,  the  most  famous 
itinerant  teacher  of  singing  in  the  Valley  of  Virginia.  For 
more  than  50  years  he  was  known  in  this  capacity,  not  only 
in  Rockingham,  but  far  beyond  her  borders.  He  was  also, 
for  many  years,  a  minister  of  the  Gospel. 

Hall,  Jacob  H. :  A  native  of  Rockingham,  and  one  of  the 
best  known  conductors  of  music  institutes  in  the  South, 
having  worked  in  no  less  than  20  different  States.  He 
studied  under  Geo.  F.  Root  and  other  famous  teachers,  and 
has  been  a  student  in  Dana's  Conservatory  and  other  high- 
grade  schools.  He  has  written  dozens  of  excellent  pieces, 
and  has  been  an  editor  of  many  popular  music  books.  His 
address  is  Dayton. — See  page  322  above. 

Hildebrand,  Ephraim  Timothy:  Born  near  Greenmount, 

1-  See  pages  293,294,  above;  see  also  "Joseph  Funk,  Father  of  Song 
in  Northern  Virginia"  (4to,  12pp. ),  published  by  The  Ruebush-Kieffer 
Co.,  Dayton,  Va. 


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Jan.  18, 1866;  teacher,  composer,  editor,  publisher,  and  singer; 
has  had  training  in  New  York  Vocal  Institute,  the  Metro- 
politan Conservatory,  and  other  schools;  was  a  member  of  the 
New  York  Oratorio  Society,  under  the  direction  of  Frank 
Damrousche;  has  written  many  excellent  pieces,  sacred  and 
secular,  among  the  latter  being  "The  Hills  of  Tennessee." 
Some  of  the  popular  books  he  has  helped  to  edit  are  *  'Gems 
of  Gladness,"  "Crowning  Day, "  and  "Onward  and  Upward. " 
Address,  Roanoke,  Va. 

Holsinger,  George  Blackburn:  Born  in  Bedford  County, 
Pa.,  May  10,  1857;  died  in  Illinois,  November,  1908.  From 
1882  to  1898  Prof.  Holsinger  was  director  of  music  in 
Bridgewater  College;  from  the  latter  year  till  his  death  he 
was  music  editor  for  the  Church  of  the  Brethren,  but  con- 
tinued to  have  his  home  at  Bridgewater.  He  was  a  pleasing 
singer  and  versatile  composer,  his  pieces  having  been  used  in 
about  100  different  publications.  "Psalms  and  Hymns,"  one 
of  the  numerous  books  of  which  he  was  associate  editor,  had 
reached  a  sale  of  over  200,000  in  1905.  His  wife,  who  survives 
him,  was  Miss  Sallie  Kagey. 

Kieffer,  Aldine  Silliman:  Born  in  Sahne  County,  Mo., 
August  1,  1840;  died  at  his  home  in  Dayton,  Va.,  Nov.  30, 
1904.  His  mother  was  Mary  Funk,  daughter  of  Joseph  Funk, 
Father  of  Song  in  Northern  Virginia;  she  married  John 
Kieffer,  May  30,  1837.  On  June  22,  1847,  her  husband  died, 
and  she  returned  from  Missouri,  to  Mountain  Valley  (Singer's 
Glen),  with  her  children.  Lucilla  Virginia  married  Ephraim 
Ruebush,  March  28,  1861,  and  has  handed  down  to  her  sons 
the  gift  of  song;  Aldine  wrote  songs,  set  them  to  music,  and 
taught  them  to  the  people. 

Aldine  S.  Kieffer  founded  the  Micsical  Million  and  edited 
it  for  many  years;  he  compiled  the  "Christian  Harp,"  the 
'  'Temple  Star, ' '  and  many  other  books  of  song.  The  '  'Temple 
Star"  has  reached  the  half-million  mark,  and  is  still  being 
sold.  With  his  brother-in-law,  Mr.  E.  Ruebush,  he  gave 
name  and  character  to  the  publishing  house  transferred  from 
Singer's   Glen  to  Dayton  in  1878,  and  still  known  as  The 



Ruebush-Kieff er  Company.  He  wrote  the  song,  *  'Twilight  is 
Falling,"  wedded  to  music  by  Unseld,  and  sung  by  thousands 
far  and  near.  Many  other  songs  he  wrote,  which,  with  or 
without  music,  have  touched  many  hearts.^ 

Ruebush,  James  H. :  Born  at  Singer's  Glen,  Oct.  19,  1865, 
son  of  E.  Ruebush  and  Virginia  Kieffer  Ruebush,  and  great 
grandson  of  Joseph  Funk;  teacher,  composer,  editor,  edu- 
cator; has  studied  with  such  artists  as  H.  N.  Barttelb,  H.  R. 
Palmer,  and  F.  W.  Root,  and  has  been  a  student  in  the  Grand 
Conservatory  of  Music,  N.  Y.,  and  other  high-grade  schools; 
is  the  author  of  many  popular  pieces  of  music,  and  the  editor 
of  many  well-known  music  books — collections  of  songs  and 
manuals  of  instruction.  For  a  number  of  years  he  has  been 
connected  with  Shenandoah  Collegiate  Institute  and  School 
of  Music,  and  is  at  present  general  manager  of  that  institution. 

Ruebush,  William  H. :  Born  in  Rockingham,  June  4,  1873, 
a  brother  of  James  H. ;  a  teacher  of  music  in  Shenandoah 
Collegiate  Institute,  a  writer  of  popular  pieces  for  male  and 
mixed  voices,  and  a  skilled  director  of  choirs  and  orchestras; 
has  enjoyed  excellent  advantages  for  training  in  his  art,  and 
is  endowed  with  the  perception  of  the  artist;  is  the  author  of 
various  manuals  for  his  profession,  and  the  editor  of  a 
number  of  popular  song  books. 

Showalter,  Anthony  J.:  Born  in  Rockingham,  May  1, 
1858;  for  many  years  a  man  of  mark  in  Georgia;  head  of  the 
A.  J.  Showalter  music  publishing  company,  and  editor  of  the 
Music  Teacher  and  Home  Magazine,  Dalton;  author  of  the 
music  to  "The  Everlasting  Arms"  and  hundreds  of  other 
Gospel  hymns  and  songs;  has  studied  under  the  best  teachers 
of  America,  has  visited  the  music  centers  of  Europe,  and  has 
held  more  than  200  sessions  of  music  institutes  in  the  Southern 
States;  he  is  the  author  of  30  music  books,  and  the  associate 
author  of  as  many  more. 

Showalter,  J.  Henry:  Born  at  Cherry  Grove,  Rockingham 
County,  Nov.  2,  1864,  a  brother  of  A.  J.  Showalter;  present 

2  See  page  325  above;  also,  the  Musical  Million,  Kieffer  memorial 
number,  August,  1908,  and  Wayland's  "German  Element,"  pp.  173-175. 



address,  West  Milton,  Ohio;  singer,  teacher,  composer,  and 
publisher;  has  studied  under  the  best  teachers,  and  holds  high 
rank  as  a  teacher  and  singer;  has  written  hundreds  of  beautiful 
songs  and  anthems,  and  has  compiled  more  than  a  score  of 
music  books;  some  of  his  best  pieces  are:  "At  the  Golden 
Gate  of  Prayer,"  "The  Blood  of  the  Lamb,"  and  "Breathe 
Upon  Us,  Holy  Spirit." 

John  A.  Showalter,  born  in  Rockingham,  Dec.  19,  1832, 
was  for  many  years  a  teacher  of  singing  classes  in  various 
parts  of  the  Valley.  In  1892  or  1893,  while  in  Shenandoah 
County  teaching  a  class,  he  said  that  he  had  kept  account  of 
the  number  of  his  classes  till  he  had  taught  a  hundred — then 
he  had  stopped  counting.  He  is  the  father  of  A.  J.  and 
J.  Henry  Showalter. 

Years  ago  Karl  Merz,  long  editor  of  Brainard's  Mtcsical 
World,  published  at  Cleveland,  Ohio,  taught  music  for  awhile 
in  Rockingham.  In  1860  Chas.  Eshman  (died  March  18, 1901) 
was  a  teacher  of  brass  bands  and  orchestras  in  the  county; 
in  1867  he  organized  at  Harrisonburg  a  band  of  13  or  14 
members,  composed  mainly  of  men  of  German  extraction. 
In  1891  he  was  still  leading  a  band  in  Harrisonburg.  Mr. 
Eshman  was  a  native  of  Germany,  and  visited  his  Fatherland 
in  1883.  From  1861  to  1873,  perhaps  longer.  Prof.  A.  Kuh- 
nert,  a  skilled  musician,  taught  singing  and  piano-forte  in 

One  of  the  best  known  musicians  in  Rockingham  some 
years  ago  was  Henry  T.  Wartmann,  one  of  the  sons  of  Law- 
rence Wartmann.  (See  page  329.).  In  October,  1872,  his 
singing  class  from  Andrew  Chapel,  Harrisonburg,  numbering 
60  or  more,  went  upon  special  invitation  to  Baltimore  and 
Washington,  singing  at  St.  Paul's  Church,  Trinity  Church, 
Central  Church,  Western  Female  High  School,  and  Maryland 
Institute  in  the  former  city,  and  at  Mt.  Vernon  Place  in 
Washington.  They  were  termed  the  "Virginia  Rustics. "  In 
1873  the  Choral  Singers  from  Trinity  M.  E.  Sundayschool, 
Baltimore,  returned  the  visit  of  the  "Rustics,"  singing  in 
Harrisonburg,  and  visiting  the  Cave  of  the  Fountains,  Tay- 



lor's  Springs,  Rawley  Springs,  and  other  places  of  interest. 
In  1878  the  "Rustics"  were  again  in  Baltimore  and  Wash- 
ington. Mr.  Wartmann  was  a  talented  composer,  as  well  as 
a  skilled  director. 

Among  the  younger  pianists  and  teachers  of  music  from 
Rockingham  must  be  mentioned  Kinzie  Blakemore,  of  New- 
port News,  and  C.  Ernest  Hall,  of  Evanston,  111.  Perhaps 
the  greatest  singer  ever  born  in  Rockingham  is  Mrs.  Tenney 
Showalter  Schwerin,  of  Oregon  City,  Oregon.  One  of  the 
best  singers  and  teachers  now  in  the  county  is  Mrs.  Imogen 
Avis  Palmer,  of  Harrisonburg,  who  has  enjoyed  unusual 
advantages  in  piano  playing,  composition,  and  voice  culture, 
and  who  is  a  poet  as  well  as  a  musician.  Mr.  S.  G.  Cline  of 
Harrisonburg  is  a  well  known  teacher  of  music  and  a  dealer 
in  musical  instruments;  and  Mr.  J.  Owen  Long,  of  Melrose 
(R.  D. ,  Harrisonburg)  is  a  composer  and  publisher  of  creditable 
music,  as  well  as  a  singer  and  teacher  of  ability. 

It  would  be  a  pleasure  to  mention  all  of  the  Eighty,  but 
the  printer's  space  limits  the  writer's  lines. 



John  Sevier,  a  pioneer  of  the  Shenandoah  Valley  and  one 
of  the  builders  of  Tennessee,  was  one  of  the  most  dis- 
tinguished of  all  the  sons  of  Rockingham.  A  tall  shaft 
in  Knoxville  marks  honor  to  his  memory;  his  nickname, 
"Nolichucky  Jack,"  is  familiar  on  many  tongues;  and 
his  native  county  may  well  learn  to  know  him.  He  was  born 
Sept.  23,  1745,  the  son  of  Valentine  Sevier  and  Joanna  Goade. 
He  had  a  brother  who  also  won  distinction  (see  pages  63,  64) . 

After  a  short  schooling  in  Fredericksburg  and  Staunton, 
John  Sevier  helped  his  father  keep  store.  In  1761  he  mar- 
ried Sarah  Hawkins.  After  farming  a  short  while  in  Long 
Meadows,  he  bought  a  tract  of  land  where  New  Market  now 
stands,  and  kept  a  store  and  an  inn  as  part  of  the  village  he 
laid  out.  He  gave  the  Baptist  church  three  acres  of  land  on 
which  to  erect  a  building.  In  1770  he  moved  to  Millerstown 
(supposedly  Woodstock) ;  but  soon  he  became  interested  in 
the  great  southwest,  and  in  1773  moved  to  what  is  now  East 
Tennessee,  where  his  name  was  soon  written  large.  In  1777 
he  was  a  member  of  the  North  Carolina  legislature;  and,  for 
the  rest,  we  may  quote  part  of  the  inscription  on  his  mon- 

Pioneer,  soldier,  statesman,  and  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Republic; 
Governor  of  the  State  of  Franklin;  six  times  Governor  of  Tennessee;  four 
times  elected  to  Congress;  the  typical  pioneer  who  conquered  the  wilder- 
ness and  fashioned  the  State;  a  projector  and  hero  of  King's  Mountain; 
thirty-five  battles,  thirty-five  victories;  his  Indian  war-cry,  "Here  they 
are!  come  on,  boys,  come  on!" 

It  is  said  that  some  of  Sevier's  early  Indian  fighting  was 


done  from  New  Market.  He  died  Sept.  24,  1815,  near  Fort 
Decatur,  Ga.,  while  on  a  mission  to  the  Creek  Indians.^ 

The  records  thus  far  examined  seem  to  corroborate  the 
foregoing  statements  concerning  Sevier.  The  Augusta  County- 
records  show  the  name  of  Valentine  Sevier  as  early  as  1746, 
perhaps  earlier.  Dr.  Waddell  points  out  the  fact  (Annals  of 
Augusta,  pp.  45,  46)  that  he  was  a  member  of  Peter  Scholl's 
military  company  in  1742.  In  1753  he  was  keeping  a  tavern 
near  New  Market  and  Tenth  Legion  (see  page  49).  From 
1753  to  1773  he,  with  Joanna  his  wife,  sold  no  less  than  eight 
tracts  of  land  on  Smith  Creek,  in  the  Long  Meadow,  and  else- 
where in  the  vicinity,  to  Andrew  Bird,  the  Holsingers,  and 
others,  as  the  Augusta  records  show.  On  May  10,  1765, 
Valentine  Sevier,  of  Augusta,  and  Joanna  his  wife,  sold  to 
John  Sevier,  of  Frederick  (now  Shenandoah),  378  acres, 
located  on  a  branch  of  Smith's  Creek,  in  Frederick  County, 
adjoining  the  land  of  John  Hodges,  Capt.  Peter  Scholl,  and 
Jane  Schene;  the  said  land  having  been  granted  to  Val.  Sevier 
from  Lord  Fairfax  in  1749.  The  next  day,  May  11,  1765, 
John  Sevier  and  Sarah,  his  wife,  mortgaged  the  same  tract  to 
Alex.  Wodrow  and  John  Neilson,  of  Falmouth,  King  George 
County,  Va.  At  this  time  John  Sevier  was  living  on  the  land 
in  question.  The  mortgage  was  witnessed  by  Joseph  Hawkins 
and  others.'^ 

The  archives  of  Shenandoah  County,  formed  from  Fred- 
erick in  1772,  record  a  number  of  real  estate  transctions  in 
which  John  Sevier  was  a  party.  In  1782  Val.  Sevier's  "old 
house"  was  still  a  familiar  landmark  in  the  Long  Meadow 
(see  page  217).  This,  in  all  probability,  was  John  Sevier's 

1.  See  Harper's  Encyclopaedia  of  U.  S.  History,  Vol.  3,  p.  418;  Vol. 
8,  p.  132;  Vol.  9,  pp.  40-43;  Roosevelt's  Winning  of  the  West,  Vol.  1,  pp. 
223-230;  Life  of  Gen.  John  Sevier,  by  F.  M.  Turner;  Nolichucky  Jack,  by 
L.  T.  Sprague,  in  Outing  Magazine,  April,  1908. 

2.  See  records  of  Frederick  County,  Va. 

3.  Inasmuch  as  John  Sevier  was  a  famous  Indian  fighter,  as  well  as  a 
:statesman,  it  may  be  of  interest  to  note  in  connection  that  Lewis  Wetzel 



Gabriel  Jones,  known  as  "The  Lawyer,"  was  born  May 
17,  1724,  near  Williamsburg,  Va. ,  son  of  John  and  Elizabeth 
Jones,  of  Wales.  Educated  in  London,  he  was  admitted  to 
the  bar;  in  1747  he  bought  land  near  Kernstown,  Frederick 
County,  Va.,  where  he  likely  was  residing  the  year  before 
when  he  was  appointed  prosecuting  attorney  for  Augusta 
County.  October  16,  1749,  he  married  Margaret  Morton, 
widow  of  George  Morton,  and  daughter  of  William  Strother. 
August  8,  1751,  he  bought  244  acres  of  land  from  Christopher 
Francisco,  the  tract  being  on  the  north  side  of  the  river  below 
Port  Republic,  whereon  is  the  homestead  called  Bogota.  He 
seems  to  have  moved  to  Bogota  about  the  end  of  1753.  There 
he  had  his  home  till  he  died,  October,  1806.  His  wife  lived 
till  1822,  and  in  November  of  that  year  Charles  Lewis,  Sr., 
administrator,  was  arranging  to  make  sale  of  the  property 
on  January  21,  1823.  The  property  consisted  of  nearly  1200 
acres  of  land,  a  frame  dwelling  house,  with  out-buildings, 
growing  crops,  and  "upwards  of  FORTY  very  likely 
NEGROES,"  together  with  household  furniture,  elegant 
prints,  a  large  and  well  selected  library,  horses,  cattle,  and 
farming  utensils.  The  place  has  since  been  owned  by  the 
Strayers,  and  is  at  present  the  residence  of  Dr.  A.  S.  Kemper. 

Mr.  Jones  had  five  children,  one  of  whom  died  in  infancy. 
One  daughter  (Margaret)  married  Col.  John  Harvie;  another 
married  John  Lewis,  of  Fredericksburg;  the  third  married  a 
Mr.  Hawkins,  of  Kentucky.  His  son,  William  Strother  Jones, 
born  March  21,  1756,  was  a  student  at  William  and  Mary,  a 
captain  in  the  Continental  Army,  and  later  a  colonel  of  militia. 
His  wife  was  Fanny  Thornton,  of  Fredericksburg. 

Mr.  Jones  was  the  first  lawyer  for  Augusta,  and  the  first 

the  famous  Indian  fighter  of  the  Ohio  Valley,  was  also  a  native  of  Rock- 
ingham. His  father,  Capt.  John  Wetzel,  born  in  Switzerland,  1733,  was 
brought  to  what  is  now  Rockingham  in  1740.  Here  were  born  John 
Wetzel's  sons,  Martin,  Lewis,  Jacob,  George,  and  John.  About  1769 
John  Wetzel  moved  west,  settling  on  Wheeling  Creek. — See  Thwaites  and 
Kellogg's  Frontier  Defense  on  the  Upper  Ohio,  1777-1778,  page  296.— 
The  Wetzel  name  is  still  familiar  in  Rockingham. 



also  for  Rockingham,  in  which  he  lived  from  its  organization 
in  1778  (see  pages  65-69).  He  held  the  office  of  common- 
wealth's attorney  in  Rockingham  till  1795,  when  he  resigned 
and  was  succeeded  by  David  Holmes.  He  represented  Au- 
gusta in  the  House  of  Burgesses  in  1757,  1758,  and  1771.  In 
1788,  he,  with  his  brother-in-law,  Thomas  Lewis  (page  127), 
was  a  member  of  the  Virginia  convention,  and  zealously 
favored  the  adoption  of  the  Federal  Constitution.  He  was  a 
little  man,  of  great  integrity  and  explosive  temper.  His 
difficulty  with  Henry  Brewster  (page  73)  would  indicate  as 
much.  Dr.  Waddell  tells  of  another  incident,  which  probably 
occurred  at  Woodstock.  Hugh  Holmes,  opposing  lawyer,  sharp 
and  witty,  made  old  Mr.  Jones  angry,  and  he  exploded.  It 
happened  again.  The  court  of  justices  refrained  from  inter- 
fering as  long  as  possible,  but  finally  they  put  their  heads 
together,  and  then,  after  due  consideration,  the  presiding 
justice  announced  that  the  court  would  send  Lawyer  Holmes 
to  jail  if  he  did  not  quit  making  Lawyer  Jones  swear  so.^ 

In  1778  George  Rootes  was  admitted  to  the  practice  of  law 
in  Rockingham  (see  page  71).  Michael  Bowyer  took  the  oath 
of  an  attorney  in  1779  (page  73) .  The  following  were  admitted 
to  the  Rockingham  bar  on  the  dates  indicated: 

Lewis  Wolf,  May  23,  1797. 

John  Monroe,  April  23,  1798.-^ 

Daniel  Smith  ,  December  16,  1800. 

Robert  Gray,  June  18,  1805. 

George  W.  Harrison,  April  22,  1807. 

4.  See  Waddell's  Annals  of  Augusta,  pp.  81-84;  Wayland's  "German 
Element,"  pp.  55,  66,  73,  86,  223,  224,  271;  and  an  article  in  the  W.  Va. 
Hist.  Mag.,  April,  1902,  entitled,  "The  Lawyer,"  by  R.T.  Barton.  Mr. 
Barton,  who  lives  at  Winchester,  is  a  descendant  of  Gabriel  Jones.  The 
Rockingham  Register  of  Dec.  7,  1822,  contains  Chas.  Lewis'  announce- 
ment of  the  Jones  sale. 

5.  Mr.  Richard  See,  Jr.,  writing  from  Warsaw,  Mc,  May  20,  1911, 
says:  "My  grandfather  on  my  mother's  side, who  is  now  dead,  was  Judge 
Joseph  Monroe.  He  was  born  and  raised  in  Rockingham  Co.,  Va. ;  moved 
to  Benton  County,  Mo.,  many  years  ago;  was  a  soldier  in  the  war  with 
Mexico,  also  in  the  civil  war." 



Daniel  Smith,  "a  learned,  pure  judge  and  good  man," 
was  born  at  or  near  Harrisonburg,  in  1779,  son  of  John  and 
Margaret  Davis  Smith,  grandson  of  Justice  Daniel  Smith 
(pp.  54,  68) ;  he  married  Frances  Strother  Duff,  June  10, 1809; 
children,  Margaret,  Elizabeth,  Lucius,  Frances,  Marie,  John, 
Daniel;  he  died  Nov.  8,  1850,  In  1805  he  was  a  member  of  the 
Virginia  House  of  Delegates;  from  1804  to  1811  he  was  com- 
monwealth's attorney  for  Rockingham;  on  April  10,  1811,  he 
was  appointed  a  judge  of  the  General  Court,  and  from  the 
same  date  till  his  death  (1850)  he  was  judge  of  the  circuit 
superior  court  for  Rockingham  County.  He  succeeded  Judge 
Hugh  Holmes,  and  was  succeeded  by  Judge  Green  B. 
Samuels.  His  portrait  now  adorns  the  Rockingham  County 
court  room.     Judge  John  Paul  said  of  him: 

No  judge,  perhaps,  who  ever  presided  on  the  Circuit  Court  bench  in 
Virginia  exerted  a  better  or  more  lasting  influence  on  the  people  within 
his  jurisdiction.  He  was  not  only  a  great  man  intellectually,  but  he  was 
great  in  the  moral  attributes  necessary  to  the  prefection  of  judicial 

In  the  celebrated  case  of  the  National  Bank  against 
Steinbergen  and  others,  involving  over  half  a  million  of  dollars, 
he  gave  a  decision  on  Saturday  in  favor  of  the  plaintiff;  on 
Monday  morning  following  he  came  into  court  and  announced 
from  the  bench  that  he  had  erred  in  his  former  conclusions, 
and  proceeded  to  reverse  his  decision.  "^ 

I  have  been  told  that  Judge  Smith's  residence  was  a 
short  distance  northeast  of  Dayton,  near  the  Shrum  brick 

Robert  Gray  was  born  in  Ireland,  Nov.  1,  1781,  but  his 
family  settled  in  the  Shenandoah  Valley  about  1787.  He 
was  educated  at  William  and  Mary  and  at  Princeton,  and  in 
1805  located  at  Harrisonburg  to  practice  law.  Soon  he 
married  Isabella,  daughter  of  Dr.  Asher  Waterman,  and  about 
1812  built  Collicello.  (See  page  192,  220.)     He  was  a  lawyer 

6-  See  Judge  John  Paul's  address,  made  Oct.  15,  1896;  Boogher's 
Gleanings  of  Virginia  History,  pp.  339,340;  Waddell's  Annals  of  Augusta, 
pp.  150-152;  Compton's  Rockingham  Register  sketches,  No.  21. 


(Page  S5'J> 
From  oil  portrait  in  Roclv. 
Co.   Court  Room.      Photo 
by  Morrison. 



of  profound  learning,  an  advocate  and  prosecutor  of  great 
eloquence.  He  wrote  the  proverbially  bad  hand  of  the  lawyer 
(of  his  day) .  Once  when  he  gave  a  check  for  several  thousand 
dollars  on  a  Winchester  Bank — there  were  probably  no  banks 
nearer  then  than  in  Winchester — the  payee  had  to  ride  back 
the  67  miles  to  Harrisonburg,  the  cashier  having  refused  to 
cash  the  check,  declaring  the  signature  a  forgery,  because  it 
was  legible.  He  died  Dec.  17,  1859,  accounted  the  wealthiest 
citizen  of  Rockingham  County,  He  had  four  sons,  Algernon, 
Jouett,  Douglas,  and  Robert  (1826-1887). 

Algernon  S.  Gray,  eldest  son  of  Robert  Gray,  was  a 
lawyer  with  his  father's  gifts  of  eloquence,  and  a  colonel  of 
militia  for  his  county,  but  he  was  most  of  all  a  philanthropist. 
In  the  Virginia  convention  he  tried  all  measures  to  avoid 
secession,  moving  the  assemblage  to  tears  as  he  depicted 
what  would  be  the  '  'most  mournful  Iliad  in  the  history  of  the 
world,"  but  he  did  not  withstand  the  action  of  the  majority, 
or  disregard  the  final  peremptory  orders  from  his  constituents. 
During  the  war  he  gave  much  to  feed  the  soldiers  and  provide 
for  their  families, — even  took  off  his  own  shoes  in  the  street 
to  give  to  a  Confederate  soldier  whose  feet  left  bloody  prints 
in  the  snow.  He  went  to  Richmond  in  behalf  of  the  non- 
combatant  Dunkers  and  Mennonites,  of  whom  there  were 
many  in  Rockingham.  After  the  murder  of  John  Kline  it  was 
said,  "Colonel  Gray  next,"  and  he  finally  yielded  to  the 
entreaty  of  his  daughters,  going  with  two  of  his  brothers  to 
Baltimore.  After  the  war  he  returned  to  Rockingham,  where 
he  used  his  influence  for  education  and  progress.  For  a 
number  of  years  he  was  U.  S.  Marshal  for  the  western  district 
of  Virginia. — See  pages  131,  132,  above. 

John  Kenney,  born  in  Augusta,  1791,  located  at  Harrison- 
burg about  1817.  He  was  commonwealth's  attorney,  in  the 
circuit  court,  1847  to  1852,  and  circuit  judge,  1852-60.  He 
was  also  a  member  of  the  Virginia  constitutional  convention 
of  1850.  He  died  in  Harrisonburg,  1873,  at  the  home  of  his 
son.  Judge  James  Kenney.'^ 

7.  See  sketch  of  John  Kenney  in  the  Register  of  Feb.  21,  1873. 




Mrs.  Carr  says:  "The  lawyers  of  that  day  [about  1820] 
were  Robert  Gray,  David  Steele,  and  Thomas  Clark,  and 
some  younger  ones  I  do  not  remember." — See  Chapter  27. 

Isaac  Samuels  Pennybacker,  one  of  the  most  distinguished 
sons  of  northern  Virginia,  was  born  at  Pine  Forge,  near 
New  Market,  Shenandoah  County,  Va.,  Sept.  3,  1805.  From 
1837  to  1839  he  was  a  representative  in  Congress  from  the 
16th  district  of  Virginia,  composed  of  the  counties  of  Rock- 
ingham, Shenandoah,  Page,  Warren,  Hardy,  Pendleton,  and 
Bath.  Later  he  was  judge  of  the  U.  S.  District  Court,  and  a 
regent  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution.  From  1845  till  his 
death,  January  12,  1847,  he  was  a  U.  S.  Senator  from  Virginia. 
It  is  said  that  he  was  offered  the  Attorney-Generalship  of  the 
United  States  by  President  Van  Bur  en. 

At  the  time  of  his  death  Senator  Pennybacker' s  family 
was  living  in  Harrisonburg,  where  he  had  resided  for  some 
time  preceding.  Some  years  later  suit  was  brought  in  court 
for  possession  of  the  Waterman  house,  south  side  of  the 
Harrisonburg  public  square,  the  same  that  is  now  occupied  by 
Dr.  R.  S.  Switzer  and  his  sister,  Mrs.  Burkholder,  with  the 
lot  whereon  it  stands.  In  the  report  of  the  said  suit  the 
following  passage  occurs: 

The  plaintiff  alleges  in  his  bill  that  Isaac  S.  Pennybacker,  his  father, 
died  about  the  year  1848,  intestate,  possessed  of  this  lot,  "leaving  as  his 
only  heirs-at-law  his  widow,  Sarah  A.  Pennybacker,  and  three  infant 
children— John  D.,  Isaac  S.,  and  your  orator  J.  Edmund  Pennybacker— 
to  whom  said  lot  of  land  descended"; 8 

This  would  appear  to  fix  the  place  of  Sen.  Pennybacker's 
residence  in  Harrisonburg. 

Senator  Pennybacker's  wife  was  Sarah  A.  Dyer,  daughter 
of  Zebulon  Dyer,  of  Pendleton  County.  She  died  in  Franklin, 
W.  Va. ,  June  17,  1891,  aged  75.  His  sons;  John  D.  and  J. 
Ed.,  were  both  men  of  prominence,  the  former  having  served 
in  the  State  senate,  from  Rockingham,  from  1859  to  1863. — 
See  pages  282,  295,  above.     Ex-Gov.  S.  W.  Pennypacker,  of 

8.  See  75th  Va. ,  page  672. 



Pennsylvania,  is  a  relative  of  the  family.  Miss  Kate  Penny- 
backer,  of  Linville  Creek,  is  a  grand-daughter  of  Sen.  I.  S. 
Pennybacker,  and  possesses  an  excellent  oil  portrait  of  him. 
In  1844  the  Rockingham  Register  contained  cards  of  the 
following  Rockingham  lawyers: 

Herring  Chrisman  Jacob  P.  Effinger 

F.  L.  Barziza  E.  A.  Shands 

In  1854  the  following  were  advertised  in  the  same  paper: 
Allan  C.  Bryan  &  John  C.  Woodson 
E.  A.  Shands  &  S.  M.  Sommers 
J.  C.  C.  Brettell  J.  N.  Liggett 

Allan  C.  Bryan,  born  at  Edom,  was  a  brother  of  Daniel 
Bryan,  the  poet.  Pendleton  Bryan,  lawyer,  who  died  in  Har- 
risonburg, Aug.  30,  1906,  was  a  son  of  A.  C.  Bryan. 

John  C.  Woodson,  who  died  in  Harrisonburg,  Apr.  25, 
1875,  aged  52,  had  represented  Rockingham  in  the  legislature, 
etc.  The  Register  of  Apr.  29,  and  May  6,  1875,  contained 
sketches  of  his  life. 

Jacob  N.  Liggett  was  born  in  Harrisonburg,  January  2, 
1829,  the  son  of  Samuel  and  Romanzy  Nicholas  Liggett.  He 
graduated  in  law  from  the  University  of  Virginia.  During 
the  civil  war  he  served  in  various  commands;  and  among  his 
papers  is  a  note  written  by  Ashby,  commending  his  courage 
and  service.  In  1860  he  was  a  Presidential  elector  on  the 
Douglas  and  Johnson  ticket.  Following  the  war  he  repre- 
sented Rockingham  in  the  Virginia  House  of  Delegates,  and 
was  elected  to  the  convention  that  drew  up  the  Underwood 
Constitution  in  1868.  From  the  latter  body  he  was  expelled 
by  a  partisan  vote,  because  he  did  not  hesitate  to  express  his 
unvarnished  opinion  of  the  body  and  its  proceedings.  He 
was  a  lawyer  of  ability,  a  writer  and  reader  of  discrimination, 
and  an  orator  of  no  mean  powers.  In  1852  he  married  Evelyn 
Winfield  of  Rockingham;  following  her  death  in  1884  he 
married  Isabella  Spence  of  Westmoreland  County,  who 
survives  him.     He  died  in  Harrisonburg,  May  8,    1912. 

John  Francis  Lewis,  born  near  Port  Republic,  March  1, 
1818,  came  of  the  family  of  which  Gen.  Andrew  Lewis  and 



Col.  Charles  Lewis  were  earlier  representatives.  (See  page 
127,  note. )  He  was  a  planter  for  many  years.  In  1861  he 
was  one  of  Rockingham's  delegates  to  the  State  convention, 
and  the  only  member  east  of  the  Alleghanies  who  refused  to 
sign  the  ordinance  of  secession.  (See  pages  131-3. )  In  1865 
he  was  an  unsuccessful  Union  candidate  for  Congress,  but  in 
1869  he  was  elected  lieutenant-governor  (Gilbert  C.  Walker, 
governor)  by  20,000  majority.  In  the  same  year  he  was 
chosen  U.  S.  Senator  for  Virginia,  serving  in  that  capacity 
till  March  4,  1875.  In  1881  he  was  again  elected  lieutenant- 
governor  of  Virginia  (W.  E.  Cameron,  governor).  In  1872 
he  was  mentioned  as  a  possible  candidate  for  the  Vice- 
Presidency,  on  the  Grant  ticket.  He  died  in  September, 
1895.  John  F.  Lewis,  of  Lynnwood,  is  his  son,  as  was  also 
the  late  Daniel  Sheffey  Lewis  (pages  334,  335). ^ 

John  Thomas  Harris,  for  many  years  a  distinguished 
citizen  of  Rockingham,  well  known  throughout  Virginia,  and 
conspicuous  in  many  national  issues,  was  born  in  Albemarle 
County,  Va.,  May  8,  1823,  the  son  of  Nathan  Harris  and  Ann 
Allan  Anderson.  When  he  was  five  years  old  his  parents 
moved  to  Augusta  County,  his  early  education  being  received 
in  Albemarle  and  Augusta  schools.  At  the  age  of  20  he 
taught  school  in  Augusta,  studying  law  in  the  meantime. 
Having  graduated  from  the  law  school  of  Judge  Lucas  P. 
Thompson,  he  was  licensed  and  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1845  by 
Judges  Baldwin  and  Smith,  and  located  in  Harrisonburg. 

In  1848  he  was  a  canvasser  for  Cass  and  Butler,  and  four 
years  later  rendered  effective  service  in  Pierce's  campaign. 
The  same  year  (1852)  he  was  elected  commonwealth's  attorney 
for  Rockingham  County,  holding  the  office  by  re-election  till 
1859.  In  1856  he  canvassed  Virginia  as  a  Presidential  elector 
for  James  Buchanan,  and  the  next  year  was  appointed  a 
member  of  the  board  of  visitors  to  the  Virginia  Military  Insti- 
tute.    In   1859,  after  a  memorable  campaign,  in  which  the 

9.  Biographical  sketches,  etc.,  of  Sen.  Lewis  appeared  in  the  Rocking- 
ham Register,  Oct.  28,  1869;  Jan.  14,  1875;  Sept.  6,  1895. 



field  at  the  start  was  against  him,  Mr.  Harris  was  elected  to 
Congress  from  the  9th  district  of  Virginia,  then  composed  of 
the  counties  of  Highland,  Bath,  Rockbridge,  Augusta,  Rock- 
ingham, Shenandoah,  Hardy,  and  Pendleton.  He  was 
re-elected  in  1861. 

Although  opposed  to  secession,  Mr.  Harris  promptly 
followed  Virginia  when  she  withdrew  from  the  Union,  and 
served  two  terms  in  the  General  Assembly  during  the  war. 
From  1866  to  1869  he  was  judge  of  the  12th  judicial  circuit  of 
Virginia,  which  included  Rockingham  (see  pages  161-163, 
above).  In  1870  he  was  elected  again  to  Congress,  this  time 
representing  the  7th  district,  and  was  continuously  re-elected 
till  1880.  In  1881  he  resumed  the  practice  of  law,  devoting 
himself  chiefly  to  contested  election  cases,  for  which  his  long 
experience  in  Congress  had  given  him  special  fitness.  In 
1888  he,  with  Richard  F.  Bierne,  was  an  elector  at  large  on 
the  Cleveland  ticket,  and  the  following  year  was  a  rival  of 
P.  W.  McKinney  for  the  Democratic  nomination  for  the 
Governorship.  Later  he  was  appointed  by  Gov.  McKinney 
one  of  the  commissioners  for  Virginia  to  the  World's  Columbian 
Exposition,  and  as  a  member  of  the  executive  committee  took 
a  prominent  part  in  the  great  celebration.  He  died  at  his 
home  in  Harrisonburg,  October  14,  1899. 

On  May  29,  1854,  Mr.  Harris  married  Miss  Virginia  M. 
Miller.  The  following  children  were  born  of  the  union:  Anna 
H.  Heard,  5908  Cabaune  Ave.,  St.  Louis;  Emma  H.  Mac- 
Queary,  6809  McPherson  Ave.,  St.  Louis;  Virginia  0.  Beall, 
St.  Regis,  St.  Louis;  Graham  H.  Harris,  1438  N.  State  St., 
Chicago;  John  T.  Harris,  Harrisonburg;  Hatton  N.  T.  Harris 
(died  1905) ;  Edith  Harris  (died  1904) ;  and  Clement  C.  Harris, 
who  died  in  infancy.  Hatton  Harris  was  a  surgeon  in  the  U. 
S.  Navy;  Graham  H.  Harris  and  John  T.  Harris  are  prominent 

For  many  years,  beginning  with  or  before  the  war,  one 
of  the  prominent  citizens  of  Rockingham,  and  for  some  time 
an  influential  member  of  the  legislature,  was  Dr.  S.  H. 
Moffett.     During  the  war  he  was  a  director  on  the  board  of 



the  Western  State  Hospital,  at  Staunton.  The  Register  of 
Nov.  17, 1881,  and  Aug.  7,  1896,  contained  interesting  accounts 
of  him  as  a  politician  and  statesman.  The  same  paper,  in 
1863,  contained  cards  of  John  W.  G.  Smith,  E.  T.  H.  Warren, 
and  John  C.  Woodson,  Rockingham  lawyers. 

The  following  list,  for  1866  and  1867,  is  made  up  from 
several  copies  of  the  Register,  compared  with  a  copy  of  the 
Old  Commonwealth  of  Oct.  10,  1866. 

James  Kenney^°  Allan  C.  Bryan 

Geo.  G.  Grattan  Jno.  C.  Woodson 

J.  S.  Duckwall  Wm.  B.  Compton^^ 

F.  A.  Daingerfield"  Huston  Handy 
Wm.  H.  Effinger                 G.  S.  Latimer 
J.  N.  Liggett                      A.  M.  Newman 
Chas.  A.  Yancey                Wm.  S.  Rohr 
Thos.  L.  M.  Chipley           J.  Ed.  Pennybacker 

G.  W.  Berlin  Pendleton  Bryan 
Warren  S.  Lurty  John  Paul 

B.  G.  Patterson  Granville  Eastham  (1834-'95)i3 

Chas.  E.  Haas  J.  S.  Harnsberger 

Charles  Triplett  O'Ferrall  was  born  in  what  is  now 
Berkeley  County,  W.  Va.,  Oct.  21,  1840,  and  died  in  Rich- 
mond, Va.,  Sept.  22,  1905.  He  was  a  Confederate  cavalry 
officer,  and  rose  to  the  rank  of  colonel.  After  graduating  in 
law,  in  1869,  he  located  at  Harrisonburg,  and  had  his  home 
there  until  December,  1893,  when  he  moved  to  Richmond. 
From  1874  to  1880  he  was  judge  of  the  Rockingham  County 
court,  and  from  1894  to  1898  he  was  governor  of  Virginia. 
For  twelve  years  of  the  interim  he  was  a  member  of  Congress 
from  the  7th  district  of  Virginia.     Although  not  regarded  as 

10.  Sketch  of  in  the  Register  of  Oct.  19,  1894. 

11-  See  page  319;  also,  McDonald's  History  of  the  Laurel  Brigade, 
pp.  379,  380. 

12.  Sketch  of  in  the  Register  of  July  29,  1898, 

13.  Sketch  of  in  the  Register  of  March  22,  1895. 


( Pages  sriS.  :!5'.0 
Photo  by  Moni-ion 


a  profound  lawyer,  he  was  an  efficient  judge,  and  as  a  popular 
orator  in  political  campaigns  he  had  few  equals. 

Governor  OTerrall's  mother  was  Jane  Laurens,  born  in 
Fauquier  County,  Va.,  in  1817.  She  died  in  Bridgewater  in 
May,  1891,  having  lived  there  several  years  preceding.  Her 
grave  is  in  Woodbine  Cemetery,  Harrisonburg.  She  had  the 
Spartan  spirit  and  the  tender  devotion  of  the  lady  of  Shunem. 
Few  stories  are  more  touching  and  stirring  than  the  brief 
account  Col.  O'Ferrall  gives  of  her  journey  to  his  bedside, 
after  he  had  received  what  was  supposed  to  be  a  mortal 
wound,  near  Upperville,  in  June,  1863. 

In  1862  Col.  O'Ferrall  married  Annie  McLain;  his  second 
wife,  whom  he  married  in  1891,  was  Jennie  Knight  Danforth. 

In  addition  to  numerous  political  essays  and  speeches,  he 
published  an  autobiographical  volume  entitled  "Forty  Years 
of  Active  Service"  (see  page  326).  In  this  he  has  a  number 
of  interesting  things  to  say  of  Rockingham,  her  people  in 
general  and  his  colleagues  in  particular.  For  example,  he 
says  of  George  E.  Deneale,  who  was  his  colleague  in  the 
Virginia  House  of  Delegates  in  1871-3,  "He  was  called  'the 
old  man  eloquent.'  "  In  telling  of  the  famous  Lawson  trial 
of  1877,  he  gives  graphic  descriptions  of  John  Paul  and  John 
Roller,  as  follows: 

The  Commonwealth's  Attorney  who  prosecuted  in  these  cases  was  John 
Paul,  who  afterwards  served  a  term  in  Congress  and  was  then  appointed 
United  States  District  Judge  for  the  Western  District  of  Virginia.  He 
was  one  of  the  ablest  prosecuting  attorneys  I  have  ever  known;  his  con- 
gressional service  was  creditable,  and  his  career  as  Judge  from  1883  to 
1902,  when  he  died,  was  marked  with  ability  and  with  an  honesty  and 
uprightness  of  purpose  that  drew  plaudits  from  the  bar  of  his  district, 
and  stamped  him  as  a  just,  impartial,  and  incorruptible  judge. 

The  leading  attorney  for  the  defense  was  John  E.  Roller,  and  well 
did  he  act  his  part  and  do  his  duty.  Astute,  cautious,  and  watchful, 
never  tiring,  never  lacking  in  quickness  to  object  to  what  he  conceived 
to  be  an  improper  question,  and  then  maintaining  his  position  with  great 
force;  searching  and  severe  in  the  cross-examination  of  opposing  wit- 
nesses, and  drawing  most  skilfully  from  the  witnesses  for  the  defense 
every  point  favorable  to  his  clients.  Between  the  two— Paul  and  Roller 
—it  was  indeed  a    battle  royal  and  a   fight  to  the   finish.     They   were 



both  young  men,  neither  forty— the  latter,  who  was  the  junior,  not  more 
than  thirty-five.     ******** 

A  distinguished  and  highly-esteemed  member  of  the  county  bar  .  .  .  , 
Colonel  Robert  Johnston,  was  elected  as  my  successor,  i^ 

John  Paul,  statesman  and  jurist,  was  born  near  Ottobine, 
June  30,  1839,  the  son  of  Peter  Paul  and  his  wife,  Maria 
Whitmer.  He  was  commonwealth's  attorney  for  Rockingham 
County,  1871-7;  in  1880  he  was  elected  to  Congress;  and  in 
September,  1883,  he  was  appointed  U.  S.  judge  for  the 
western  district  of  Virginia,  in  which  capacity  he  served  with 
distinction  for  18  years,— till  his  death,  Nov.  1,  1901.^^  His 
wife,  whom  he  married  in  November,  1874,  was  Miss  Kather- 
ine  S.  Green  (see  pages  326-7).  One  of  his  sons,  John  Paul, 
Jr.,  is  now  Virginia  senator  from  Rockingham. 

J.  Samuel  Harnsberger,  the  son  of  Jeremiah  and 
Elizabeth  Harnsberger,  was  born  in  the  eastern  part  of  Rock- 
ingham County,  near  Conrad's  Store,  now  Elkton,  November 
17,  1839.  In  1861,  while  a  student  at  the  University  of 
Virginia,  he  entered  the  Confederate  army,  serving  under 
Gen.  Henry  A.  Wise  in  West  Virginia;  later  he  was  a  member 
of  Co.  F,  12th  Virginia  Cavalry,  organized  by  Major  Harry 
Gilmore,  and  afterwards  commanded  successively  by  Clarke, 
Figgett,  and  O'Ferrall.  In  1862  he  was  a  special  aide  to 
Stonewall  Jackson,  just  preceding  the  famous  Valley  cam- 
paign. After  the  war  he  returned  to  the  University  to  study 
law,  and  then  located  at  Harrisonburg  to  practice  his  profes- 
sion. About  1904  he  was  appointed  U.  S.  Commissioner  for 
the  Western  District  of  Virginia,  and  held  this  position  till 
death,  which  occurred  at  his  home  in  Harrisonburg,  May  2, 
1912.  In  1871  he  married  Carrie  V.  Harnsberger,  who,  with 
two  sons  and  a  daughter,  survives  him.  The  sons  are  George 
S.  Harnsberger,  Harrisonburg,  and  Gilbert  M.  Harnsberger, 
Shenandoah  City,  Va.  The  daughter  is  Mrs.  Bartow  Jones, 
Point  Pleasant,    W.  Va.     During  the  last  years  of  his  life 

I'l.  See  pages  206,  207  of  "Forty  Years  of  Active  Service." 
15.  See  "John  Paul,  1839-1901,"  by  John  T.  Harris. 


(Pages  359,  SiJO) 


Captain   Harnsberger  collected  a  large  amount  of  material 
towards  a  history  of  the  Harnsberger  family. 

Within  the  years  1876  to  1881,  the  following  were  among 
the  lawyers  of  Rockingham: 

Edwin  C.  Bruffey 

G.IF.  Compton  (pages  VI,  319) 

R.  S.  Thomas 

Geo.  A.  Roszelle 

Robt.  B.  Ragan  (died  1881) 

Henry  V.  Strayer  (died  1900) 

John  A.  Cowan 

0.  B.  Roller  (1855-1912)16 

William  Shands 

In  1905,  Winfield  Liggett,  a  well  known  member  of  the 
bar,  died. 

George  Bernard  Keezell  was  born  near  Keezletown,  July 
20,  1854,  son  of  George  Keezell  and  his  wife,  Amanda  Fitzallen 
Peale.  He  was  an  only  child,  and  his  father,  who  married 
late  in  life,  died  when  his  son  was  eight  years  old.  He  was 
educated  in  private  schools  and  at  Stuart  Hall,  a  collegiate 
institution,  in  Baltimore.  At  the  age  of  16  he  took  up 
farming,  residing  with  his  mother  at  the  home  built  by  his 
grandfather  in  1794.  Shortly  after  he  was  21  he  was  elected 
a  justice  of  the  peace;  and  in  1883  he  was  elected  to  the  State 
senate,  being  re-elected  four  successive  terms  from  1895  to 
1911.  His  senatorial  service  was  the  longest  of  any  man  in 
this  generation.  He  was  always  in  the  thick  of  every  fight, 
and  was  regarded  as  an  authority  on  financial  matters,  having 
served  as  chairman  of  the  Finance  Committee  a  number  of 
years.  He  resigned  from  the  senate  in  1910  to  accept 
appointment  as  treasurer  of  Rockingham  County,  and  served 
one  year  of  an  unexpired  term.  He  has  always  been  a 
Democrat  in  politics,  and  for  25  years  was  chairman  of  the 
party  organization  of  his  county.  In  1901  he  was  a  member 
of  the  Virginia  constitutional  convention,  and  was  a  presi- 

16.  See  pages  173,  178,  above. 



dential  elector  in  1904.  He  has  served  on  the  State  Board  of 
Fisheries  by  appointment  of  four  successive  governors,  Tyler, 
Montague,  Swanson,  and  Mann. 

Senator  Keezell  has  always  taken  an  active  interest  in 
education,  serving  many  years  as  local  school  trustee.  In 
the  senate  he  was  on  the  committee  for  Public  Institutions 
and  Education,  and  was  patron  of  the  bill  establishing  the 
State  Normal  and  Industrial  School  at  Harrisonburg.  He 
was  also  a  member  of  the  committee  which  made  the  prelimi- 
nary report  favoring  such  schools,  and  was  especially  active 
and  influential  in  locating  the  Normal  at  Harrisonburg.  Since 
its  establishment  he  has  served  as  chairman  of  the  Board  of 
Trustees.  In  1912  the  "Schoolma'am, "  the  200-page  annual 
published  by  the  student  body,  was  dedicated  to  him,  with 
the  characterization:  "A  Progressive  Farmer,  A  Virginia 
Statesman,  A  Patron  of  Education,  and  A  Friend  of  Virginia 

Mr.  Keezell's  grandfather,  George  Keezell,  was  the 
founder  and  patron  of  Keezletown  (see  pages  193,  194) ;  his 
father,  George  Keezell,  was  a  soldier  in  the  War  of  1812. 
In  1886  Mr.  Keezell  married  Miss  Kate  M.  Hannah,  who 
died  in  1902,  leaving  four  sons  and  two  daughters ;  in  1903  he 
married  Miss  Belle  C.  Hannah,  one  of  the  best  known  teachers 
of  Rockingham. 

Many  of  the  men  who  have  gone  out  from  Rockingham 
to  other  counties  and  States  have  become  eminent;  a  few 
examples  are  given. 

William  Taylor,  born  in  Alexandria,  began  the  practice  of 
law  in  Rockingham;  was  elected  a  representative  for  Virginia 
to  the  28th  and  29th  Congress;  he  died  Jan.  17,  1846,  in 

Thomas  H.  Ford,  born  in  Rockingham,  Aug.  23,  18 ; 

went  when   young  to  Ohio;  became  a  lawyer;  in  1855  was 
elected  Lt.  Governor;  died  in  Washington,  Feb.  29,  1868. 

In  1871  Andrew  J.  Kearney,  son  of  Martin  L.  Kearney 
of  Rockingham,  was  judge  of  the  parish  court  of  Cameron, 
La.,  and  was  connected  with  the  Cameron  Times.      At  the 



same  time  H,  H,  Stevens,  son  of  E.  H.  Stevens,  was  an 
influential  member  of  the  Louisiana  legislature. 

In  1880  died  Judge  Wm.  P.  Daingerfield,  an  eminent 
jurist  of  California.  He  was  born  in  Virginia  in  1824,  and 
began  the  practice  of  law  in  Rockingham  and  Pendleton. — 
See  page  126. 

Chas.  H.  Lewis,  secretary  of  the  commonwealth  prior  to 
1870,  and  minister  to  Portugal,  1870  to  1875,  was  a  brother 
to  Sen.  John  F.  Lewis,  of  Rockingham;  and  Judge  Lunsford 
L.  Lewis,  well  known  throughout  Virginia,  is  a  member  of 
the  same  family. 

Sylvester  Lamb,  of  Toledo,  a  very  distinguished  member 
of  a  recent  Ohio  legislature,  is  a  descendant  of  Peter  Lam 
of  Rockingham. 

The  late  James  W.  Marshall,  of  southwest  Virginia, 
famous  as  "Cyclone  Jim,"  spent  part  of  his  early  life  in  this 
county,  having  numerous  connections  here. 

Judge  Charles  Grattan,  a  distinguished  jurist  of  Augusta 
County,  was  a  native  of  Rockingham,  and  a  brother  of  Judge 
George  G.  Grattan. 

Hon.  James  Hay,  the  distinguished  member  of  Congress 
from  the  7th  district  of  Virginia,  was  a  Rockingham  lawyer 
and  teacher  from  1877  to  1879.  The  present  circuit  judge, 
T.  N.  Haas,  was  one  of  his  pupils.  Mr.  Hay  married  his  first 
wife,  Miss  Tatum,  in  Harrisonburg,  Oct.  1,  1878. 

Additional  matter  relating  to  this  chapter  is  given  in  the 

We  append  here  a  few  statements  regarding  certain  sons 
of  Rockingham  distinguished  in  fields  other  than  law  and 

Col.  John  W.  Dunlap,  born  here  in  1814,  lived  here  till 
1858;  then  he  moved  to  Iowa;  he  died  in  Jackson  County, 
Iowa,  Nov.  5,  1869. 

Rev.  Dr.  A.  S.  Gibbons,  president  Univ.  of  the  Pacific, 
1852-7  and  1872-9,  was  born  near  River  Bank,  Rockingham 
Co.,  Va.,  about  1822. 

About  1871  Nat  Ervin,  who  had  gone  from  Rockingham 



to  Iowa  some  years  before,  came  back  on  a  visit.  He  had 
increased  $1000  to  $150,000  in  the  meantime. 

In  1872  the  following  Rockinghamers  were  good  citizens 
at  and  near  Kingston,  Ga. :  James  G.  Rogers,  Jonathan  Speck, 
Peter  Hollen,  and  the  "Harris  Boys." 

In  the  70's  Dr.  J.  R.  L.  Hardesty,  son  of  Isaac  Hardesty 
of  Harrisonburg,  was  an  eminent  surgeon  and  eye  specialist 
of  Wheeling.  In  1875  the  Khedive  offered  him  a  position  at 

Gen.  C.  C.  C.  Carr,  of  Chicago,  was  born  in  Harrisonburg, 
1842.— See  pages  120,  269,  etc. 

Maj.  Walter  Reed  (1851-1902),  surgeon  U.  S.  A.,  hero 
and  benefactor,  spent  part  of  his  boyhood  in  Harrisonburg, 
where  his  father.  Rev.  L.  S.  Reed,  had  his  home  for  many 

Dr.  0.  C.  Brunk,  of  Richmond,  formerly  superintendent 
of  the  State  hospital  at  Williamsburg,  is  a  native  of 

Mr.  L.  J.  Bricker,  of  St.  Paul,  a  prominent  railroad 
official,  is  also  a  Rockinghamer. 

Rev.  David  W.  Gwin,  A.  M.,  D.  D.,  M.  D.,  LL.  D.,  of 
Columbia,  S.  C,  clergyman,  educator,  editor,  and  author, 
was  born  in  Bridgewater,  Dec.  6,  1838,  the  son  of  David  S. 
Gwin,  merchant. 

In  the  blowing  up  of  the  Maine,  February  15,  1898, 
Frank  T.  Kelly,  of  Rockingham,  was  killed.  Dr.  Lucien  G. 
Heneberger,  of  Harrisonburg,  was  surgeon  on  the  ship,  but 
escaped  with  his  life. 


The  chief  wealth  of  Rockingham  is  produced  in  the  fields, 
the  orchards,  the  stock  ranges,  the  poultry  yards,  and  the 
dairies.  Ours  is  pre-eminently  a  county  of  farms  and  farmers: 
of  productive  farms,  and  of  farmers  who  own  their  farms 
and  live  upon  them.  Of  a  total  of  3528  farms  reported 
in  1910,  only  489  were  operated  by  tenants  and  managers, 
while  all  the  rest,  3039,  were  operated  by  the  owners.  Of 
the  latter,  2480  were  free  from  mortgage  debt.  It  is  not 
surprising,  therefore,  that  Rockingham  as  an  agricultural 
community  holds  front  rank  in  the  State  and  in  the  nation. 

One  of  the  most  interesting  phases  of  this  subject  is  to 
be  found  in  observing  the  changes  that  have  taken  place  from 
earlier  to  later  times  in  the  kind  and  character  of  agricultural 
products.  For  example,  tobacco  for  several  generations  was 
an  important  crop  in  Rockingham.  In  1844  Gen.  S.  H.  Lewis 
(page  127)  began  to  cut  tobacco  on  the  21st  of  August,  and 
continued  on  September  4,  5,  6,  and  7,  finishing  on  the 
16th.  In  February,  1861,  he  was  preparing  beds  for  tobacco 
plants.  As  late  as  1876  much  tobacco  was  raised  in  E.  Rock- 
ingham and  the  southern  part  of  Page.  Most  of  it  was  hauled 
to  Harrisonburg  and  shipped  via  the  B.  &  0.  railway.  From 
the  statements  in  the  current  press  it  appears  that  tobacco 
raising  in  the  county  was  a  common  thing,  but  that  the 
quantity  that  year  (1876)  was  greater  than  usual.  At  present 
no  tobacco,  almost,  is  raised.  In  1910  only  3  acres  in  the 
whole  county  were  devoted  to  it. 

One  of  the  most  interesting  experiments  was  made  in 
grape  culture.  A  hundred  years  ago,  perhaps,  the  Scherdlins 
(page  238),  who  lived  on  Paul  Street,  Harrisonburg,  in  the 
house  now  occupied  by  Mrs.  Converse,  had  a  vineyard  on  the 


hill  eastward.  In  November,  1866,  Hockman  and  Forrer 
were  planting  a  6-acre  vineyard  on  the  same  hill.  Within 
the  next  few  years  grape  culture  was  undertaken  on  a  large 
scale  in  many  parts  of  the  county.  In  1867  Forrer  and  Hock- 
man had  about  5000  vines.  In  November,  1867,  Col.  John  H. 
Hopkins,  Dr.  W.  D.  Hopkins,  A.  S.  Byrd,  and  Francis  Staling 
had  formed  a  company  for  setting  out  large  vineyards  near 
Mt.  Clinton,  and  had  ordered  65,000  grape  slips.  They  were 
also  going  to  raise  various  fruits.  Firebaugh  &  Company,  at 
Mt.  Clinton,  were  also  preparing  to  set  out  a  large  vineyard. 

By  May,  1868,  the  following  varieties  of  grapes  had  been 
planted  about  Mt.  Clinton:  Delaware,  Concord,  Norton's 
Virginia,  lona,  Ives'  Seedling,  and  Hartford  Prolific.  At  the 
same  time  Simeon  Woods  had  planted  out  a  large  tract  in 
grapes  near  New  Market,  Shenandoah  County. 

In  August,  1871,  it  was  reported  that  Capt.  A.  S.  Byrd 
had  a  vineyard  near  Hopkins'  Mill  and  the  North  Mountain, 
planted  in  1868,  containing  5400  vines,  of  14  different 
varieties.  In  September  (1871)  Dr.  J.  C.  Homan  had  a 
vineyard  of  15  acres  near  Timberville.  In  1873  a  quantity 
of  v/ine  was  being  made  from  G.  T.  Hopkins'  vineyard,  near 
McGaheysville;  and  Samuel  Shank  had  4^  acres  in  grapes  on 
Linville  Creek,  near  Broadway.  In  1874  G.  W.  Berhn  sold 
his  vineyard  at  Bridgewater  to  J.  W.  F.  Allemong  (page  232). 

At  present  there  are  a  few  grape  vines  on  nearly  every 
farm;  but  so  far  as  known,  no  attempt  is  being  made  any  where 
in  the  county  to  raise  grapes  on  a  large  scale. 

But  some  things  have  come  in  while  others  have  gone 
out.  The  most  striking  instance  of  this  sort  is  doubtless  to 
be  found  in  the  development  of  fruit-growing.  A  century 
ago  Dr.  Peachey  Harrison  wrote  that  the  apples  of  Rocking- 
ham were  few  and  inferior  (see  Chapter  28).  Now  fruits  of 
all  kinds  adapted  to  our  latitude,  especially  apples,  are 
produced  regularly  in  immense  quantities  (see  page  181). 
Four  miles  west  of  Harrisonburg  stands  a  single  apple  tree 
(York  Imperial)  that  produced  in  one  season,  a  year  or  two 
ago,  15  barrels  of  fruit,  which  sold  for  $2.75  a  barrel.     The 



chief  varieties  grown  are  York  Imperial  (Johnson),  Winesap, 
Ben  Davis,  Jonathan,  Dehcious,  Rome  Beauty,  and  Grimes' 
Golden.  The  Smokehouse  and  some  other  old  varieties  are 
going  out.  In  November,  1911,  T.  N.  Thompson  and  W.  J. 
Dingledine  were  elected  president  and  secretary,  respectively, 
of  the  Rockingham  Horticultural  Society,  a  growing  organi- 
zation of  over  100  members.  The  great  fruit  growers' 
convention  and  exhibition  (16th  annual  meeting  of  the  Virginia 
Horticultural  Society) ,  held  in  Harrisonburg  in  January,  was 
one  of  the  features  of  the  year  1912. 

About  1843  Joseph  Funk,  as  shown  by  his  letters,  was 
cultivating  apple  sprouts  at  Mountain  Valley,  in  order  that 
they  might  be  ready  for  his  daughter  to  carry  to  Missouri  for 
planting,  when  she  should  return  from  a  visit  to  him.  This 
may  have  been  the  beginning  of  the  nursery  business  in 
Rockingham.  From  1860  to  1866,  perhaps  longer,  John 
Niswander  was  proprietor  of  the  Rockingham  Nursery,  at 
Dayton.  In  1869  Coff man  &  Son,  near  Dayton,  were  operating 
Cook's  Creek  Nursery.     It  was  said: 

The  elder  Mr.  Coffman  is  one  of  the  early  pioneers  of  superior  fruit 
growing  in  the  Valley. i 

For  a  number  of  years  past  the  Wenger  nursery,  near 
Dayton,  has  been  well  known.  Mr.  C.  D.  Wenger  is  the 
present  proprietor.  Greenhouses  have  been  known  in  the 
county  for  the  past  30  or  40  years;  but  the  one  advertised  at 
Harrisonburg  by  John  H.  Bell  in  1875  was  referred  to  as  a 
"new  enterprise." 

One  of  our  most  interesting  and  significant  agricultural 
enterprises  is  the  seed  growing  business  of  D.  M.  Wetsel  & 
Son.  In  1897  Mr.  Wetsel,  formerly  a  blacksmith,  bought  15 
acres  of  land  near  Port  Republic,  and  began  to  raise  superior 
seed  corn.  His  business  grew,  so  that  in  1905  he  purchased 
160  acres  further  down  the  river,  120  acres  lying  on  Green 
Island.  Continuing  his  corn  growing,  Mr.  Wetsel  developed 
several  new  varieties,  which  are  among  the  best  yielders  in 

1-  Rockingham  Register,  Nov.  11,  1869. 



the  eastern  States.  He  has  enlarged  his  work,  now  growing- 
many  seeds  for  garden  and  field.  His  exhibits  have  taken  a 
number  of  high  prizes  in  the  Roanoke,  Richmond,  Hagers- 
town,  and  Baltimore  fairs.  The  trade  of  the  firm  extends 
over  nearly  every  State  east  of  the  Mississippi  River. 

The  leading  grains  of  Rockingham  are  corn  (994,436), 
wheat  (719,090),  oats  (45,140),  and  rye  (25,165);  the  figures 
indicating  the  respective  numbers  of  bushels,  for  the  year, 
reported  in  1910.  Practically  all  the  wheat  is  grown  from 
fall  sowing,  and  different  varieties,  both  smooth  and  bearded, 
are  cultivated.  Leap's  prolific  smooth  wheat  is  extensively 
grown  in  the  eastern  parts  of  the  county.  This  variety  is 
regarded  by  competent  authorities  as  probably  better  suited 
to  Virginia  soils  and  climate  than  any  other  known;  and 
therefore  it  is  of  special  interest  to  recall  that  this  wheat 
was  given  to  the  world  from  East  Rockingham.  Mr.  Leap, 
the  original  cultivator,  now  lives  near  Charlottesville. 

In  1839  R.  Kemper,  of  Cross  Keys,  was  advertising 
"Italian  Spring  Wheat"  for  sale.  In  1852,  Gen.  S.  H.  Lewis 
cut  Zimmerman  wheat  on  June  25;  "purple  straw,"  June  29, 
and  following;  Poland  rye,  July  8;  and  commenced  sowing 
Mediterranean  wheat  on  September  22.  From  1852  to  1861 
he  was  also  raising  "white  wheat." 

Judging  from  advertisements  in  the  Register,  Rockingham 
farmers  were  using  "plaister"  for  fertilizer  as  early  as  1833. 
In  1852  (March  31)  Gen.  Lewis  sowed  plaster  on  a  clover  field; 
on  April  2,  following,  he  sowed  it  on  another  field.  In  1864 
Nova  Scotia  plaster  was  being  used  in  the  county;  in  1866  H. 
Heller  &  Son,  of  Harrisonburg,  were  selling  raw  bone  phos- 
phate and  super  phosphate  of  lime.  During  the  years  fol- 
lowing much  bone  dust  was  used,  large  quantities  being 
ground  in  the  county.  In  1866  it  was  reported  that  plaster 
had  been  found  on  the  farm  of  Capt.  D.  S.  Jones,  near 
Harrisonburg,  and  also  on  the  farm  of  Emanuel  Rhodes.  In 
1867  Peruvian  guano  sold  in  Harrisonburg  at  $115  a  ton;  bone 
dust,  at  $70;  wheat,  at  $2.25  a  bushel;  sugar,  at  15  to  25  cents 
a  pound.     In  1868  G.  W.  Berlin  was  paying  50c  a  hundred 


Senator  I.  S.  Pennybacker 
(Pages  354,  355) 


for  dry  bones  (in  Harrisonburg),  and  $15  a  ton  (delivered  at 
his  mill  near  Bridgewater),  and  was  grinding  them  into  bone 
dust  for  farm  fertilizer.  In  1871  he  paid  $20  a  ton  for  bones, 
and  sold  the  bone  dust  at  $50  to  $55  a  ton.  In  1880  he  said 
that  Maj.  George  Chrisman  had  bought  from  him  from  two 
to  ten  tons  of  pure  ground  bone  nearly  every  year  during  the 
preceding  10  or  12  years. 

The  number  of  bushels  of  potatoes  raised  in  1910  was 
122,116;  of  sweet  potatoes  and  yams,  5058.  In  certain  sec- 
tions of  the  county,  particularly  about  Spring  Creek,  Bridge- 
water,  Mt  Crawford,  and  Timberville,  thousands  of  fine 
watermelons,  etc. ,  are  grown  every  year.  August  court  is 
known  as  "watermelon  court,"  the  reason  being  much  in 
evidence  all  around  the  public  square.  The  color  scheme  is 
red,  white,  and  green,  with  black  for  variation.  In  1901 — 
the  first  time  in  many  years— August  court  was  melonless, 
owing  to  lateness  of  the  crop. 

Rockingham  is  a  great  country  for  hay  and  forage.  In 
1910  over  45,000  tons  were  reported.  Timothy  and  clover, 
usually  mixed,  are  the  staple  hay-grasses.  Crimson  clover  and 
alfalfa  are  being  introduced.  The  lands  along  Smich's  Creek, 
Linville  Creek,  and  other  streams  are  excellent  for  grazing, 
and  in  consequence  the  cattle,  horses  and  sheep  of  the  county 
are  numbered  by  thousands  (see  page  181).  It  is  said  that 
in  1903  Rockingham  took  first  rank  in  livestock  values  in  the 
U.  S.  census  report. 

By  common  consent,  Geo.  W.  Rosenberger,  who  lived  at 
Rosendale,  on  Smith's  Creek,  is  regarded  as  the  pioneer  in 
bringing  fine  stock  into  Rockingham  County.  In  1842  he 
began  raising  improved  breeds  of  cattle,  sheep,  and  hogs; 
later,  he  secured  the  better  breeds  of  chickens,  turkeys,  and 
ducks.  2  About  1860,  a  herd  of  26  Durhams  of  his  raising,  21 
bullocks  and  5  heifers,  averaged  a  weight  of  1773  pounds;  the 
heaviest  weighing  1985,  the  lightest  1500.  From  lb66  to  1876, 
etc.,   he  was  selling  full-bred  Cotswold  sheep,    as  well   as 

2.  Rockingham  Register,  Jan.  3,  1867,  Jan.  31,  1878. 



shorthorn  cattle.  In  1874  he  bought  in  Kentucky  a  Cotswold 
buck  weighing  385  pounds.  In  1876  he  sold  to  John  F.  Lewis 
two  sheep  weighing  200  and  300  pounds,  respectively. 

In  the  70's  Peter  S.  Roller  and  Samuel  Frank,  of  the  vi- 
cinity of  Mt.  Crawford,  had  for  sale  Berkshire  pigs  and  short- 
horn calves.  For  many  years  past  John  S.  Funk,  John  B. 
Bowman,  and  others,  of  the  Singer's  Glen  neighborhood, 
have  won  numerous  prizes  at  Staunton,  Winchester,  Wood- 
stock, and  elsewhere  on  Shropshire,  Cotswold,  and  Southdown 
sheep,  etc. 

In  January,  1867,  Ephraim  Wenger,  near  Dayton,  killed 
a  beef  "which  weighed  over  1255  lbs.  nett!"  In  April  follow- 
ing. Col.  John  H.  Hopkins,  "of  the  North  Mountain  region," 
sold  25  head  of  fat  cattle,  to  Mr.  Hahn,  of  Shenandoah,  at 
$95  a  head.  In  1871,  D.  H.  Landis,  near  Harrisonburg,  was 
raising  Ohio  Chesters  and  Berkshires.  In  1880  Geo.  W. 
Adams,  of  Linville  Creek,  bought  of  Daniel  Byerly  four  cattle 
averaging  1802  pounds  each;  in  March,  1891,  Dr.  E.  A.  Her- 
ring, of  Cross  Keys,  sold  two  Durham  cattle  (twins),  named 
Tom  and  Jerry,  4  years  old  the  preceding  December,  that 
weighed  respectively  2040  and  2155  pounds;  and  in  January, 
1895,  John  F.  Myers  shipped  to  Roanoke  a  hog  (|  Poland- 
China,  J  Chester)  that  weighed  855  pounds.     (See  page  89.) 

After  Mr.  Rosenberger,  the  man  who  deserves  most 
gratitude  in  Rockingham  for  the  high  standards  set  in  stock- 
raising,  etc.,  is  doubtless  Maj.  George  Chrisman.  For  forty 
years  or  more  he  has  pointed  out  the  best  in  these  lines,  and 
has  shown  how  and  why  it  i&  the  best.  It  was  he  who  intro- 
duced Poland-China  and  Berkshire  hogs  into  Rockingham, 
following  the  war,  bringing  them  from  Illinois.^  From  1877 
to  1885  his  thoroughbred  cattle  were  awarded  premiums  at 
Staunton,  Winchester,  Culpeper,  Richmond,  and  Washington; 
from  1875  to  1896  he  contributed  to  the  Rockingham  Register 
no  less  than  two  dozen  articles  on  such  subjects  as  hog-raising, 
cattle-raising,  Percheron  horses,  farming,  fertilizers,  etc. 

3.  Rockingham  Register,  May  9,  1878. 



As  early  as  1867,  perhaps  earlier,  Sen.  John  F.  Lewis 
was  also  engaged  in  raising  fine  stock.  In  the  year  named 
he  brought  into  Rockingham  the  thoroughbred  race-horse, 
Engineer,  for  the  improvement  of  his  own  stock,  with  that 
of  his  neighbors.  He  also  raised  Durham  cattle  and  full- 
bred  sheep.  His  son,  John  F.  Lewis,  president  of  the  Virginia 
Pure  Bred  Live  Stock  Breeders  Association,  keeps  saddle  and 
Percheron  horses.  Shorthorn  cattle,  and  Berkshire  hogs. 

The  first  "thoroughbred"  horse  I  have  heard  of  in  Rock- 
ingham was  Sir  Rubycon,  advertised  in  March,  1833,  by  John 
W.  Dunlap;  the  most  famous  one  was  doubtless  Sam  Purdy, 
brought  to  Harrisonburg  in  1880  from  the  Pacific  slope,  a 
present  to  Capt.  F.  A.  Daingerfield  from  his  brother-in-law, 
James  R.  Keene.  Sam  Purdy  had  been  at  different  times  the 
property  of  Leland  Stanford,  and  Keene  had  paid  $50,000  for 
him.  He  was  in  Rockingham  about  ten  years,  but  died  in 
Culpeper  in  1891,  aged  25  years.  General  Miles,  a  Kentucky 
saddle-bred  horse,  the  property  of  Dr.  John  A.  Myers  of 
Harrisonburg,  has  been  in  the  county  about  16  years,  and  has 
a  great  progeny.  Thomas  Herring  and  Joseph  Clatterbuck, 
of  Dayton,  keep  fine  horses.  St.  Lorimer,  owned  by  Mr. 
Clatterbuck,  was  sired  by  St.  Blaze,  owned  by  J.  R.  Keene 
and  F.  A.  Daingerfield,  and  sold  for  $100,000.  One  of  St. 
Lorimer's  colts  recently  took  blue  ribbon  in  the  free  for  all 
heavy  jumpers'  contest  in  France.  Among  other  Rocking- 
ham gentlemen  who  have  done  notable  things  in  promot- 
ing stock  standards,  specially  of  horses,  are  M.  M.  Jarman, 
Elkton,  and  Garber  Brothers,  of  Harrisonburg.  Harrison- 
burg is  probably  the  greatest  horse  market  in  the  Valley. 
In  the  Register  of  March  31,  1881,  it  was  stated:  "About 
500  head  of  horses  have  been  bought  on  our  streets  within 
the  last  two  months. "  Every  court  day  brings  horses  and 
horse  buyers. 

As  may  be  supposed,  the  dairy  and  poultry  products  of 
Rockingham  are  very  large— the  quality  keeping  pace  with 
the  quantity.  In  April,  1866,  it  was  announced  in  the 
Register  that,  since  the  preceding  October,  Forrer  &  Clip- 



pinger,  local  merchants,  had  shipped  to  Baltimore  and  Wash- 
ington 25,000  pounds  of  butter,  which  had  won  such  a 
reputation  as  to  secure  for  the  said  firm  a  contract  to  supply 
$200's  worth  of  butter,  eggs,  etc.,  per  week,  to  the  White 
House.  During  the  two  years  ending  July  1,  1871,  there 
were  shipped  from  Linville  Depot  16,361  barrels  of  flour, 
504,743  pounds  of  mill  feed,  16,769  bushels  of  wheat,  and  241 
car  loads  of  live  stock.  On  a  single  day,  in  the  fall  or  winter 
of  1873,  600  pounds  of  butter  were  received  at  the  Cross 
Keys  store.  The  annual  shipment  of  butter  from  the  same 
place  amounted  in  value  to  $7000  or  $8000.  On  April  13, 
1877,  J.  B.  D.  Rhodes  &  Co.,  merchants  at  Spartapolis,  had 
on  hand  2000  dozen  eggs.  During  the  month  of  March,  1878, 
10,000  dozen  eggs  were  shipped  from  Broadway.  May  22, 
1894,  "Egg  Day"  at  the  Harrisonburg  express  office,  371 
cases,  containing  11,406  dozen  eggs,  were  shipped  north.  For 
the  year  ending  December  31,  1894,  the  following  express 
shipments  were  made  from  Bridgewater:  50,970  dozen  eggs; 
17,613  pounds  of  butter;  80,555  pounds  of  dressed  poultry; 
36,014  pounds  of  live  poultry;  1721  pounds  of  chestnuts  and 
dried  fruits.  And  this  was  before  the  railroad  came.  In 
December,  1895,  it  was  reported  that  over  8500  pounds  of 
poultry  had  been  shipped  from  Broadway  and  Timberville  in 
one  day.  At  present,  the  J.  A.  Burkholder  Produce  Co., 
Harrisonburg,  is  shipping  about  50  cars  of  poultry  and  75 
cars  of  eggs  a  year:  5000  chickens  and  6000  dozen  eggs  in  a 
car.  In  other  words,  they  send  off  each  month  over  20,000 
chickens  and  450,000  eggs. 

At  this  rate  something  must  be  done  to  keep  up  the 
supply;  and  it  is  being  done.  Nearly  everybody  in  the  county 
raises  chickens — people  in  the  smaller  towns  and  villages,  as 
well  as  those  on  the  farm.  S.  H.  Blosser  &  Son,  Dayton, 
have  a  hatchery  with  a  capacity  of  9900  eggs,  tri-weekly  be- 
coming chicks.  There  is  only  one  other  in  the  State  (the  one 
at  Riverton)  of  equal  size.  Near  Dayton  are  also  the  large 
poultry  yards  of  Senger  Brothers;  and  there  are  many  others, 
of  varying  sizes,  over  the  county.  A  yearly  poultry  show  is 
one  of  the  delights  of  the  county-seat. 



There  was  a  formal  movement  for  agricultural  societies 
in  the  Valley  as  early  as  1825-6,  the  General  Assembly  records 
showing;  and  closer  or  looser  organization  has  existed  among 
Rockingham  farmers,  from  time  to  time,  up  to  and  into  the 
present.  From  1874  to  1878  the  Grange  was  active  in  the 
county.  In  1874-5  local  organizations  were  perfected  at 
Bridgewater,  Mt.  Crawford,  McGaheysville,  Port  Republic, 
Conrad's  Store,  Zirkle's  School  House,  Melrose,  North  Moun- 
tain, and  Harrisonburg.  On  May  21,  1875,  a  great  demon- 
stration was  made  in  Harrisonburg  by  the  several  granges  of 
Rockingham  and  adjoining  counties.  Dr.  J.  B.  Webb,  of 
Cross  Keys,  was  installed  Master  of  the  county  grange;  M.  M. 
Sibert  was  made  secretary,  and  H.  B.  Harnsberger,  treasurer. 

In  March,  1878,  the  McGaheysville  grange  passed  resolu- 
tions acknowledging  the  services  of  Geo.  Chrisman,  John  F. 
Lewis,  and  Geo.  Rosenberger  in  improving  the  herds  and 
flocks  of  Rockingham.  From  1890  to  1893  the  Farmers' 
Alliance  was  much  in  evidence.  G.  T.  Barbee  of  Bridge- 
water  was  president  of  the  State  organization  in  1890. 

At  present  there  is  an  active  Rockingham  Farmers'  Asso- 
ciation. C.  B.  Kiser  of  Bridgewater  is  president;  C.  W. 
Wamplerof  Dayton  is  secretary;  there  are  five  directors,  one 
from  each  magisterial  district:  D.  C.  Acker  (Plains),  W.  S. 
Armentrout  (Linville),  Harry  Forrer  (Central),  C.  T.  Callen- 
der  (Ashby),  and  J.  C.  Armstrong  (Stonewall).  Another 
healthy  and  growing  organization  is  the  boys'  corn  club. 

April  14,  1870,  "Agricola, "  writing  in  the  Register,  pro- 
posed an  agricultural  fair  for  Rockingham.  In  November, 
1892,  the  first  annual  agricultural  fair  of  the  county  was  held 
at  Assembly  Park,  just  north  of  Harrisonburg.  In  Septem- 
ber of  the  next  year,  and  perhaps  for  a  year  or  two  longer, 
this  movement  was  kept  up.  In  August,  1898,  the  first  ex- 
hibition of  the  Rockingham  Horse  and  Colt  Show  Association 
was  held  in  Assembly  Park;  in  1901  the  annual  exhibition  was 
first  held  on  the  new  grounds,  just  west  of  town.  These 
horse  and  colt  shows  were  discontinued  a  few  years  ago;  but 
now,  upon  the  same  grounds,  while  these  lines  are  being 



written,  a  new  county  fair  is  being  held  (October,  1912). 
Maj.  Geo.  Chrisman  is  president;  Mr.  Paul  Rhinehart  is 
manager;  and  H.  M.  Strickler,  Esq.,  is  secretary. 

For  about  ten  years  past  an  annual  horse  and  stock  show 
has  been  held  at  Lacey  Spring;  Mr.  J.  S.  Sellers  is  president, 
and  Mr.  L.  B.  Morris  is  secretary. 

There  are  dozens  of  particular  farms  in  Rockingham  so 
well  situated  and  so  well  kept  as  to  make  the  observer,  what- 
ever he  is,  long  to  be  a  farmer.  Perhaps  the  most  famous 
of  all  these  farms  is  the  one  two  miles  west  of  Harrisonburg, 
on  the  Rawley  Pike,  until  recently  owned  by  James  E.  Reherd, 
now  the  property  of  Frank  B.  Showalter.  This  farm  has  been 
"written  up"  for  at  least  three  world's  fairs:  Chicago  (1893), 
St.  Louis  (1904),  and  Jamestown  (1907). 

Organization,  co-operation,  and  increasing  efficiency  are 
marking  the  progress  of  farming  and  farm  life  in  Rocking- 
ham. Farm  houses  are  being  constructed  and  furnished  with 
more  regard  for  convenience  and  comfort,  and  the  people  are 
learning  to  get  more  pleasure  and  culture,  as  well  as  more 
money,  out  of  their  farms.  Intensive  farming  and  better 
selection  and  adaptation  of  farm  products  will  soon  double 
results  on  our  farms  and  for  our  farmers.  The  following 
instance  is  presented  to  show  what  is  possible  in  Rockingham 
on  a  very  small  farm. 

A.  J.  Anderson  of  Bridgewater  has  a  farm  of  seven 
acres.  The  land  is  river  bottom— sandy  loam.  He  plants 
field  corn  and  potatoes  in  three  acres;  the  remaining  four 
acres  he  uses  as  a  truck  farm,  making  specialties  of  toma- 
toes, cucumbers,  cantaloupes,  beans,  and  sweet  corn.  Prac- 
tically the  whole  output  is  sold  at  retail  in  Harrisonburg  and 
other  nearby  towns.  In  1911  he  cleared  $1100.00.  This 
year  (1912),  up  to  August  15,  his  sales  amounted  to  $600.00. 
He  regards  the  total  receipts  from  the  four  acres  of  vege- 
tables as  clear  profit,  since  the  corn  and  potatoes  raised  on 
the  other  three  acres  pay  expenses  for  the  whole  farm. 



In  regard  to  manufactures,  the  same  general  conditions 
have  existed  and  the  same  general  changes  have  occurred  in 
Rockingham  County  as  in  the  country  at  large.  Early  times 
were  marked  by  a  great  many  and  a  great  variety  of  manu- 
factures in  small  establishments  and  in  the  homes  of  the 
people;  the  civil  war  stimulated  these  local  enterprises,  and 
called  forth  certain  ones  unknown  before;  the  boom  periods 
produced  larger  establishments  than  were  operated  before, 
but  which  were  usually  short-lived;  the  last  two  or  three 
decades  have  seen  most  of  the  small  factories  give  up  their 
business  to  a  few  large  ones. 

The  number  of  different  industrial  enterprises  in  our 
county  during  the  last  century  or  more  has  been  so  great  that 
nothing  more  than  a  desultory  catalogue  can  be  attempted 
here,  except  in  a  few  cases. 

Some  of  the  first  manufacturing  establishments,  and 
some  of  the  most  important  of  all,  were  flouring  mills,  built 
on  the  banks  of  the  numerous  power-giving  streams.  The 
Bird,  Zirkle,  and  Strickler  mills,  on  Smith's  Creek,  Plains  mill, 
below  Timberville,  Bowman's  mill,  on  Linville  Creek,  Paul's 
mill,  on  Beaver  Creek,  Carthrea's  mill,  at  Port  RepubHc, 
and  other  mills  on  South  River  and  tributary  streams,  were 
all  likely  built  a  hundred  years  or  more  ago.  The  40  mills 
now  in  the  county  form  one  of  our  most  important  branches 
of  industry. 

Tanners,  shoemakers,  harness  and  saddle  makers,  cabinet 
makers,  tailors,  weavers,  and  blacksmiths  were  on  the  ground, 
of  necessity,  from  very  early  days.  In  1839  Wm.  J.  Ford 
was  a  saddler  in  Harrisonburg;  in  1840  Henry  Smals  was  a 


shoemaker  in  Bridge  water;  for  50  years,  beginning  in  1850, 
John  W.  Jacobs  was  a  shoemaker  at  the  same  place.  In  1826 
Jacob  Houck  and  Samuel  Liggett  were  hatters  in  Harrison- 
burg; Liggett  had  perhaps  been  at  McGaheysville  beforehand. 
The  same  year  (1826)  John  Crummey  had  a  gunshop  in 
Harrisonburg;  other  gunsmiths  in  the  same  town,  about  1850, 
were  Alex.  McGilvray,  Geo.  S.  Logan,  and  Wm.  W.  Gibbs. 
In  1854  Isaac  Stone,  in  Dayton,  J.  M.  Irvine,  0.  C.  Sterling, 
and  J.  C.  WilHams,  in  Harrisonburg,  were  making  chairs, 
bedsteads,  and  other  furniture. 

A  large  number  of  tanneries  were  operated  from  time  to 
time  in  various  parts  of  the  county.  Soon  after  1800  the 
following  men  were  tanning  at  the  places  indicated:  John 
Zigler,  Timberville;  Michael  Wise,  Bridgewater;  Francis  A. 
Hite,  James  Clarke,  Abraham  Shue,  Abner  Fawcett,  and 
Jesse  Bowlin,  Harrisonburg.  In  1870  the  Zigler  Tannery, 
at  Timberville,  declared  to  be  one  of  the  best  in  the  Valley, 
was  still  running.  Later  tanners  at  or  near  Bridgewater 
were  Geo.  F.  Dinkle,  Philip  Phares,  and  A.  R.  Hollen.  In 
1842  George  Conrad  had  a  tanyard  in  Harrisonburg;  and  later 
tanners  here  were  H.  J.  Gray,  Jos.  Cline,  J.  A.  Loewenbach, 
and  Houck  &  Wallis.  Between  1860  and  1880  the  following 
were  tanners:  Jas.  0' Brian,  McGaheysville;  S.  P.  H.  Miller, 
Conrad's  Store;  S.  Burtner,  Keezletown;  V.  H.  Lamb,  near 
Bloomer  Springs;  Simon  Smith,  Edom;  Wm.  S.  Downs,  Port 
Republic;  John  Shutters,  Cootes'  Store;  and  somebody  at 
Peale's  Cross  Roads. 

In  1826  Henry  Tutwiler  made  buckskin  gloves  in  Harrison- 
burg, and  kept  postoffice.  About  the  same  time  John  Zigler 
had  a  hemp  mill  at  Timberville.  At  the  same  time  and  later 
Nelson  Sprinkel  had  a  shop  in  Harrisonburg  in  which  he 
made  all  sorts  of  spinning  wheels,  at  times  working  25  hands. 
He  would  send  out  these  wheels  by  wagons  into  all  the 
adjoining  counties,  trading  them  for  flax  seed,  bacon,  etc., 
as  well  as  money.  In  1839  J.  Meixell  &  Co.  were  making 
threshing  machines,  corn  shellers,  etc.,  at  Harrisonburg;  in 
1841  P.  A.  Clarke  was  manufacturing  air-tight  stoves  at  Mt. 



Crawford;  in  1844  C.  S.  Weaver  was  advertising  threshing 
machines  and  cloverseed  boxes  from  his  shop  '  'one  mile  below 
Davie  Kyle's  mill  on  Mill  Creek"; in  1854  John  W.  Showalter, 
near  Mt.  Crawford,  was  making  an  improved  sausage  machine; 
in  1858  Col.  Henry  Miller  of  E.  Rockingham  invented  and 
patented  a  corn  harvester;  in  1866  W.  H.  Karicofe  invented 
and  patented  the  Virginia  Corn  Planter,  a  half  interest  in 
which  he  sold  to  H.  J.  Gray  for  $5000;  in  1871  Miss  Mary  E. 
Long,  of  Lacey  Spring,  made  a  skein  of  fine  white  sewing 
silk,  from  cocoons  of  her  own  raising;  in  1873  S.  Loewner,  at 
Harrisonburg,  was  manufacturing  combs  of  different  styles? 
the  same  year,  at  the  same  town,  F.  Staling  was  making 
paint;  in  1877  R.  H,  Snyder  (Hbg.)  was  making  a  specialty 
of  grain  cradles;  in  1892  Calvert  McGahey,  of  Elkton,  invented, 
made,  and  patented  a  steam  engine;  in  1911  the  Miller  device 
for  train  control,  invented  by  H.  B.  Miller,  formerly  of 
Harrisonburg,  was  proved  a  success. 

For  many  years  J.  G.  Sprinkel,  Harrisonburg,  was  a 
skilful  metal  worker.  In  1857  he  and  Basford  invented  and 
patented  an  engine.  He  made  engines  under  his  patent,  and 
four  of  his  make  were  in  use  in  Rockingham  in  1861— one  of 
them  driving  the  press  of  the  Rockingham  Register.  He  also 
made  circular-saw  mills.  In  April,  1863,  he  was  advertising 
for  six  men  to  make  cavalry  steel  spurs. 

In  1862-3  Isaac  Reamer,  Conrad's  Store,  was  making  (by 
machine)  shoe  pegs  of  all  sizes  for  sale;  at  the  same  time  J. 
H.  Long,  Harrisonburg,  was  offering  5c  each  for  old  blacking 
boxes,  to  be  used  in  marketing  his  Ivory  Paste  Blacking.  In 
1840-41  Berger  &  Pope,  in  the  60's,  70's,  and  80's  Chas. 
Eshman,  and  later  others,  all  of  Harrisonburg,  were  manu- 
facturing cigars,  etc. ;  and  in  1888  it  was  stated  that  the  town 
manufactured  more  cigars  than  any  other  in  Virginia, 
except  Richmond.  Peter  Bolinger,  at  McGaheysville,  and 
Young  &  Cox,  Harrisonburg,  were  brewers  early  last  century. 
Peter  Dinkel,  Mt.  Stevens  (p.  201),  in  1822,  and  John 
Bowman,  Jr.,  near  Timberville,  in  1870,  had  distilleries;  in 
1867  J.  R.  Koogler  and  W.    P.    McCall   erected  on   Muddy 



Creek,  near  Rushville,  a  steam  distillery,  with  a  capacity  of 
200  to  250  gallons  of  whiskey  a  day.  In  the  Register  of  April 
8,  1875,  it  was  said:  So  far  this  season,  about  6000  lbs.  of 
Maple  sugar  has  been  made  in  the  upper  end  of  Brock's  Gap. 

Wagon  makers  and  potters  were  important  in  earlier 
days.  The  Rohrs  made  carriages  and  wagons  in  Harrison- 
burg for  half  a  century;  Joseph  Dinkle  was  a  pioneer  carriage 
maker  at  Bridgewater.  In  1826  G.  Cline  had  a  pottery  in 
Harrisonburg;  in  1830  John  Zigler  established  one  at  Timber- 
ville;  between  1860  and  1880  J.  H.  Kite,  near  Elkton,  Ire- 
land, Duey,  &  Shinnick,  at  Mt.  Crawford,  Emanuel  Suter, 
at  New  Erection,  and  J.  D.  Heatwole  (Potter  John),  on  Dry 
River,  were  making  all  sorts  of  earthen  ware.  About  1890 
large  potteries  were  started  at  Harrisonburg  and  Broadway. 

During  the  Revolution  Coonrad  Hansberger  (page  93) 
had  a  woolen  mill  on  Elk  Run,  site  of  Elkton.  Prior  to  1815 
Jonathan  Shipman  owned  a  woolen  mill  at  or  near  the  site  of 
Spring  Creek;  Abram  Whitmore  and  Thomas  Tousey  suc- 
ceeded him  in  ownership.'  In  the  40's  Michael  B.  Cline,  of 
Dayton,  was  doing  much  wool  carding;  Patrick  Kelly  was  a 
Rockingham  carder  and  fuller;  and  the  Blossers,  at  Dayton, 
were  operating  a  *'Silk,  Cotton,  and  Woolen  Dyeing  Estab- 
lishment." Between  1860  and  1873  no  less  than  12  factories 
for  carding,  spinning,  weaving,  or  dyeing  wool  were  operated 
in  the  county:  at  Riverton,  near  Conrad's  Store;  Port  Re- 
public; River  Bank;  on  Cub  Run;  on  Beaver  Creek;  Hollen's 
Mill;  Berlinton;  Mt.  Crawford;  Bridgewater;  and  elsewhere. 
The  leading  promoter  of  these  industries  was  J.  H.  Larkin; 
some  others  prominent  in  the  business  were  C.  M.  Harlow, 
A.  B.  Tanquary,  D.  C.  Anderson,  and  J.  F.  Bradburn. 

In  1880  the  Massanutten  Organ  Company  was  organized 
at  McGaheysville,  and  organs  were  manufactured  for  awhile. 
In  September,  1882,  the  Virginia  Organ  factory,  at  Dayton, 
was  started  in  a  2-story  building,  40  x  60  feet.  In  1886  the 
factory  burned,  about  70  organs  being  destroyed.     A  few 

1-  S.  H.  W.  Byrd  has  an  old  advertisement  of  this  mill  dated  June, 
1815.     Probably  this  was  the  same  mill  operated  later  by  Daniel  Thomas. 



years  ago  S.  A.  Myers  built  at  Dayton  a  large  pipe  organ, 
which  was  first  used  there  in  the  United  Brethren  church, 
and  which  is  now  in  the  Presbyterian  church  of  Waynesboro, 

In  different  parts  of  Rockingham  large  iron  furnaces 
have  been  operated:  In  Brock's  Gap,  by  the  Penny  backers; 
at  Paulington,  by  Faussett  and  others;  east  of  Elkton,  by 
Daniel  and  Henry  Forrer  and  others;  Mt.  Vernon  Furnace, 
in  Brown's  Gap:  etc.  Faussett  probably  started  the  furnace 
at  Paulington  prior  to  1800;  the  Forrers  were  in  control  east 
of  Elkton  for  many  years  before  1866;  Mt.  Vernon  Furnace, 
built  about  1848,  was  operated  by  the  Millers,  John  F.  Lewis, 
and  others  at  intervals  until  1878.2  Mt.  Vernon  Forge  was 
at  Grottoes;  and  there  have  been  foundries  at  Port  Republic 
and  elsewhere  for  many  years.  In  the  70's  J.  Shickel  &  Sons 
had  a  foundry  and  machine  shop  near  Rushville;  from  1877 
to  1885  Jos.  Shickel  was  superintendent  of  the  Broadway 
foundry  and  machine  shop;  in  1877  a  foundry  and  machine 
shop  were  built  at  Natural  Falls  above  Bridgewater. 

Among  the  different  manufacturing  enterprises  in  Rock- 
ingham at  present  are  the  woolen  mill,  the  canning  factory, 
the  carriage  factory,  and  the  plow  factory  at  Bridgewater; 
the  harness  factory,  working  about  30  hands,  the  creamery, 
and  the  Shrum  Brick  factory  at  Dayton ;  the  Fravel  Sash  and 
Door  Factory,  Houck's  tannery,  and  Bradley's  foundry  at 
Harrisonburg;  Paxton's  lime  kiln  at  Linville;  the  Timberville 
creamery;  Cover's  tannery,  at  Elkton,  and  the  Elkton 
creamery;  the  Whitesel  poultry  coop  factory,  at  Pleasant 
Valley,  from  which  more  than  65,000  coops  have  been  sent  out. 

The  Bradley  foundry  was  operated  in  the  50's  by  Nelson 
Bradley  and  others;  from  1866  to  1878,  by  P.  Bradley  and  J. 
Wilton;  since  1878,  by  P.  Bradley  and  his  sons.  The  Houck 
tannery  has  been  developed  from  the  earlier  establishment 

3.  I  acknowledge  information  concerning  Mt.  Vernon  Furnace  re- 
ceived from  Messrs.  J.  H.  Mace,  J.  W.  Blackburn,  and  R.  T.  Miller;  and 
concerning  Faussett's  furnace,  from  Messrs.  John  A.  Armentrout  and 
J.  H.  Mace. 



of  J.  A.  Loewenbach  and  others.  The  Elkton  tannery  was 
built  by  John  Cover  in  1872.  Its  present  output  is  220  sides 
of  heavy  sole  leather  daily.  The  Miller  cannery  at  Bridge- 
water,  the  first  in  the  county,  dates  from  1888.  Its  products 
take  high  rank.  The  Bridgewater  woolen  mill,  which  alone 
survives  of  all  the  Rockingham  woolen  mills,  was  started  in 
1872.  J.  F.  Bradburn  was  superintendent  for  many  years. 
H.  G.  Miller  is  president;  J.  A.  Fry  secretary  and  treasurer. 
The  output  of  its  products  is  inadequate  to  the  demand  for 
them.  The  Bridgewater  plow  factory,  with  John  P.  Burke, 
J.  A.  Fry,  and  D.  S.  Thomas  as  president,  secretary,  and 
manager,  makes  a  specialty  of  the  Superior  garden  plows, 
turning  out  about  10,000  yearly.  The  Timberville  creamery, 
E.  M.  Minnick  president,  W.  C.  Hoover  secretary,  was  making 
100  gallons  of  ice  cream  and  1000  pounds  of  butter  a  week 
during  the  past  summer. 

Besides  the  things  already  mentioned,  brooms,  barrels, 
etc. ,  by  the  thousands,  tanks  of  apple  butter  and  bergs  of  ice 
are  made  in  Rockingham  every  year. 

The  extent  and  variety  of  our  local  manufactures  having 
thus  been  indicated,  a  detailed  account  is  now  presented  of 
that  particular  manual  art  in  which  our  mothers  and  grand- 
mothers have  most  excelled.  This  account  is  a  special 
contribution  to  this  work. 

Hand- Weaving  in  Rockingham  County. 

By  Professor  Cornelius  J.  Heatwole. 

....  The  piece  prepare 
And  order  every  slender  thread  with  care; 
The  web  enwraps  the  beam,  the  reed  divides. 
While  through  the  widening  space  the  shuttle  glides, 
Which  their  swift  hands  receive,  then  poised  with  lead 
The  swinging  weight  strikes  close  the  inserted  thread." 

Ovid's  Metamorphoses. 

A  century  or  more  ago  hand-weaving  was  the  usual 
means  of  making  the  cloth  used  in  the  colonial  homes  from 
the  Carolinas  to  New  England.     The  hand-loom   formerly 



used  in  the  colonies,  and  occasionally  still  used  in  some  homes 
in  Rockingham  county,  is  an  historic  machine  of  great 
antiquity  and  dignity.  It  is  perhaps  the  most  absolute 
bequest  of  the  past  centuries,  which  we  have  had  unchanged 
in  domestic  use,  to  the  present  time.  In  some  of  the  famous 
paintings  of  the  year  1335  you  can  see  just  such  looms  as 
many  of  our  grandparents  had  in  their  homes  in  Rockingham 

The  whole  process  of  converting  the  wool  or  flax  into 
yarn  went  on  often  in  close  proximity  to  the  loom,  and  was 
carried  on  by  some  member  of  the  household  as  a  by-industry. 
The  term  "spinster"  has  come  down  to  us  from  this  occu- 

'  'The  first  half  of  the  present  century  saw  a  race  between 
spinning  and  weaving.  The  first  found  its  evolution  to 
machinery;  and  then  led  the  way  for  similar  means  of  carry- 
ing on  the  weaving  industry.  By  1850  combers,  spinners, 
and  weavers  were  no  longer  individual  workers,  but  became 
a  part  of  that  great  monster  the  mill  machinery."^ 

When  the  pioneer  settlers  came  to  Rockingham  county 
from  1730  to  1750  to  make  their  homes,  one  of  the  first 
machines  they  set  up  was  the  old  loom.  It  found  its  abiding 
place  in  one  of  the  rooms  of  the  main  house  or  in  a  shed 
attached  to  the  house;  sometimes  in  the  attic;  and  often  a 
house  was  built  especially  for  the  loom.  There  are  at  pres- 
ent, particularly  in  the  western  part  of  the  county,  many 
homes  that  have  a  building  about  the  premises  known  to  this 
day  as  the  "loom  house."  If  one  were  to  look  carefully 
about  in  one  of  these  buildings,  one  could  find  here  the  old 
loom  resting  in  peace,  as  a  relic  of  bygone  days.  It  is  some- 
times even  now  called  into  service  for  the  making  of  a  piece 
of  rag  carpet. 

The  operating  of  the  loom,  together  with  the  accessory 
occupations,  such  as  spinning  and  carding,  were  duties 
assigned  to  the  women  of  the  household.     The  mother  took 

3.  Earle's  Home  Life  in  Colonial  Days,  page  231. 



the  weaving  side  of  the  work,  while  the  daughters  did  the 
spinning  and  spooling.  During  the  spring  months  the  loom 
was  occupied  with  the  making  of  rag  carpet,  while  in  the  fall 
it  was  used  for  making  the  requisite  amount  of  clothing  and 
linen  for  the  household— jeans  (usually  grey)  for  suits  for 
the  men  and  boys;  linsey  (chestnut  browns,  dull  blues,  and 
Scotch  plaids)  was  the  material  used  for  the  wearing  apparel 
for  the  women  and  children.  Sometimes  a  piece  of  linen  for 
the  table,  towels  and  counterpanes,  were  made  during  the 
fall.  The  flax  used  in  making  these  articles  was  grown  in 
a  little  patch  near  the  house,  and  was  harvested  and  prepared 
for  the  loom  by  the  women. 

During  one  generation  the  old  loom  would  turn  out  a 
number  of  those  rare  products  of  the  weaver's  art,  the  cov- 
erlets. The  size  of  the  family  usually  determined  the  num- 
ber of  these;  for  every  ambitious  housewife  desired  that  each 
one  of  her  children  should  have  at  least  one  of  these  inter- 
esting, and  in  many  respects  artistic,  bed  covers.  These 
were  made  and  carefully  stored  away  in  a  chest,  and  were 
presented  to  the  children  on  their  wedding  day.  The  coverlet 
is  probably  the  highest  form  of  the  hand-weaver's  art. 

The  woolen  blanket  was  a  product  also  of  the  hand-loom. 
Each  member  of  the  family  fell  heir  to  one,  when  she  left 
the  old  homestead  to  establish  a  new  home  of  her  own.  All 
the  work  attending  the  preparation  of  the  wool  for  these 
fabrics,  such  as  washing,  combing,  carding,  and  spinning, 
was  done  on  the  premises  by  the  women. 

The  various  colors  used  in  dyeing  these  household  fab- 
rics, particularly  the  carpets  and  linseys,  were  usually  the 
bright,  warm  colors:  red,  yellow,  green,  and  blue;  though 
sometimes  the  more  delicate  shades  were  obtained.  These 
colors  were  arranged  in  patterns  of  stripes  either  in  the  warp, 
or  chain,  or  in  the  woof,  and  sometimes  in  both.  The  sources 
from  which  these  dyes  were  obtained  were  largely  vegetable, 
and  procured  according  to  the  most  primitive  methods.  The 
hickory  bark  furnished  the  yellows,  walnut  bark  or  hulls  made 
the  rich  browns,  sumac  berries  produced  the  deep  warm  reds, 



oak  yielded  the  shades  of  purple,  and  the  cedar  berries  fur- 
nished the  delicate  dove,  or  lead  color.  The  simplest  method 
of  extracting  the  coloring  matter  from  these  vegetables  was 
employed.  The  bark  was  put  into  a  large  kettle  and  boiled 
for  several  hours,  and  then  the  wool  and  rags  were  immersed 
in  this  liquid  and  hung  upon  the  line  or  fence  to  dry. 

The  work  preparatory  to  the  actual  weaving  was  prob- 
ably the  most  difficult  phase  of  the  whole  process.  The  per- 
son planning  the  article  to  be  made  on  the  loom  must  have 
skill  in  handling  the  instruments,  mathematical  accuracy  for 
grouping  threads  and  determining  the  size  and  proportion  of 
the  piece.  The  aesthetic  taste  of  the  individual  was  shown 
in  the  choosing  of  the  patterns  and  in  the  selection  and  com- 
bining of  colors. 

After  coloring  the  chain,  which  was  usually  on  sale  at 
all  country  stores,  and  known  as  "prepared  chain,"  the 
skeins  were  placed  upon  the  swift  and  run  upon  spools  or 
quills.  These  spools  were  generally  made  of  corn  cobs,  and 
the  quills  of  the  stalk-part  of  the  weed  known  to  the  German 
people  as  "Boova  Strahl,"  but  to  others  as  teasel.  The  main 
reason  for  using  these  was  because  the  pith  was  easily 
removed.  Sometimes  these  quills  were  made  of  rolls  of  paper 
and  paste. 

These  spools,  filled  to  the  requisite  number,  were  placed 
in  the  spool-rack  or,  in  the  parlance  of  the  weavers  of  some 
sections  of  the  country,  the  "skarne."  This  is  a  large  frame, 
with  every  few  inches  small  sticks  or  wires  running  through, 
upon  which  the  spools  were  placed.  A  thread  is  gathered 
from  each  one  of  these  spools  and  run  through  holes  in  a 
paddle  so  that  the  weaver  can  gather  the  threads  into 
"bouts"  and  run  them  upon  the  warping  bars.  The  warping 
bars  are  an  upright  frame  revolving  with  one  end  of  the  axle 
on  a  pivot  on  the  floor  and  the  other  at  the  ceiling.  The 
bars  upon  which  the  warp-threads  were  wound  were  one 
yard  apart,  and  so  the  length  of  the  threads,  and  also  the 
length  of  the  piece  of  cloth,  was  determined.  One  takes  off 
twenty  yards  of  thread  if  one  wants  to  weave  twenty  yards 



of  cloth.  Forty  warp-threads  make  what  is  called  a  "bout,'^ 
and  a  warp  of  two  hundred  threads  was  designated  as  a  warp 
of  five  "bouts." 

From  the  warping  bars  these  bouts  were  wound  upon 
the  warping  beam  of  the  loom.  The  bouts  however  were 
first  passed  through  the  "wrathe,"  or  rake,  a  wooden  bar 
with  rows  of  closely  set  wooden  pegs.  This  rake  kept  the 
bouts  from  becoming  entangled,  and  gave  the  warp  the 
proper  width  as  it  was  wound  upon  the  beam.  This  particu- 
lar process  of  winding  the  warp  upon  the  beam  was  known 
as  "beaming  the  piece."  It  took  two  persons  to  do  this,  one 
to  turn  the  beam  and  the  other  to  hold  and  guide  the  warp. 

The  next  process  in  the  order  of  placing  the  warp  upon 
the  loom  was  called  "drawing  in."  The  end  of  each  thread 
or  group  of  threads  was  "thumbed  in"  with  a  warping  needle 
through  the  eye  or  mail  of  the  harness,  or  "heddle."  The 
harness  was  commonly  called  "gears"  by  the  weavers,  and 
consisted  of  two  rows  of  twine  or  cord  stretched  vertically 
between  two  horizontal  bars,  which  were  fastened  above  to  a 
pulley  and  below  to  a  foot-treadle. 

The  warp-threads  were  next  drawn  through  the  inter- 
spaces of  the  reed,  or  sley.  This  was  done  with  a  "reed- 
hook."  Two  or  more  warping  threads  were  drawn  through 
each  space.  The  reed,  or  sley,  was  composed  of  a  row  of 
thin  strips  of  cane  arranged  somewhat  like  comb-teeth,  and 
called  "dents."  There  might  be  fifty  or  sixty  of  these  dents 
to  an  inch  for  weaving  very  fine  cloth.  The  number  of  dents  to 
the  inch  determines  the  fineness  of  the  cloth.  The  reed  when 
filled  was  placed  in  a  groove  in  the  heavy  batten,  or  "lathe," 
which  hung  by  two  side  bars  and  swung  from  an  axle,  or 
"rocking- tree, "  at  the  top  of  the  loom.  The  swinging  of 
this  batten  "strikes  close  the  inserted  thread,"  as  Ovid  puts 
it,  and  produces  that  thwacking  sound  heard  in  hand-weav- 
ing. All  the  threads  thus  drawn  are  brought  over  the 
front  frame  of  the  loom  and  fastened  in  the  cloth-beam  and 
wound  round  it.  By  means  of  ratchets  connected  with  the 
cloth-beam  and  the  warp-beam  the  warp  is  stretched  up  and 
the  piece  is  ready  for  weaving. 


Hand-Woven  Coverlets     (Pas-e  382) 


The  temples  are  adjustable  bars  with  sharp  teeth-like 
pegs  in  the  ends  to  catch  in  the  selvage  to  keep  the  cloth 
uniform  in  width.  The  shuttle  is  an  instrument  that  contains 
the  woof,  and  is  thrown  from  one  side  of  the  loom  to  the 
other  by  the  weaver's  hand,  and  by  moving  the  harness  with 
the  foot  the  shuttle  goes  over  every  alternate  thread.  With 
the  motion  of  the  batten  the  weft-threads  are  crowded  into 
place,  and  thus  the  operation  continues  till  the  piece  is 

Some  one  has  calculated  that  in  weaving  three  yards  of 
close  woolen  cloth,  which  was  regarded  as  a  day's  work,  the 
shuttle  was  thrown  three  thousand  times,  and  the  treadle 
pressed  down  and  the  batten  swung  the  same  number  of 
times.  The  number  of  yards  regarded  by  the  housewife  as 
a  day's  work  depended  upon  the  kind  of  cloth.  With  the 
finer  fabrics,  such  as  linen  and  jeans,  three  or  four  yards 
was  a  good  day's  work;  while  with  carpets  as  many  as  ten 
yards  have  been  woven  in  a  day,  though  six  or  eight  yards  of 
carpet  was  regarded  as  a  good  day's  work.  In  an  old  copy  of 
the  Rockingham  Register,  dated  March  2,  1871,  it  was  reported 
that  a  married  lady  living  in  Harrisonburg,  age  fifty-seven, 
had  woven  in  the  past  three  years,  on  an  old  fashioned-loom, 
1800  yards  of  carpet,  besides  attending  to  her  domestic  duties. 
It  is  safe  to  say  there  were  hundreds  of  these  old  looms  in 
Rockingham  county  during  the  last  half  of  the  nineteenth 
century,  and  thousands  of  yards  of  the  various  kinds  of  cloth 
and  carpets  were  turned  out  annually  by  them.  The  price 
paid  for  the  weaving  of  carpet  was  from  ten  to  twelve  cents 
per  yard;  for  jeans,  linseys,  and  linens  the  price  was 
considerably  more,  probably  from  twenty-five  cents  to  fifty 
cents  per  yard. 

The  loom  was  made  of  heavy  timber,  and  the  ordinary 
carpenter  in  the  community  could  make  it.  Sometimes  it 
happened  that  one  person  specialized  in  this  particular  line, 
and  made  looms  as  a  business.  It  is  known  that  Samuel 
Weaver  made  many  looms  in  the  western  part  of  the  county, 
on  the  farm  now  owned  by  Mr.  Elias  Brunk.     A  man  by  the 




name  of  Lamb  made  looms  in  the  section  locally  known  as 
"The  Brush."  John  G.  Heatwole  also  made  many  looms  on 
the  farm  now  owned  by  Mr.  Abram  Heatwole,  a  few  miles 
north  of  Dayton.  These  men  got  any  where  from  eight  to 
ten  dollars  for  doing  the  carpenter  work  on  one  of  these 

Just  how  many  of  these  old  looms  may  be  found  now 
within  the  bounds  of  Rockingham  county  is  hard  to  say;  and 
how  many  are  now  and  then  brought  out  for  a  piece  of  rag 
carpet  can  hardly  be  ascertained  without  a  great  deal  of  effort. 
The  people  in  the  county  of  German  extraction  are  still  given 
to  making  rag  carpets,  to  a  great  extent.  The  hand-looms 
are  probably  never  used  any  more  for  the  making  of  such 
fabrics  as  linen,  wool  blankets,  coverlets,  linseys,  etc.  Now- 
adays one  often  notices  in  bills  of  sale,  particularly  where  an 
old  household  is  being  broken  up,  the  "old  loom"  mentioned 
as  one  of  the  articles  for  sale,  and  when  put  up  it  generally 
goes  for  the  meager  amount  of  seventy-five  cents,  or  at  most 
for  a  few  dollars.  One  was  sold  a  few  months  ago  at  a 
public  sale  for  fifty  cents. 

The  old  Rockingham  county  loom  is  fast  approaching  the 
period  of  its  history  when  it  will  be  regarded  as  a  relic  of  the 
past.  Its  products,  such  as  linen  for  table  cloths,  coverlets, 
and  blankets,  are  already  being  treasured  by  the  present 
generation,  and  valued  for  their  associations.  In  almost 
every  household,  if  you  should  speak  of  these  rare  products 
of  the  old  loom,  the  housewife  would  go  to  a  chest  of  drawers 
and  bring  out,  from  a  safe  keeping  place,  pieces  of  the 
various  kinds  of  cloth  woven  on  the  old  ancestral  loom.  It 
is  to  be  hoped  that  some  one  who  has  a  proper  appreciation 
of  the  things  of  the  past  will  make  a  collection  of  the  old 
looms,  their  accompanying  paraphernalia,  and  their  inter- 
esting products,  and  preserve  them  in  a  suitable  museum  for 
the  information  and  interest  of  the  coming  generations. 


First,  let  us  notice  briefly  the  Rockingham  banks  that  are 
not  now  in  operation. 

By  Act  of  Assembly,  March  16,  1850,  the  Rockingham 
Savings  Bank  was  chartered,  being  authorized  to  discount 
paper  and  do  a  general  banking  business.  The  capital  stock 
was  not  to  exceed  $100,000.  John  Kenney,  Ed.  H.  Smith, 
Robt.  M.  Kyle,  Peachy  R.  Harrison,  Robt.  Grattan,  Wm.  G. 
Stevens,  Abraham  Smith,  M.  Harvey  Efflnger,  Isaac  Hardesty, 
and  John  H.  Waterman  were  named  as  incorporators. 

In  1852-3  several  Acts  were  passed  to  establish  branches 
of  certain  banks  at  Harrisonburg. 

February  24,  1860,  an  Act  was  passed  incorporating 
the  Harrisonburg  Savings  Bank.  The  commissioners  named 
were  Saml.  Shacklett,  Isaac  G.  Coffman  [page  139],  Alfred 
Sprinkle,  L.  W.  Gambill,  Wm.  D.  Trout,  John  D.  Penny- 
backer  [page  295],  Thos.  L.  Yancey,  Saml.  R.  Sterling, 
David  Kingree. 

In  the  60's  and  70's  Jonas  A.  Loewenbach  (Dec.  25,  1828 
— Dec.  22,  1907)  did  a  good  deal  of  banking  business  in 

On  April  2,  1873,  an  Act  was  passed  incorporating  Rock- 
ingham Bank,  Ed.  S.  Kemper,  B.  G.  Patterson,  J.  W.  F. 
Allemong  [page  232] ,  M.  Y.  Partlow,  Chas.  A.  Yancey,  Jos. 
A.  Hammon,  J.  A.  Lowenbach,  Jas.  L.  Avis,  Jacob  Gassman, 
and  Wm.  McKeever  being  named  as  commissioners.  The 
bank  was  opened  for  business,  July  1,  1874,  in  a  portion  of 
A  M.  Effinger's  bookstore,  south  side  of  the  public  square, 
Harrisonburg.  This  was  probably  in  the  Switzer  building. 
Henry  Shacklett  was  president,  Wm.  Rice  Warren  cashier; 
the  directors  were  W.  D.  Hopkins,  J.  A.  Hammon,  C.  A. 


Yancey,  Jas.  L.  Avis,  E.  S.  Kemper,  Andrew  Lewis,  J.  S. 
Harnsberger,  and  G.  M.  Effinger.^  Mr.  Warren  was  cashier 
till  his  death  in  1883;  from  1883  to  1886  Mr.  W.  J.  Dingledine 
was  cashier;  he  was  succeeded  by  Mr.  C.  D.  Beard.  About 
1889  Rockingham  Bank  was  succeeded  by  the  Commercial 
Bank  of  Harrisonburg,  which  was  in  business  for  several 
years.  Messrs.  J.  J.  Hawse,  Eugene  West,  and  Wm.  Loeb 
were  connected  with  these  institutions  during  the  later  years 
of  their  history. 

In  1878  the  Farmers  Bank  was  organized  at  Bridgewater. 
A  building  was  erected  for  it  in  1883,  at  the  corner  of  Bank 
Street  and  Main.  At  first  the  officers  were;  J.  W.  F.  Alle- 
mong,  president;  J.  S.  Loose,  cashier;  0.  B.  Loose,  teller. 
In  1889  S.  H.  W.  Byrd  was  made  cashier.  In  1891  the 
directors  were  Jas.  F.  Lowman,  J.  W.  F.  Allemong,  and  B.  M. 
Rice.     This  bank  closed  business  in  1892  - 

In  March,  1891,  a  bank  was  opened  at  Shendun  (Grot- 
toes), W.  P.  Roberts  and  James  Martin,  of  Lynchburg,  being 
president  and  cashier,  respectively  This  bank  was  still  in 
operation  in  December,  1892, 

Let  us  next  take  a  glance  at  the  nine  banks  now  doing 
business  in  the  county. 

In  1853  an  Act  was  passed  authorizing  the  establishment 
of  the  Citizens'  Bank  of  Virginia,  in  the  town  of  Harrison- 
burg. Robt.  Gray,  Harvey  Kyle,  and  ten  other  gentlemen 
were  named  as  commissioners.  The  next  Assembly  changed 
the  name  to  Bank  of  Rockingham.  In  1854  A.  B.  Irick  was 
president;  C.  C.  Strayer,  cashier;  A.  E.  Heneberger,  clerk 
and  teller.  It  "commenced  operation  in  the  stone  building 
next  door  to  the  Post  Office"  (the  Waterman  house— see 
page  192) .  This  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  bank  in  the 
county;  but  if  any  of  those  projected  in  1850-3,  noted  above, 
were  actually  started,  it  may  not  have  been  the  first. 

In  April,  1863,  the  Bank  of  Rockingham  was  located  in 

1.  Rockingham  Register,  July  3  and  Aug.  27,  1874. 
3.  Information  given  by  Mr.  S.  H.  W.  Byrd. 



the  Exchange  Hotel  building  (C.  C.  Clapp,  propr.).=^  This 
was  the  house  on  the  north  side  of  the  public  square,  built  by 

A.  Bt  Irick,  in  which  Dr.  Frank  L.  Harris  till  recently  had 
his  office.  In  August,  1865,  it  was  reorganized  as  the  First 
National  Bank  of  Harrisonburg,  the  officers  continuing  as 
named  above.  C.  C.  Strayer  was  cashier  from  1854  to  1888; 
then  he  was  succeeded  by  L.  C.  Myers.^  Mr.  L.H.  Otthas  the 
first  safe  used  by  the  bank.  The  total  on  each  side  of  the 
financial  statement  published  April  13,  1866,  was  $247,148.11. 
In  October,  1866,  the  bank  was  moved  into  its  new  building 
opposite  Hill's  Hotel.  The  present  building  was  erected  in 
1903.  L.  C.  Myers  is  president,  Geo.  E.  Sipe  vice-president, 
C.  H.  Chandler  cashier,  and  C.  D.  Beard  assistant  cashier. 
The  total  on  each  side  of  the  financial  statement  published 
Sept.  4,  1912,  was  $1,648,894.34. 

The  Planters  Bank  of  Bridgewater  was  opened  for 
business  February  3,  1898.  Jos.  H.  Craun  was  president;  John 
W.  Cline,  vice-president;  Jas.  R.  Shipman,  cashier.  The 
original  board  of  directors  were  J.  H.  Craun,  J.  W.  Cline, 
John  W.  Wise,  Robt.  J.  Miller,  and  John  S.  Garber. 

The  present  officers  are:  J.  W.  Cline,  president;  W.  H. 
Sipe,  vice-president;  J.  R.  Shipman,  cashier;  S.  H.  W.  Byrd, 
assistant  cashier.  The  present  directors  are  J.  W.  Cline,  W. 
H.  Sipe.  J.  Newton  Wilson,  J.  S.  Garber,  G.  Ed.  Miller,  N. 

B.  Wise,  and  ICd.  G.  Crist.  Miss  Ida  Thomas  has  been  a 
valued  assistant  in  the  bank  for  a  number  of  years. 

Business  was  begun  with  a  paid  up  capital  of  $4000. 
The  balanced  total  in  the  published  statement  of  April  18, 
1912,  was  $145,014.57. 

The  Rockingham  National  Bank,  Harrisonburg,  was 
organized  December  21,  1899.  The  shareholders  present 
elected  the  following  directors:  Andrew  M.  Newman,  Jr., 
Geo.  G.  Grattan,  Aaron  H.  Wilson,  Jesse  R.  Cover,  and  Jacob 
Funkhouser.     These  directors   held  their    first    session    on 

s.  Rockingham  Register,  April  24,  1863. 
4.  Idem,  Feb.  2,  1866;  Apr.  30,  1897. 



January  10,  1900,  and  elected  A.  M.  Newman,  Jr.,  president* 
and  A.  H.  Wilson,  vice-president.  They  also  elected  W.  J. 
Dingledine  cashier  and  Ernest  S.  Strayer  teller.  The  bank 
opened  for  business  on  March  15,  1900,  with  a  capital  of 
$50,000.  The  directors  are:  Geo.  G.  Grattan,  Samuel  Forrer, 
Samuel  M.  Bowman,  A.  H.  Long,  Jno.  B.  Peale,  J.  R,  Cover, 
Jacob  S.  Sellers,  T.  N.  Haas,  Jno.  I.  Harnsberger,  F.  M. 
Stinespring,  C.  G.  Harnsberger. 

The  officers  and  employees  are:  G.  G.  Grattan,  president; 

C.  G.  Harnsberger,  vice-president;  W.  J.  Dingledine,  cashier; 
S.  D.  Myers,  assistant  cashier;  C.  H.  Mauzy,  teller;  E.  R. 
Lineweaver,  A.  R.  Ruff,  R.  L.  Coffman,  bookkeepers;  A.  J. 
Crawn,  Clerk;  Miss  Flavia  Converse,  stenographer. 

The  capital  of  the  bank  is  now  $60,000:  surplus  and 
profits,  $65,000;  deposits,  $600,000;  loans  $600,000;  resources, 

The  First  National  Bank  of  Broadway  was  opened  for 
business  April  24,  1903,  with  $25,000  capital  stock.  The 
directors  were  Geo.  S.  Aldhizer,  B.  F.  Helbert,  J.  P.  Miller, 

D.  B.  Sites,  D.  F.  Geil,  J.  W.  Grim,  and  T.  J.  Pennybacker. 
Mr.  Aldhizer  was  president,  Mr.  Helbert  vice-president,  and 
Mr.  Grim  cashier.  The  following  gentlemen  now  constitute 
the  board  of  control,  with  organization  as  indicated:  D.  F. 
Geil,  president;  B.  F.  Helbert,  vice-president;  T.  C.  Aldhizer, 
cashier;  G.  S.  Aldhizer,  A.  R.  Miller,  Jos.  Shank,  J.  M.  Kline, 
and  A.  M.  Turner.  The  balanced  total  in  the  financial  state- 
ment made  Sept.  4,  1912,  was  $104,828.28. 

The  Bank  of  Elkton  was  organized  in  November,  1903, 
and  opened  for  business  February  8,  1904.  James  E. 
Leebrick  was  president,  C.  G.  Harnsberger  vice-president, 
and  I.  L.  Flory  cashier.  The  directors  were  J.  E.  Leebrick, 
C.  G.  Harnsberger,  J.  T.  Heard,  W.  E.  Kite,  M.  M.  Jarman, 
W.  J.  Dingledine,  and  Geo.  G.  Grattan,  Sr.  The  present 
officers  are,  C.  G.  Harnsberger,  president;  J.  T.  Heard,  vice- 
president;  and  W.  H.  McVeigh,  cashier.  The  present  board 
of  directors  is  composed  of  the  following  gentlemen:  C.  G. 
Harnsberger,  J.  T.  Heard,  W.  E.  Kite,  A.  P.  Yancey,  and  L 



h.  Flory.     The  balanced  total  in  the  financial  report  published 
Sept.  4,  1912,  was  $99,213.77. 

The  Bank  of  Dayton  was  organized  in  1906,  by  the  people 
of  Dayton,  with  Jno.  M.  Flory  as  principal  solicitor,  with  a 
capital  stock  of  $10,000.  This  was  increased  to  $20,000  in 
1910.  Doors  were  opened  for  business  March  2,  1906.  The 
original  officers  were,  E.  C.  Ralston,  president;  J.  M.  Kagey, 
vice-president;  N.  R.  Crist,  cashier;  directors:  E.  C.  Ralston, 
J.  M.  Kagey,  J.  M.  Snell,  J.  M.  Flory,  J.  Wilton,  J.  H. 
Rhodes,  Jos.  F.  Heatwole.  The  present  officers  are  E.  C. 
Ralston,  president;  J.  M.  Kagey,  vice-president;  N.  R.  Crist, 
cashier;  present  directors:  E.  C.  Ralston,  J.  M.  Kagey,  J.  H. 
Rhodes,  J.  H.  Ruebush,  Joe.  K.  Ruebush,  L.  M.  Hollen,  E. 
W.  Burkholder,  J.  N.  Shrum,  Jno.  T.  Wright.  The  balanced 
total  in  the  financial  statement  published  Sept.  4,  1912,  was 

The  Bank  of  Grottoes  was  opened  for  business  February 
17,  1908,  J.  M.  Koiner,  J.  S.  Pirkey,  D.  E.  Ham,  J.  D.  Alex- 
ander, G.  R.  Root,  M.  D.  Eutsler,  W.  A.  Leeth,  W.  C.  Patter- 
son, C.  L.  Weast,  D.  H.  Patterson,  and  J.  F.  Miller  being 
directors.  Mr.  Koiner  was  president,  Mr.  Pirkey  1st  vice- 
president,  Mr.  Geo.  M.  Nicholas  2d  vice-president,  and  Mr. 
Root  cashier.  At  present  the  officers  and  directors  are  the 
following.  M.  D.  Eutsler,  president;  E.  L.  Weast,  vice- 
president;  G.  R.  Root,  cashier;  Philip  R.  Cosby,  assistant 
cashier;  J.  S.  Pirkey,  J.  M.  Pirkey,  D.  H.  Patterson,  W.  A. 
Leeth,  C.  S.  Craun,  J.  D.  Alexander  J.  L.  Cosby,  G.  K. 
Foster.  The  balanced  total  published  Sept.  4,  1912,  was 

The  Peoples  Bank  of  Flarrisonburg  was  chartered  in  1907, 
and  opened  its  doors  for  business  April  20,  1908,  The 
incorporators  and  original  board  of  directors  were:  James  E. 
Reherd,  Isaac  N.  Beery,  John  N.  Mohler,  James  0.  Stickley, 
Thomas  J.  Martin,  Eugene  X,  Miller,  Thomas  P.  Beery,  and 
A.  P.  Filer. 

The  business  has  increased  steadily  during  the  four  years 
of  the  bank's  existence,  until  it  now   has  total  resources  of 



nearly  $400,000.  The  capital  stock  is  not  held  in  large  blocks, 
but  is  distributed  among  over  250  share-holders,  who,  with 
few  exceptions,  are  residents  of  Rockingham  County.  The 
present  officers,  who  have  held  their  respective  positions 
from  the  first,  are:  Jas.  E.  Reherd,  president;  I.  N.  Beery, 
J.  N.  Mohler,  A.  S.  Kemper,  vice-presidents;  T.  P.  Beery, 
cashier;  D.  B.  Yancey,  assistant  cashier. 

The  Farmers  and  Merchants  Bank  of  Timberville  was 
organized  in  March,  1908,  with  John  H.  Hoover,  president; 

E.  M.  Minnick,  vice-president;  J.  A.  Garber,  cashier.  It  was 
opened  for  business  Aug.  24,  1908.  The  directors  are  John 
H.  Hoover,  W.  C.  Hoover,  F.  H.  Driver,  J.  A.  Zigler,  D.  S. 
Wampler,  W.  E.  Fahrney,  E.  M.  Minnick,  E.  E.  Jones,  M. 

F.  Garber,  Geo.  E.  Sipe,  Wm.  A.  Pence,  E.  A.  Andrick,  and 
R.  S.  Bowers.  The  balanced  total  in  the  financial  report 
published  Sept.  4,  1912,  was  $142,061.74. 

All  of  the  Harrisonburg  banks,  probably  some  of  the 
others  in  the  county,  have  savings  departments. 

It  is  deemed  appropriate,  in  closing  this  chapter,  to 
present  a  few  facts  regarding  local  insurance  companies. 

In  the  early  50's  several  Acts  of  Assembly  were  passed 
chartering  and  amending  the  charter  of  the  Rockingham 
Mutual  Insurance  Company.  In  1854  the  Rockingham  Mutual 
Fire  Insurance  Company  was  granted  the  powers  and 
privileges  of  a  savings  bank.  E.  T.  H.  Warren  (page  139) 
was  secretary.  In  1868-9  the  Rockingham  Insurance  Com- 
pany, capital  stock  $100,000,  was  in  operation.  A.  M. 
Newman  was  president;  G.  F.  Mayhew,  secretary;  R.  N. 
Pool  was  general  agent  for  the  State;  Jos.  H.  Shue  was  agent 
for  Rockingham  County.     It  was  a  fire  insurance  company. 

In  January,  1869,  the  General  Assembly  chartered  the 
Rockingham  Home  Mutual  Fire  Insurance  Company,  to  do  busi- 
ness in  a  circle  radiating  seven  miles  from  Cross  Keys.  The 
original  officers  and  directors  were:  Wm.  Saufley,  president; 
Ed.  S.  Kemper,  secretary  and  treasurer;  Jos.  B.  Webb,  Saml. 
Good,  Jonathan  Miller,  Peter  Showalter,  Isaac  Long,  Geo.  W. 
Kemper.     In  1881  G.  W.   Kemper  was  president;   Geo.   B. 



Keezell  was  president-elect,  and  J.  B.  Webb  was  secretary 
and  treasurer.  The  number  of  members  was  432;  amount  of 
property  insured,  $615,000.  At  present  (1912)  there  are 
1442  members  and  the  amount  of  insurance  is  $3,010,000. 
G.  B.  Keezell  is  president;  John  G.  Fulton,  vice-president; 
C.  T.  Callender  is  secretary  and  treasurer.  The  plans  and 
methods  of  this  company  have  attracted  wide  attention. 

On  January  6,  1872,  the  West  Rockingham  Mutual  Fire 
Insurance  Company  was  organized,  with  David  A.  Heatwole 
(page  224)  president,  J.  W.  Minnick  secretary,  A.  Andes 
treasurer.  The  directors  were  B.  M.  Rice,  John  Geil,  J.  H. 
Ralston,  David  Garber.-^  In  the  Act  of  incorporation,  March 
22,  1872,  Saml.  Firebaugh,  Geo.  Chrisman,  Saml.  A.  Long, 
Jos.  Click,  Hugh  Swope,  Jas.  C.  Heltzel,  and  John  H.  Ralston, 
Jr.,  were  named  as  directors.  In  1886  D.  A.  Heatwole  and 
H.  A.  Heatwole  were  president  and  secretary,  respectively, 
and  the  amount  of  insurance  was  $800,000.  At  present  John 
S.  Funk  is  president  and  H.  A.  Heatwole  (Mt.  Clinton)  is 

In  January,  1874,  R.  H.  Spindle,  secretary,  called  a 
meeting  of  the  Farmers*  Mutual  Fire  Insurance  Company  at 
Conrad's  Store.     Nothing  further  is  known  of  this  company. 

In  1897  the  Cross  Keys  Home  Mutual  Fire  Insurance 
Company  was  chartered  and  organized  under  the  state  laws 
of  Virginia,  with  the  following  directors:  C.  T.  Callender, 
T.  P.  Yager,  G.  B.  Keezell,  W.  H.  Long,  J.  R.  Filler,  A.  B. 
Miller,  and  J.  R.  Bowman;  C.  T.  Callender®  being  president 
and  T.  P.  Yager  secretary.  The  purpose  of  the  company  is 
defined  in  the  charter  as  follows: 

*  'To  make  insurance  upon  the  contents  of  dwelling-houses, 
stores,  barns,  and  all  other  buildings,  except  mills,  against 
loss  or  damage  by  accidental  fire." 

This  company  supplements  the  Rockingham  Home  Mutual; 
the  one  insuring  buildings,  the  other,   contents  of  buildings. 

5.  Rockingham  Register,  Jan.  11,  1872. 

6.  C.  T.  Callender  died  Oct.  27,  1912,  aged  53. 



The  inspiring  elevations,  the  splendid  mountain  scenery, 
the  health-giving  waters,  and  the  historic  associations  of 
Rockingham  have  long  made  it  attractive  to  persons  on  tide- 
water and  in  the  cities,  specially  in  the  days  of  summer. 
Not  only  do  hundreds  of  people  come  hither  every  year, 
seeking  health  and  pleasure,  but  many  others  seek  to  have 
the  good  things  sent  to  them — piecemeal,  of  necessity,  but  in 
as  large  measure  as  possible.  Not  to  mention  other  things, 
thousands  of  gallons  of  Rockingham  mineral  waters  are 
shipped  annually  to  many  distant  points. 

The  oldest  well-known  summer  resort  in  Rockingham  is 
located  four  miles  east  of  Harrisonburg,  and  is  now  called 
Massanetta  Springs.  The  old  name  is  Taylor  Springs.  The 
original  name-givers  were  Jonathan  and  William  Taylor, 
owners  at  the  beginning  of  the  19th  century.  They  were  of 
Irish  descent,  and  their  graves  are  at  Cross  Keys.  In  olden 
days,  according  to  tradition,  Taylor  Springs  were  resorted  to 
by  many  of  the  East  Virginia  notables — the  Madisons  and 
Monroes,  among  others.  In  1816  they  were  selected  as  a 
permanent  place  for  the  annual  campmeeting  by  the  quarterly 
conference,  Rockingham  Circuit,  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
Church;  and  were  leased  at  that  time  for  ten  years.  On 
the  death  of  the  Taylors,  the  Springs  passed  into  the  posses- 
sion of  Evan  Henton,  who  was  proprietor  in  1854,  and  there- 
abouts. Later,  they  were  sold  to  Abraham  Miller.  In  the 
early  60's  they  came  into  the  hands  of  Geo.  E.  Deneale,  and 
in  1870  Leneas  Woodson  became  owner.  In  1872  they  were 
purchased  by  a  company  made  up  of  John  F.  Lewis,  Dr. 
Burk  Chrisman,  and  others,  and  the  name  was  changed  to 
Massanetta.    In  July,  1909,  they  were  purchased  by  J.  R. 

Rawley  Springs     (Pages  395,  3S«) 

Hotel  Massanetta,  LoukinK  West  from     the  Grove     (Pages  :',1U.  :W5) 


Lupton,  and  in  January,  1911,  the  Massanetta  Springs 
Company,  J.  R.  Lupton,  manager,  became  the  owners.  The 
waters  contain  calcium  carbonate,  magnesium,  and  other 
valuable  elements,  and  are  widely  celebrated.  The  hotels  are 
filled  with  guests,  permanent  and  transient,  during  the 
summer  months,  and  large  quantities  of  the  water  are  sent  out 
upon  order.' 

For  a  number  of  years  past  the  most  famous  summer 
resort  in  Rockingham,  and  one  of  the  most  celebrated  in 
Virginia,  has  been  Rawley  Springs,  located  11|  miles  west  of 
Harrisonburg,  2000  feet  above  the  sea  level.  Rawley  is  also 
old  in  story.  The  following  extracts  from  a  letter  written 
September  24,  1881,  by  Benjamin  H.  Smith,  of  Charleston, 
W.  Va.,  will  be  of  interest,  as  to  beginnings. 

My  father  resided  in  Rockingham  county  in  the  year  1810.  In  the 
early  part  of  that  year  my  mother  became  diseased  with  chronic  diar- 
rhoea, and  although  she  had  the  medical  services  of  Drs.  Harrison  and 
Cravens,  eminent  physicians  of  that  time,  they  failed  to  relieve  her.  My 
father,  being  much  alarmed  at  her  dangerous  condition,  made  earnest 
inquiries  into  all  the  remedies  from  which  relief  could  be  hoped.  He  had 
for  years  herded  his  cattle  in  the  North  Mountain,  and  during  the  year 
before  stated,  or  some  previous  year,  heard  of  the  medicinal  springs  on 
Dry  River,  in  the  mountain.  Early  in  July  of  the  year  1810  he  resolved 
to  try  the  waters  of  that  spring.  For  this  purpose  he  had  a  shanty  of 
plank  constructed  at  the  Spring,  and  supplied  with  comfortable  furniture 
and  suitable  cooking  utensils,  taken  from  home  by  wagon.  To  this  place 
in  July  of  that  year,  my  mother  was  removed,  with  competent  servants. 
All  members  of  the  family  were  occasional  visitors,  but  I  was  deputed 
as  her  constant  attendant,  and  stayed  with  her  during  parts  of  the  months 
of  July  and  August,  altogether  about  six  weeks,  at  which  time  my  mother 
had  thoroughly  recovered,  and  her  health  was  perfectly  restored-  She 
lived  27  years  thereafter,  without  any  recurrence  of  the  disease. 

The  road  from  the  river  to  the  spring  went  up  a  point  of  the  moun- 
tain next  above  the  spring  branch,  and  was  made  by  the  hands  of  my 
father,  by  cutting  out  the  brush  only,  to  enable  our  wagon  to  approach 
the  bench  of  the  mountain  from  which  the  spring  issued.     When  we  went 

1.  For  information  regarding  the  history  of  Taylor  Springs,  I  am 
indebted  to  the  kindness  of  Mr.  R.  L.  Myers.  His  account  has  been 
supplemented  by  records  found  in  the  Methodist  minute  books  and  in  the 
Rockingham  Register  of  January  18,  1872,  and  other  dates. 



there  no  improvement  of  any  kind  existed,  and  all  was  a  primeval  lorest. 
My  father's  shanty  was  the  first  dwelling  ever  erected  on  the  premises, 
and  we  (my  mother  and  myself)  were  the  first  resident  visitors  of  the 
spring.  Before  we  left  the  spring  we  had  an  accession  of  some  four  or 
five  families  in  shanties  and  tents.  The  spring  then  had  no  name;  but  I 
recollect  a  Mr.  Rawley  lived  at  or  about  the  gorge  of  the  mountain 
through  which  Dry  River  runs,  and  I  have  always  thought  the  name 
the  spring  bears  was  derived  from  this  farmer,  Rawley,  the  nearest  resi- 
dent of  the  place. 

I  have  not  visited  the  springs  since  1810.  I  was  nearly  13  years  old 
at  the  time,  and  the  recollection  of  the  incidents  connected  with  my  resi- 
dence there  is  clear  and  distinct. 

The  waters  of  Rawley  Springs  are  said  to  be  almost 
identical  with  those  of  Pouhon,  the  most  noted  spring  of 
Spa,  Belgium, — those  of  Rawley  containing  more  carbonic 
acid,  those  of  Pouhon  more  iron. 

In  1825  Joseph  Hicks  was  advertising  "Rawley  Springs"; 
in  1836-7  and  in  1877  acts  of  incorporation  were  passed;  in 
1845  Miller,  Sites,  &  Fry  were  proprietors;  in  1861  the  man- 
agers were  John  Sites  &  Son;  in  1872,  and  thereabouts,  A.  B. 
Irick  was  president  of  the  board,  and  Jos.  N.  Woodward  was 
manager.  In  1874,  1875,  etc.,  the  number  of  guests  at  Raw- 
ley  frequently  reached  500.  In  1884,  etc, ,  J.  Watkins  Lee 
was  the  popular  manager.  In  1886  many  of  the  buildings 
were  destroyed  by  fire;  and  a  remarkable  coincidence  was  ob- 
served in  the  fact  that  Anthony  Hockman,  who  had  con- 
structed the  main  building,  died  the  same  night. 

The  popular  proprietor  of  Rawley  in  more  recent  years 
was  Hon.  D.  M.  Switzer;  and  the  property  is  still  in  the  hands 
of  his  heirs.  It  is  needless  to  say  that  modern  progress  is 
found  exemphfied  in  the  present  equipment. 

As  one  stands  on  Lover's  Leap,  at  Rawley,  and  looks  out 
eastward  across  the  Giant's  Grave  upon  the  smiling  valley, 
he  has  Union  Springs  two  miles  upon  his  right,  and  Liberty 
Springs  two  miles  upoft  his  left.  The  water  at  Union  is  among 
the  best  in  Virginia,  and  the  view  at  Liberty  is  one  of  the 
finest  in  Virginia  and  West  Virginia. 

Union  Springs  were  resorted  to  as  long  as  forty  years 
ago;  and  in  1878  Miss  Kate  Croushorn,  of  Ottobine,  was  ad- 



vertising  summer  boarding  at  Union  Springs.  The  water  is 
chalybeate.  Every  year,  until  recently,  at  least  a  few  fami- 
lies of  the  county  spent  part  of  the  summer  there;  but  a  steep, 
stony  road,  with  a  defective  title  to  the  property,  has  by  this 
time  made  visitors  rare. 

Some  one  writing  of  Liberty  Springs  in  1889  said  that  on 
the  south  side  of  the  springs  old  chimneys  were  standing, 
marking  the  sites  of  cabins  built  before  the  war  by  William 
Ewing,  John  Beery,  Abe  Beery,  Archibald  Hopkins,  Peter 
Good,  John  Gordon,  and  others.  In  connection  with  this,  the 
following  paragraphs  from  a  letter  written  December  14,  1911, 
by  the  late  Mr.  D.  B.  Showalter,  will  be  of  interest: 

In  the  burnt  records,  Deed  Book  16,  page  325,  you  will  see  that 
Augustus  Waterman  sold  in  1843  210  acres  of  mountain  land  to  Jacob 
Bowman,  who,  with  his  family,  lies  buried  in  the  family  burying  ground 
on  the  farm  now  owned  by  S.  F.  Showalter,  the  said  Bowman's  old  home 
farm.  ...  In  1845  (Deed.-Book  18,  page  123)  Jacob  Bowman  sold  to 
the  Liberty  Springs  Company  52  acres  of  the  210  acre  tract.  The  com- 
pany then  was  composed  of  John  Swank,  John  Beery,  Peter  Good,  Joseph 
Burkholder,  several  of  the  Hopkinses,  Henry  Showalter,  Jacob  Dundore, 
an  old  Mr.  Ewing,  John  and  Peter  Eversole,  Joseph  Showalter,  Samuel 
Driver  [?],  and  others,  all  of  whom  have  passed  away,  and  many  of  whom 
had  cabins  built  there  before  the  civil  war.  All  these  cabins  were  burnt 
during  the  war  to  prevent  persons  hiding  there  to  keep  out  of  the  Confed- 
erate army.  There  are  some  20  cabins  there  now,  all  of  which  have  been 
built  since  the  war.  The  company  is  now  composed  by  our  home  people, 
who  spend  some  time  there.  .  .  .  A.  H,  Long  is  president,  Frank 
Ralston,  secretary  and  treasurer.  The  springs  are  near  the  top  of  the 
mountain;  the  water  is  fine  chalybeate.  The  place  can  be  reached  by 
a  good  public  road,  built  by  the  company  in  the  last  12  years. 

A  short  distance  east  of  Liberty  Springs,  two  miles  west 
of  Singer's  Glen,  at  the  base  of  Little  North  Mountain,  is  the 
popular  resort  called  Sparkling  Springs.  The  old  name  is 
Baxter's  Springs.  The  company  now  in  control  was  organized 
in  September,  1886,  and  among  the  promoters  of  the  enter- 
prise were  Messrs.  David  A.  Heatwole,  J.  W.  Minnich,  Isaac 
N.  Beery,  John  Funk,  Timothy  Funk,  Daniel  F.  Heatwole, 
Lewis  Driver,  Michael  Showalter,  David  Lineweaver,  Henry 
A.  Rhodes,    Samuel   Brunk,   Abraham  Weaver,  Abram   B. 



Wenger,  Noah  W.  Beery,  and  Emanuel  Suter.  The  company 
was  incorporated  in  1900.  The  grounds  in  1911  comprised  22 
acres,  and  upon  them  were  located  24  cottages,  a  boarding 
house,  a  fountain  house,  a  dairy,  two  stone  wagon  bridges, 
one  foot  bridge,  and  a  good  road  connecting  with  the  county 
road.  Among  the  minerals  contained  in  these  springs  are 
iron,  magnesia,  and  sulphur.  ^ 

At  the  western  base  of  the  Massanutten  Mountain,  about 
three  miles  east  of  Lacey  Springs,  are  the  well-known  Brock's 
Springs,  called  also  the  Yellow  Massanutten  Springs.  After 
important  improvements  in  June,  1874,  they  were  opened  the 
next  month  to  visitors.  Chas.  J.  Brock  was  proprietor;  W. 
R.  Carrier,  general  superintendent.  The  waters  are  chaly- 
beate and  blue  sulphur.  ^ 

Three  miles  north  of  McGaheysville,  at  the  eastern  base 
of  the  Massanutten,  are  Rockingham  Springs,  known  also  as 
Hopkins'  Springs.  The  surroundings  are  beautiful,  and  the 
waters  contain  health-giving  properties  in  various  combi- 
nations, springs  of  chalybeate,  sulphur,  and  magnesium- 
alum  being  found  there.  These  springs,  under  the  proprie- 
torship of  Messrs.  G.  T.  and  Edwin  B.  Hopkins,  have  been 
a  popular  resort  for  many  years.  Mr.  G.  T.  Hopkins  had 
made  extensive  improvements  there  as  early  as  1874,  or 
earlier.  In  the  summer  of  1879  the  poet  Sidney  Lanier,  with 
his  family,  was  among  the  no  cable  guests. 

Not  far  from  Rockingham  Springs  are  Bloomer  Springs, 
opened  as  a  health  resort  in  or  about  the  year  1852  by  Col. 
Henry  Miller,  Dr.  S.  B.  Jennings,  and  Maj.  John  C.  Walker. 
Soon  ten  or  twelve  cottages  were  on  the  grounds.  Frequently 
as  many  as  a  dozen  or  more  families  from  the  neighborhood 
would  spend  the  summer  there,  and  persons  from  a  distance 
would  endeavor  to  secure  accomodations,  but  no  equipment 
for  general  entertainment  seems  to  have  been  provided.    On 

2.  For  aid  in  securing   information  concerning   Sparkling  Springs,  I 
acknowledge  special  favors  by  Messrs.  I.  N.  Beery  and  J.  W.  Minnich. 

3-  Rockingham  Register,  June  12,  July  10,  1874;  etc. 



special  occasions,  however,  a  hundred  or  two  persons  would 
be  present  for  the  day.  The  springs  have  not  been  regularly 
attended  for  the  past  twenty  years,  owing  mainly  to  change 
in  the  ownership  of  the  property.  During  the  years  the 
springs  were  used  the  land  about  them  was  owned  by  Mr. 
Henry  Brill." 

In  the  vicinity  of  Bridgewater  and  in  other  sections  of 
Rockingham  not  specially  mentioned  in  the  foregoing  pages, 
are  fine  springs  of  medicinal  waters.  The  Bear  Lithia  Spring, 
below  Elkton,  must  be  mentioned  particularly.  It  is  con- 
nected by  a  special  track  with  the  Norfolk  &  Western  Railway, 
and  thousands  of  gallons  of  water  are  shipped  from  it  every 
week.  Elkton  is  a  favorite  summer  resort,  and  the  Elkton 
Hotel,  in  beautiful  surroundings  and  under  skilled  manage- 
ment, affords  excellent  accommodations  to  visitors. 

Another  place  that  may  properly  be  noticed  in  this 
chapter  is  Assembly  Park,  just  a  mile  north  of  Harrisonburg. 
A  company  was  chartered  for  managing  it  in  March,  1892, 
and  at  frequent  intervals  ever  since  it  has  been  the  scene  of 
large  and  important  gatherings,  such  as  temperance  rallies, 
religious  conferences,  chautauquas,  farmers'  encampments, 
etc.     The  present  manager  is  Dr.  A.  P.  Funkhouser. 

*■  For  information  concerning  Bloomer  Springs,  I  am  indebted  to  the 
kindness  of  Mr.  John  W.  Brill,  Elkton,  Va. 


First,  let  us  take  a  walk  through  some  of  the  underground 
palaces.     Rockingham  has  a  dozen  or  more  beautiful  caves. 

In  point  of  discovery,  Harrison's  Cave,  six  miles  north- 
east of  Harrisonburg,  is  perhaps  the  oldest.  Few  persons  in 
the  county  now  know  of  its  existence.  I  found  a  reference 
to  it  in  Kercheval's  old  history  of  the  Valley,  and,  upon 
inquiry,  succeeded  in  locating  it.  It  was  discovered  by  David 
Harrison  (born  in  1775),  and  is  in  a  cedar-covered  rocky  hill 
a  short  distance  northeast  of  Melrose,  and  a  few  hundred 
yards  west  of  the  Valley  Pike.  The  hill  is  in  plain  sight 
from  the  pike,  and  is  a  part  of  the  farm  of  Mr.  Thos.  A. 

Wednesday  afternoon,  September  20,  1911, 1  visited  Har- 
rison's Cave.  My  guide  was  Mr.  Daniel  Harrison,  a  grandson 
of  the  man  who  found  the  cave,  so  many  years  ago.  William 
Harrison,  a  son  of  David,  put  a  building  over  the  entrance, 
but  this  went  into  decay  before  the  civil  war,  and  now  the 
opening  is  altogether  without  protection.  In  fact,  we  had 
some  difficulty  in  getting  down  the  first  ten  feet,  so  much 
mud  and  so  many  leaves  had  washed  in  ahead  of  us. 

Once  in,  there  was  plenty  of  room.  Several  of  the 
apartments  are  very  large.  One  room,  near  the  end,  is 
larger  in  circumference,  I  think,  than  any  room  in  any  other 
cave  I  have  visited  except,  perhaps,  the  Grand  Cathedral  in 
Weyer's.  The  ceiling,  however,  is  not  higher  than  15  or  20 

Vandals  have  defaced  Harrison's  Cave  shamefully— have 
broken  off  tons  of  stalactites;  and  the  smoke  from  candles 
and  torches  has  blackened  the  whole  interior;  yet  in  spite  of 
all  this  it  is  a  great  wonder,  and  presents  many  striking 

Washington  Profile,  Rawley  Springs 
By  per.  of  E.  G.  Furry 

The  Giants  Grave 
( .'age  ^05) 

Cedar  Cliff  Falls 
Photo  by  Hammers  (Page  40o) 

Formation  in  Massanutta  Cave 

Diamond  Lake,  New  Market  Endless  Caverns 


features.  It  contains  a  column  thicker,  I  think,  than  any 
I  have  seen  elsewhere.  One  great  column  is  severed  about 
midway  from  floor  to  ceiling.  The  grand  "organ"  has  had 
its  pipes  broken  off  about  half  way  up. 

Hundreds — perhaps  thousands— of  names  are  to  be  found 
on  the  walls,  ceiling,  and  columns.  Some  are  cut  into  the 
stone,  others  are  made  with  the  smoke  of  candle  or  torch. 
Most  of  the  legible  dates  after  names  fall  in  the  year  1862. 
In  April  of  that  year  a  large  number  of  Federal  soldiers,  per- 
haps from  the  army  of  Banks,  were  in  the  cave.  I  saw  the 
names  of  many  men  from  the  4th  and  8th  regiments,  Ohio 
Volunteer  Infantry. 

The  earliest  date  I  saw  was  1818.  This  was  smoked  on 
the  wall  in  large  figures,  plainly,  and  apart  from  other  dates. 
In  all  probability,  1818  was  the  year  in  which  the  cave  was 

About  200  yards  southwest  from  the  cave  just  described 
is  a  grotto  called  "Wide-mouth  Cave."  It  is  about  40  feet  in 
diameter — a  single  vaulted  chamber — opening  widely  to  the 
surface  of  the  earth. 

On  Smith's  Creek,  a  mile  or  two  above  Rosendale,  on  a 
farm  now  owned  by  Dorilas  Driver,  is  a  cavern  known  as 
Strickler's  Cave.  When  it  was  discovered  is  not  known,  but 
it  is  called  an  old  cave. 

In  1879,  Reuben  Zirkle  and  his  sons,  following  a  dog 
which  had  chased  a  rabbit  into  the  rocks  near  the  foot  of  the 
Massanutten  Mountain,  found  a  cave  which  is  now  known  as 
the  New  Market  Endless  Caverns.  It  is  in  the  rugged  slope 
between  the  mountain  and  Smith's  Creek,  a  short  distance 
below  Strickler's  Cave,  and  is  opposite  the  site  of  the  old 
Zirkle  mill.     Rosendale  is  within  sight. 

On  September  16,  1911,  Mr.  Harry  Strickler  and  I  visited 
the  Endless  Caverns,  having  for  guide  the  owner,  Mr.  Harvey 
J.  Rosenberger.  Going  down  abruptly  at  the  entrance  for  20 
or  30  feet,  we  entered  the  Anteroom,  one  of  the  handsomest 
apartments  in  the  cave.  Other  apartments  deserving  special 
mention  are  Centennial  Hall,   Alexander's  Ball  Room,    St. 



Paul's  Cathedral,  the  Alpine  Pass,  and  the  Brown  Room. 
For  profusion,  variety,  and  beauty  of  formations  the  Brown 
Room  is  unexcelled  by  any  other  I  have  seen. 

There  are  many  large  apartments  and  passage  ways, 
from  which  dark  openings  lead  off,  and  around  which  bottom- 
less chasms  yawn.  Many  of  these  corridors  are  not  covered 
with  stalactites,  but  the  massive  limestone  arches  and  vaulted 
ceilings,  the  huge  dependent  crags,  with  the  ponderous  boul- 
ders piled  up  on  the  floor  or  projecting  in  ledges,  combine  to 
form  a  rugged  beauty  and  grandeur  that  are  unusual.  Inter- 
spersed with  these  rugged  gorges  come  splendid  apartments 
rich  in  mural  and  overhead  decorations. 

A  striking  feature  of  these  caverns  is  found  in  the 
numerous  huge,  fluted  columns,  many  of  them  supporting  the 
ceiling,  some  cut  finely  off  just  below  the  ceiling,  and  one  or 
more  fast  above  and  extending  far  downwards,  but  separated 
from  the  floor  by  the  space  of  only  a  few  inches.  These 
splendid  columns,  large  and  small,  make  up  what  is  perhaps 
the  most  characteristic  feature  of  the  caverns. 

Among  particular  curiosities  of  special  interest  and 
beauty  are  Diamond  Lake,  the  Montana  Snowdrift,  Snow  on 
the  Alps,  the  Negro  Campmeeting,  and  the  Gypsy  Tent.  The 
last  and  the  Montana  Snowdrift  are  unsurpassable  for  wonder 
and  beauty.  In  the  Tent  is  a  huge  horror  that  looks  like  the 
open  jaws  of  a  mammoth  crocodile.  The  jaws  must  be  three  or 
four  feet  long,  and  the  teeth  are  like  the  guards  on  the  cutter- 
bar  of  a  mowing  machine.  At  another  place  is  a  nearly  per- 
fect ear  of  corn,  about  as  tall  as  the  average  man,  and 
weighing  several  hundred  pounds.  Not  far  away  is  a  giant 
plowshare,  which  may  easily  be  connected  in  imagination 
with  the  great  ear  of  corn. 

We  were  in  the  caverns  two  and  a  fourth  hours,  and  did 
not  go  into  all  the  apartments.     They  are  truly  endless. 

Three  strong,  clear,  cold  springs  gush  out  at  the  foot  of 
the  hill,  only  200  or  300  yards  below  the  cave  mouth;  and 
from  the  hill  the  prospect  across  the  Valley,  westward  and 
northward,  is  glorious.     The  Alleghanies  are  in  full  view  at 



the  farther  side  of  the  Valley,  12  or  15  miles  away,  while  the 
massive  ridge  of  the  Massanutten  looms  up  at  one's  back. 

In  1871  or  1872  J.  Harvey  Taylor  discovered  a  cave  on  the 
land  of  Mrs.  Clary  West,  about  3i  miles  northeast  of  Har- 
risonburg, one  mile  east  of  the  Valley  Pike.  It  was  explored 
for  200  yards  or  more.^ 

From  public  notices  that  appeared  in  1874,  it  may  be 
inferred  that  Newman's  Cave,  at  or  near  Roadside,  East 
Rockingham,  was  at  that  time  being  visited. 

In  1890  a  cave  was  discovered  on  the  land  of  Hon.  Chas. 
E.  Fahrney,  three-fourths  of  a  mile  north  of  Timberville. 
One  morning  Mr.  Fahrney  noticed  a  hole  in  the  ground,  such 
as  might  have  been  left  by  a  stump  entirely  decayed;  but  he 
also  noticed  vapor  issuing  from  the  opening,  and  so  made 
further  investigation.  This  cave  is  said  to  contain  a  number 
of  beautiful  formations,— an  archway  hung  with  sparkling 
stalactites,  a  small  lake,  and  a  good-sized  flag,  mounted  on 
a  staff.     The  ceiling  at  some  places  is  30  or  40  feet  high. 

On  November  5th,  1892,  hands  blasting  rock  for  lime 
on  the  farm  of  Augustine  Armentrout,  near  Keezletown, 
discovered  the  beautiful  wonder  now  widely  known  as 
Massanutta  Gertrude  Cave.  It  contains  28  apartments,  the 
ceilings  of  many  being  15  feet  in  height,  and  the  decorations 
in  stalactites  and  stalagmites  are  of  great  profusion  and 
variety.  The  illumination  by  means  of  gas  and  magnesia 
tape  enhances  the  splendid  interiors.  Scientists  and  scholars, 
as  well  as  less  purposeful  tourists,  have  come  many  miles  to 
see  this  gem  of  nature.  Clubs,  societies,  and  all  sorts  of 
picnic  parties  find  Massanutta  Cave  both  accessible  and 

In  Februray,  1893,  a  cave  was  discovered  on  the  lands 
of  Mrs.  Peter  Pence,  adjoining  Long's  Hill,  in  East  Rock- 

In  the  winter  of  1901  it  was  reported  in  the  local  papers 

1.  Rockingham  Register,  January  25,  1872. 
3.  Rockingham  Register,  February  10,  1893. 



that  boys  of  the  Weaver's  Church  neighborhood  had  explored 
numerous  interesting  cavities  in  the  limestone  of  the  sur- 
rounding hills. 

There  are  caves  in  Round  Hill,  west  of  Bridgewater,  in 
a  hill  near  Linville,  and  in  the  Roudabush  and  Armentrout 
neighborhood,  between  Edom  and  Singer's  Glen  Indeed, 
Rockinghamers  feel  like  claiming  a  share  in  Weyer's  Cave, 
since  it  is  so  near  the  county  line.  Many  go  every  year  to  visit 
it,  at  any  rate. 

One  of  the  places  in  Rockingham  long  celebrated  for  a 
combination  of  rugged  scenery  and  interesting  associations 
is  Brock's  Gap,  located  in  the  northern  part  of  the  county, 
and  affording  a  giant's  gateway  through  the  first  ranges  of  the 
Alleghanies.  The  mountain  walls  on  either  side,  the  trees 
and  shrubbery  springing  from  the  slopes  and  cliffs,  and  the 
sparkling  waters  that  rush  down  fresh  from  the  heights  and 
hollows  beyond,  all  lend  a  charm  and  beauty  to  the  place  that 
must  be  seen  to  be  appreciated.  Descriptions  and  pictures 
are  both  inadequate  to  convey  a  just  impression  of  the  varied 
and  splendid  forms  in  which  nature  has  here  enthroned 
herself. — See  page  21. 

What  has  just  been  said  of  Brock's  Gap  is  equally  true 
of  Massanutten  Peak,  or  Peaked  Mountain,  to  which  attention 
has  already  been  directed  in  several  connections.  The  Peak 
must  be  seen  to  be  appreciated.  Perhaps  one  should  say, 
other  things  about  it  must  be  seen  from  it.  The  Peak  is  a 
great  natural  wonder,  and  it  is  unexcelled  as  an  observatory. 

Within  the  Peak  is  the  Kettle.  This  is  a  great,  deep 
basin,  or  trough,  with  a  narrow  outlet  at  the  eastern  part. 
This  outlet  is  called  Harshberger's  Gap,  and  through  it  flow 
the  waters  gathered  from  the  springs  in  the  basin.  One  of 
these  is  far  up  near  the  head  of  the  trough,  and  for  a  con- 
siderable distance  the  waters  roar  down  through  subterranean 
passages  between  the  huge  rocks  that  are  heaped  over  the 
channel  in  wild  profusion.  The  stream  that  thus  heads  in 
the  Kettle  is  called  Stony  Run,  or  Stony  Greek,  and  flows 
through  McGaheysville  into  the  South  Shenandoah. 



On  the  mountain  side,  a  short  distance  east  of  the  Kettle, 
and  just  above  Rockingham  Springs,  is  White  Rock.  This  is 
a  high,  broad-faced  cliff  that  can  be  seen  for  miles  as  one 
passes  Elkton,  McGaheysville,  and  other  places  in  East  Rock- 
ingham. On  the  opposite  side  of  the  Valley,  high  up  in  the 
Blue  Ridge,  may  be  seen  the  silver  arc  of  Cedar  Cliff  Falls, — 
the  waters  of  Wolf  Run  leaping  down  a  hundred  feet  or  more 
in  their  hurried  descent  to  join  Elk  Run,  and  then  the 

Before  leaving  East  Rockingham,  a  word  must  be  said  of 
Indian  Rock,  which,  if  it  is  not  a  natural  curiosity,  is  never- 
theless set  on  a  wondrous  pinnacle  of  nature.  It  is  described 
by  "G.  T.  H,,"  writing  from  McGaheysville  under  date  of 
March  27,  1864,  as  follows: 

Deeply  cut  in  a  large,  flat  rock  that  forms  the  extreme  western 
projection  of  the  peak  of  the  Massanutten  mountain  can  be  seen  the  print 
of  a  moccasined  foot,  with  the  toe  pointing  due  West.  This  was  no  doubt 
executed  by  order  of  an  Indian  covmcil,  to  direct  the  wandering  members 
of  their  tribes  to  the  path  their  leaders  had  taken.  Judging  from  the 
weatherbeaten  appearance  of  the  track,  it  must  have  been  cut  hundreds 
of  years  ago. 

About  half  way  between  Broadway  and  Singer's  Glen  is 
Tide  Spring,  which  flows  out  only  at  intervals,  but  whose 
intermittent  stream  is  of  sufficient  volume  to  run  a  mill.  In 
a  wet  season  it  flows  three  or  four  times  in  an  hour;  in  a  dry 
time,  only  once,  perhaps,  in  a  day. 

On  one  of  the  cliffs  near  Rawley  Springs — perhaps  at 
Lover's  Leap— is  the  remarkable  Washington  Profile;  and  out 
in  the  Valley  a  mile  or  so,  in  plain  view,  is  the  long,  low 
ridge  called  the  Giant's  Grave. 

Until  comparatively  recent  years  a  great  wonder  was  to 
be  found  on  Second  Mountain,  about  half  way  between 
Rawley  and  Liberty  Springs.  It  was  a  huge  rock,  about 
forty  feet  long,  thirty  feet  v/ide,  and  six  feet  thick,  almost 
perfectly  balanced  on  a  ledge  near  the  mountain  top.  About 
1893  some  young  men  dislodged  it  with  dynamite,  and  thus 
destroyed  one  of  the  most  remarkable  curiosities  in  the  county. 

On  the  Rawley  Pike,  about  two  miles  west  of  Dale  Enter- 



prise,  is  a  chinkapin  tree  which  is,  so  far  as  is  known,  the 
largest  of  its  kind  in  the  world.  It  is  about  40  feet  high,  and 
two  feet  above  the  ground  the  trunk  measures  10  feet  six 
inches  in  circumference.  At  the  ground  the  girth  of  this 
vegetable  giant  is  19^  feet. 

Near  Dayton  until  lately  was  a  large  sugar-berry  tree, 
which  was  regarded  as  very  unusual  because  of  its  size. 

So  much  for  natural  curiosities.  We  shall  now  take  the 
liberty  of  appending  to  this  chapter  a  few  notes  regarding 
various  minerals,  etc.,  found  in  Rockingham  County. 

Tradition  has  it  that  lead  was  mined  near  Broadway  and 
Timberville  during  the  Revolutionary  War.  In  1894  signs  of 
old  workings  were  found  about  two  miles  west  of  Timberville, 
and  specimens  of  lead  and  zinc  were  secured.  In  October, 
1894,  the  Colonial  Lead  and  Zinc  Company,  made  up  of  W. 
H.  Ritenour,  Thompson  Lennig,  R.  R.  Douthatt,  N.  G. 
Douglass,  and  David  B.  Sites,  got  a  charter  to  work  these  old 
lead  mines.  In  1886  a  lead  mine  on  the  farm  of  D.  P.  Show- 
alter,  near  Chrisman,  was  being  worked  by  Pennsylvania 

In  1833,  Phihp  Miller  and  J.  N.  Ball  were  advertising  a 
"superior  quality"  of  marble  quarried  on  Smith's  Creek,  and 
were  manufacturing  it  into  tombstones,  hearths,  mantel- 
pieces, steps,  sills,  etc.  In  1880  marble  was  reported  in 
Brock's  Gap.  Two  years  later  marble  was  being  quarried  at 
or  near  Timberville  by  Messrs.  Moffet  &  Moore.  It  seems 
probable  that  black  marble  may  be  obtained  just  north  of 
Harrisonburg.  At  present  Dr.  E.  D.  Davis  is  making 
developments  in  that  section. 

In  1854  gypsum  was  reported  near  the  line  of  the 
Manassas  Gap  Railway;  and  coal  in  Brock's  Gap;  both  in 
Rockingham  County.  The  Dora  Coal  Fields  in  Briery  Branch, 
Gap  have  already  been  mentioned.  The  presence  of  coal 
there  was  known  as  early  as  1866.  From  1870  to  1880  a  good 
deal  of  development  work  was  done.  In  January,  1880,  the 
editor  of  the  Register  reported  that  he  was  using  some  of  the 
Briery  Branch  coal,  and  found  it  "first-class." 



In  April,  1866,  it  was  announced  that  plaster  beds  existed 
on  the  farm  of  Peter  Wine,  two  or  three  miles  west  of  Tenth 
Legion.  Plaster  was  being  sold  there  at  $6  a  ton.  It  was 
said  that  certain  farmers  on  Linville  Creek  had  been  using 
this  plaster  for  the  past  five  or  six  years. 

In  1866  a  bed  of  blue  paint  was  discovered  in  Brock's  Gap. 
In  1872  and  1880  finds  of  mineral  paint  were  reported  in  East 
Rockingham,  and  serious  attempts  were  made  in  the  manu- 
facture and  sale  thereof,  but  the  enterprises  were  not 
permanently  successful. 

In  1868,  as  recorded  by  Mr.  S.  H.  W.  Byrd,  John  W. 
Click  discovered  onyx  on  the  farm  of  John  C,  Miller,  near 
Bridgewater.  From  time  to  time  the  onyx  quarries  at 
Bridgewater  have  been  worked  more  or  less  successfully. 
There  are  indications  of  roofing  slate  on  the  river  below 
Bridgewater.  In  1894  onyx  was  being  shipped  to  New  York 
City  from  quarries  near  Hinton. 

Iceland  spar  exists  in  large  quantities  near  Broadway  and 
Timberville.  In  1889  J.  P.  Houck,  in  boring  a  well,  presumably 
at  or  near  Harrisonburg,  found  evidence  of  oil.  Gold  and 
silver  in  small  quantities  have  been  found  at  various  places 
in  the  county.  The  late  Mr.  David  A.  Heatwole,  of  Dale 
Enterprise,  records  the  fact  that  in  Adams*  geography, 
published  in  the  earlier  part  of  last  century,  it  was  stated 
that  nuggets  of  gold  had  been  found  a  short  distance  west  of 
Harrisonburg,  on  the  farm  lately  owned  by  Mr.  Daniel  J. 

But  every  golden  age  is  largely  dependent  on  iron;  and 
Rockingham  is  rich  in  iron.  From  early  times  iron  has  been 
worked  in  various  parts  of  the  county,  particularly  in  the 
vicinity  of  Paulington,  in  Brown's  Gap,  in  the  districts  east 
of  Elkton,  and  in  Brock's  Gap.  It  is  said  that  iron  ore  used 
to  be  hauled  to  Mossy  Creek  iron  works  from  the  neigh- 
borhood of  Dale  Enterprise. 

The  limestone,  blue  and  gray,  in  which  the  county 
abounds,  is  fine  for  building.  Some  of  the  oldest,  as  well  as 
some  of  the  newest,  houses  are  constructed  of  this  native 



limestone,  which  is  also  converted,  at  many  places  and  in 
large  quantities,  into  valuable  lime.  At  Pleasant  Valley  is  a 
quarry  of  gray  limestone,  which  was  opened  about  1873,  and 
which  has  been  worked  regularly  since  1890,  tons  of  stone 
from  it  being  sent  by  rail  to  Staunton  and  other  places  at  a 
distance,  to  be  used  for  lintels,  sills,  bases  of  monuments, 
etc.     Mr.  C.  E.  Loewner  is  the  present  owner  of  this  quarry. 

About  two  and  a  half  miles  southeast  of  Elkton  extensive 
operations  are  now  being  carried  on  in  the  mining  of 

In  1891  parts  of  the  skeleton  of  a  mastodon  were  found 
one  mile  north  of  Singer's  Glen,  by  Henry  Frank,  while 
digging  out  an  old  pond.  The  remains  were  identified  by  Dr. 
M.  S.  Zirkel  of  Edom,  and  were  sent,  probably,  to  the  National 
Museum,  at  Washington.  The  find  attracted  a  good  deal  of 
attention  among  scholars  and  scientists  over  the  country. 
On  July  the  25,  1912,  while  at  Singer's  Glen,  I  saw  parts  of 
one  of  the  great  teeth,  preserved  by  Mr.  Edward  Funk. 

In  April,  1899,  two  mammoth  teeth  were  discovered  in 
an  excavation  being  made  in  Harrisonburg  for  Mr.  Herman 
Wise's  new  store  building.  They  weighed  over  a  pound  apiece, 
and  were  found  15  feet  below  the  surface  of  the  street. 



Near  the  end  of  the  French  and  Indian  War,  to  wit,  in 
the  year  1762,  one  of  the  families  that  moved  into  Rocking- 
ham from  Pennsylvania  was  the  Custer  family.  The  head  of 
this  family  was  Paul  Custer;  and  he  had  a  young  son  Rich- 
ard, born  in  Pennsylvania  some  five  years  before:  that  is,  on 
June  1st,  1757.  The  Custers  (or  Kiisters)  settled  in  or  near 
Brock's  Gap,  where  Nature  called  in  stirring  echoes  from  the 
wooded  heights,  and  Diana  no  less  than  Mars  claimed  many 
a  rugged  glen.  Small  wonder,  therefore,  that  soldiers  and 
hunters  should  spring  from  the  Custer  line. 

Even  to-day  the  mountains  of  western  Rockingham  often 
sound  to  the  huntsman's  horn,  and  echo  to  the  deep  baying 
of  his  dogs  or  the  sharp  crack  of  his  rifle.  Enough  of  the 
past  is  with  us  yet  to  make  a  chapter  of  hunting  stories  both 
interesting  and  appropriate;  they  form  an  integral  part  in  the 
history  of  this  great  county  where  once  the  buffalo  stalked 
the  plains  while  the  deer,  bears,  wolves  and  panthers  shel- 
tered in  the  hills  and  mountains;  and  we  are  peculiarly  fortu- 
nate in  having  this  chapter  mainly  from  the  pen  of  a  living 
member  of  that  same  Custer  family.  The  line  of  genealogy 
may  be  briefly  indicated  thus:  Paul  Custer,  Richard  Custer 
(1757-1837),  Richard  Custer  (1790-1858),  Jacob  Custer  (1817- 
1892),  Samuel  Custer  (1842-        ),  Milo  Custer  (1880-        ). 

Milo  Custer  is  custodian  of  the  McLean  County  Historical 
Society,  with  offices  in  the  city  of  Bloomington,  Illinois;  but 
when  he  heard  that  a  history  of  Rockingham  County,  Vir- 
ginia,— the  prolific  land  of  his  ancestors,  —was  being  prepared, 
he  had  his  father,  Mr.  Samuel  Custer,  to  recount  the  hunting 
stories  given  below,  that  he  might  write  them  down  and  con- 
tribute them  to  this  work.' 

1-  Early  in  the  year  1781  Richard  Custer,  Sr.,  enlisted  in  the  Virginia 


Tradition  has  it  that  Paul  Custer,  founder  of  the  Custer 
family  in  Rockingham,  once  shot  a  buffalo  at  one  of  the  salt 
licks  in  the  adjacent  mountains.  His  great-grandson,  Jacob 
Custer,  was  a  mighty  hunter.    From  1830  to  1850  he  frequently 

troops  under  Col.  Nail  for  service  against  the  British  in  the  war  of  the 
Revolution.  He  served  as  a  private  soldier  three  months  under  Capt. 
George  Huston,  and  three  months  under  Capt.  Anthonj--  Rader.  He  was 
in  the  skirmishes  at  Williamsburg,  Va.,  and  Hot  Water  Creek.  In  1788 
he  married  Jane,  the  17-year-old  daughter  of  Conrad  Humble.  They  were 
the  parents  of  Richard  Custer,  Jr.,  Mrs.  Sarah  Fulk,  Susan  Custer, 
Gabriel  Custer,  Mrs.  Johannah  Wevner,  Strawder  Custer,  and  George 

Richard  Custer,  Sr.,  received  a  pension  for  his  service  in  the  Revo- 
lution, and  his  widow  also  drew  a  pension  after  his  death.  He  died  Feb- 
ruary 14,  1837.  The  date  of  his  wife's  death  is  not  knov/n;  but  she  was 
still  living  in  Rockingham  and  drawing  a  widow's  pension  as  late  as  1841. 

Richard  Custer,  Jr.,  was  born  on  his  father's  farm  in  Rockingham 
about  1790.  This  farm  lies  about  4  miles  north  of  Cootes'  Store.  He 
was  by  trade  a  gunsmith,  but  also  farmed  to  some  extent,  and  operated 
a  sawmill.  The  latter  was  on  the  farm  of  his  son-in-law,  Isaac  Ween, 
and  was  situated  about  13  miles  nw.  of  Cootes'  Store,  in  the  valley  of 
Dry  River.  His  wife,  whom  he  married  March  28,  1810,  was  Elizabeth 
Trumbo,  born  August  21,  1791.  The  Trumbos  and  Custers,  as  well  as 
the  Hesses  and  others  in  the  vicinity,  were  of  Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man Stock.  This  Richard  Custer  served  from  August  29,  1814,  to  Decem- 
ber 8,  1814,  in  the  war  of  1812,  as  a  member  of  Capt.  Thomas  Hopkins' 
company  of  Virginia  militia.  He  and  his  wife,  who  lived  till  1871,  are 
buried  on  the  old  Custer  homestead,  4  miles  north  of  Cootes'  store.  This 
farm  is  now  owned  and  occupied  by  their  son-in-law,  Abram  Hess. 

Jacob  Custer,  son  of  Richard  Custer,  Jr.,  married  Isabella  Miller 
in  1838,  who  bore  him  five  children.  In  1852  he  moved  to  McLean  County, 
111.,  where  he  died  in  1892.  In  writing  of  him  his  grandson  (Milo  Custer) 

"His  early  life  was  spent  among  the  mountains  of  his  native  county, 
and  was  in  many  respects  typical  of  that  rugged  locality.  .  .  .  He 
lived  upon  his  farm  (near  the  Pendleton  mountain)  about  fifteen  years. 
Most  of  his  land  was  covered  with  a  fine  growth  of  pine  and  poplar  tim- 
ber. Some  of  the  trees  were  over  a  hundred  feet  high,  and  logs  60  feet 
long  and  entirely  clear  of  limbs  were  cut  from  many  of  them.  In  the  fall 
of  the  year  1852  he  sold  his  farm  to  Anthony  Rhodes  for  $800,  and  moved 
with  his  family  to  McLean  County,  111.  He  also  owned  one  negro  slave, 
a  young  man  named  Wesley,  whom  he  sold  to  Samuel  Cootes,  the  founder 
of  Cootes'  Store,  for  $200." 



ranged  the  mountains  in  the  northwestern  portions  of  the 
county,  a  terror  to  the  fierce  no  less  than  to  the  fleet  The 
killing  of  deer  and  bears  was  a  favorite  occupation  with  him. 

Prior  to  the  year  1852  he  owned  400  acres  of  land,  on 
which  he  resided,  at  the  head  of  Dry  River,  near  the  Pendleton 
Mountain.  On  one  occasion,  while  at  work  clearing  a  part  of 
his  land,  he  heard  a  sharp  squeal  from  one  of  his  hogs. 
Looking  up,  he  saw  a  large  black  bear  seize  one  of  his  best 
brood  sows  in  its  huge  arms,  rear  upon  its  hind  legs,  and 
walk  away.  Being  some  distance  from  his  house,  without 
his  gun,  and  knowing  he  would  not  have  time  to  get  it,  he 
called  his  dogs,  seized  his  axe,  and  started  after  the  bear. 
Incredible  as  it  may  seem,  the  bear,  although  hampered  with 
the  burden  of  the  sow,  whose  weight  was  upwards  of  250 
pounds,  could  still  walk  about  as  fast  as  the  man.  The  bear 
had  seized  the  sow  from  behind;  and  as  it  walked  along  would 
gnaw  her  back,  actually  eating  her  alive.  Custer  and  his 
dogs  followed  the  bear  up  the  steep  sides  of  the  mountain  for 
nearly  a  mile,  and  finally  compelled  it  to  release  the  sow.  The 
latter  was  able  to  return  home,  but  died  next  day.  The  bear 
had  eaten  away  nearly  all  the  flesh  from  her  back. 

Each  fall,  during  the  hunting  season,  Mr.  Custer  would 
kill  from  fifteen  to  twenty  deer.  His  family  was  always 
well  supplied  with  venison.  Many  times  he  would  return 
from  a  hunting  trip  with  a  deer  v/eighing  upwards  of  175 
pounds  slung  over  his  shoulders.  He  was  very  stoutly  built, 
and  in  his  younger  days  was  a  man  of  great  physical  en- 
durance. He  and  his  neighbors  would  frequently  take  their 
rifles  and  hunting  dogs,  and  "run"  deer  on  Pendleton 
Mountain.  This  mountain  was  then  covered  with  heavy 
timber,  and  was  a  favorite  haunt  of  wild  animals. 

The  deer  v/hen  pursued  had  a  peculiar  way  of  running  at 
a  gradual  angle  down  the  mountain  side  to  the  valley,  and  if 
not  overtaken  they  would  cross  the  Valley,  swimming  the 
stream,  and  then  run  up  the  side  of  the  next  mountain, 
taking  the  same  gradual  course  as  they  ran.     They  would 



sometimes  run  as  much    as  ten  miles  before    they  were 
overtaken  and  killed. 

On  one  particular  occasion  Jacob  Custer,  in  company 
with  his  brother  Conrad,  went  up  on  the  mountain  to  run 
deer.  Conrad  took  up  his  station  near  the  foot  of  the 
mountain,  on  the  east  side,  to  watch,  and  to  shoot  the  deer 
as  they  ran  by;  while  Jacob  took  the  dogs  and  went  up  into 
the  timber  to  chase  them  out.  He  soon  started  a  fine  buck, 
got  him  headed  toward  the  east,  the  dogs  giving  chase;  he 
himself  followed  them  on  the  run,  down  the  mountain  side, 
some  three  or  four  miles.  The  buck  soon  came  within  the 
range  of  Conrad's  rifle,  and  fell.  Jacob,  who  was  following, 
reached  the  animal  before  it  ceased  kicking,  so  closely  had  he 
followed  the  entire  distance. 

On  another  occasion  Jacob  Custer  came  near  losing  his 
life  on  one  of  these  hunting  trips.  His  two  dogs  had 
chased  a  large  buck  into  a  stream  of  water,  and  the  one  of 
them  that  was  in  the  lead  had  overtaken  and  seized  him.  Mr. 
Custer  coming  up  laid  down  his  gun  and,  with  his  knife 
in  hand,  ran  into  the  v/ater  and  seized  the  deer,  intending  to 
cut  his  throat.  But  no  sooner  had  he  laid  hold  of  the  animal 
than  the  dog  let  go.  In  less  time  than  one  may  tell  it  the 
enraged  buck  turned,  dropped  his  head  and  savagely  pushed 
Mr.  Custer  against  the  bank  of  the  stream.  Holding  the 
animal  by  the  horns,  between  the  prongs  of  which  he  was 
pinned  fast,  the  man  pitted  his  strength  against  that  of  the 
infuriated  beast.  It  was  a  life  and  death  struggle.  In  the 
nick  of  time  the  second  dog  came  up  and  seized  the  buck, 
thus  turning  the  scale  in  his  master's  favor.  Many  years 
later,  when  he  was  an  old  man  of  more  than  seventy,  Mr. 
Custer  stood  before  the  gate  of  the  deer  pasture  at  Miller 
Park  in  Bloomington,  and  told  the  park  keeper,  who  was 
somewhat  timid  about  coming  near  a  fractious  buck,  how  he 
had  killed  many  a  larger  deer  in  his  early  days,  back  in  the 
mountains  of  Old  Virginia. 

One  of  the  well  known  early  hunters  of  Rockingham  was 
Frederick  Kiester.     An  account  of  his  many  hunting  exploits 



and  thrilling  encounters  with  wild  animals,  and  a  list  of  the 
number  of  bears  and  deer  he  had  killed,  was  published  in  the 
Rockingham  Register  about  the  year  1855.  He  was  out 
hunting  once  some  where  in  the  mountains  of  Rockingham, 
when  he  was  attacked  by  a  panther.  The  animal  had  hidden 
upon  the  limb  of  a  tree  which  overhung  the  path,  and  had 
dropped  down  upon  him  as  he  passed  underneath.  Had  it 
not  been  for  his  dogs,  Kiester  would  have  been  killed.  Their 
attack  upon  the  panther  caused  it  to  turn  its  attention  toward 
them,  and  give  the  man  a  chance  to  shoot  it.  As  it  was,  he 
was  badly  injured.  His  clothing  was  torn  to  shreds;  his  body 
was  covered  with  blood.  The  beast's  claws  had  cut  his  back 
and  the  calves  of  his  legs  like  knives.  He  bore  the  marks  of 
this  encounter  during  the  remainder  of  his  life. 

Two  other  hunters,  whose  names  the  writer's  father  does 
not  remember,  once  had  a  thrilling  experience  with  a  she-bear. 
One  of  these  hunters  found  a  couple  of  bear  cubs,  and 
promptly  shot  them.  One  of  them  made  an  outcry  which  was 
heard  by  the  mother  bear.  She  came  rushing  to  the  assistance 
of  her  young,  and  attacked  the  man  before  he  could  reload 
his  rifle.  Using  his  gun  as  a  club,  he  managed  for  a  while 
to  beat  her  off,  calling  at  the  same  time  for  help.  His 
partner,  who  was  with  the  dogs  some  distance  away,  was 
deaf  and  could  not  hear  him;  but  the  dogs  heard  him,  came 
to  his  rescue,  and  held  the  bear  at  bay  until  the  other  man, 
who  had  followed  the  dogs,  came  up  and  shot  the  bear.  The 
stock  of  the  gun  which  the  first  man  had  used  as  a  club 
against  the  bear  was  badly  broken,  and  the  weapon  was 
almost  ruined.  He  said  that  the  bear  had  stood  up  on  her 
hind  legs  and  struck  at  him  with  her  great  fore  paws,  warding 
off  his  blows  like  a  man.  He  was  a  large  well-built  man, 
and  managed  to  get  in  a  few  terrific  blows  upon  the  animal's 
head  and  fore  arms;  but  he  said  that  after  she  was  killed  and 
skinned  the  places  where  his  blows  had  fallen  were  not 
discolored,  and  seemed  hardly  bruised.  When  we  take  into 
consideration  the  fact  that  most  of  the  guns  used  by  those 
«arly  hunters  were  flintlocks,  which  could  not  be  loaded  excep 



at  the  expense  of  several  minutes  of  time,  we  can  readily 
understand  how  those  men  were  exposed  to  risks  such  as  are 
not  shared  by  huntsmen  of  the  present  day. 

Richard  Custer,  Jr.,  the  father  of  Jacob  Custer,  was  a 
^nsmith,  as  elsewhere  noted;  and  the  site  of  his  gun  shop  is 
still  pointed  out  as  one  of  the  old  landmarks  near  Cootes'  Store. 

Sometimes  a  deer  that  was  started  in  Pendleton  County 
would  be  chased  across  the  mountains  into  Rockingham,  the 
hunters  who  started  it  not  caring  to  follow  it  so  far.  Under 
such  conditions  the  animal  might  be  shot  by  some  Rocking- 
ham party;  and  vice  versa.  Occasionally  the  dogs  would  follow 
the  deer  long  after  their  masters  had  given  it  up,  and  v/ould 
be  fed  and  cared  for  by  strangers,  some  not  getting  back 
home  for  several  days. 

Many  a  hunter  of  those  early  days  valued  his  dogs  as 
highly  as  his  horses.  There  were  two  classes  of  hunters;  one 
class  that  hunted  with  dogs;  the  other  without.  The  latter 
were  known  as  "private  hunters."  They  were  much  opposed 
to  running  deer  with  dogs,  and  sometimes  resorted  to  ex- 
treme measures— destroying  dogs  with  poison.  Such  pro- 
ceedings of  course  led  to  much  hard  feeling  between  the  two 
classes.  Two  dogs  that  Jacob  Custer  prized  very  highly  fell 
victims  to  some  "private  hunter's"  poison.  Long  afterwards, 
when  his  anger  had  perceptibly  cooled,  Custer  by  mere  chance 
learned  the  name  of  the  poisoner.  Meeting  the  man  one  day 
he  accused  him  of  killing  the  dogs.  Reluctantly  the  guilt 
was  admitted.  "Well,"  said  Custer,  "it  is  past  and  gone 
now;  but  if  I  had  known  it  was  you,  then,  I'd  have  shot  you.  "^ 

The  foregoing  stories  are  not  only  true  of  the  particular 
incidents  recounted,  but  are  also  typical  of  their  class,  and 
enable  us  to  realize  vividly  what  the  actual  and  frequent  expe- 
riences of  the  mountain  hunters  were  in  days  long  past.  Now 
and  then  a  bear  or  deer  is  still  found  in  these  mountains;  and 

2.  I  am   indebted  to   Mr.   Milo    Custer  for   much  other  interesting 
matter,  which  is  withheld  here  only  for  lack  of  space. 



now  and  then,  it  may  be  at  increasing  intervals,  the  hunts- 
man's horn  still  is  heard: 

'Sweet  and  far  from  cliff  and  scar, 
Like  horns  of  Elfiand  faintly  blowing. ' 
But  the  sounds  to-day  are  mostly  echoes. 

In  connection  with  the  foregoing  paragraphs  the  following 
incidents  have  appropriate  significance.  They  give  specific 
information  of  various  beasts  and  birds  found  or  seen  in 
Rockingham  at  various  times. 

The  two  incidents  first  given  are  related  by  Messrs.  J. 
R.  Shipman  and  S.  H.  W.   Byrd  of  Bridgewater. 

About  1794,  when  St.  Michael's  Church  above  Bridge- 
water  was  building,  a  young  girl,  later  the  grandmother  of 
Mr.  Jacob  H.  Wynant,  was  employed  carrying  dinner  each  day 
to  the  workmen.  One  day,  in  going  from  Bridgewater  to 
the  church— a  distance  of  only  2J  or  3  miles— she  saw  seven 

About  1850,  Mr.  Wynant's  mother,  a  daughter  of  Rev. 
John  Brown  of  the  Reformed  Church,  found  a  panther  in 
the  cow  stable,  and  narrowly  escaped  with  her  life — the  beast 
so  nearly  catching  her  as  he  sprang  that  he  tore  off  part  of 
her  clothing. 

In  the  winter  and  spring  of  1865-6,  James  Steele  and  his 
associates  killed  in  Rockingham  County  17  red  foxes  and  one 
gray  fox. 

In  February,  1866,  Mr.  Geo.  W.  Rosenberger,  who  lived 
on  Smith's  Creek  below  Tenth  Legion,  shot  and  killed  a  bald 
eagle  that  measured  6  feet  8  inches  from  tip  to  tip  of  wings. 

In  December,  1867,  Mr.  Derrick  Pennybacker  killed  a 
black  eagle,  measuring  6  feet  8  inches  from  tip  to  tip,  on 
Linville  Creek. 

In  January,  1870,  William  Minnick  of  Broadway  reported 
that  he  had  been  in  at  the  death  of  no  less  than  33  deer  in 
the  mountains  of  Brock's  Gap  and  Rawley  Springs  during 
the  past  season,  October  1  to  January  1. 

In  March,  1876,  a  large  black  eagle  was  committing 
various  depredations  between  Harrisonburg  and  Dayton. 



In  June  of  the  same  year  a  black  bear  was  killed  in  the 
vicinity  of  Cross  Keys,  and  two  cranes  were  killed  elsewhere 
in  the  county. 

Not  always,  however,  were  the  Nimrods  of  Cross  Keys 
so  successful.  In  January,  1891,  the  near  presence  of  a  bear 
was  reported  at  Yager's  store,  and  there  was  instant  com- 
motion. The  hunters  sallied  forth,  fierce  and  fast.  There 
was  "racing  and  chasing"  o'er  woodland  and  lea;  but,  as  in 
the  hunt  for  the  lost  bride  of  Netherby,  the  object  of  dear 
desire  ne'er  did  they  see.  The  incident  was  made  the  subject 
of  a  really  fine  set  of  humorous  verses  by  J.  W.  Tyler,  and 
published  in  the  Register  of  January  30,  1891. 

In  the  Register  of  October  18,  1877,  appeared  the  follow- 
ing paragraph: 

A  few  days  since  a  gentleman  in  Brock's  Gap  went  out  squirrel 
hunting,  and  taking  his  seat  upon  a  log,  killed  one  hundred  squirrels  with- 
out moving  from  the  spot.  He  says  at  least  five  hundred  more  passed  by 
where  he  was  sitting,  during  the  day.  It  was  not  a  first  class  day  for 
squirrels,  either.     They  all  seemed  running  eastward. 

In  the  same  paper,  issue  of  November  29,  1877,  was 
printed  a  sketch  of  James  Todd,  lately  deceased,  who  lived 
at  or  near  the  southwest  corner  of  Rockingham.  One  para- 
graph of  this  sketch  is  given  herewith: 

He  was  the  most  remarkable  hunter  in  the  Valley  of  Virginia,  having 
killed  over  2700  deer  up  to  1860,  with  one  old  muzzle-loading  rifle,  which 
had  been  bored  so  often  that  you  could  get  your  thumb  in  it.  He  had 
killed  bears  without  number.  He  was  a  dead  shot,  and  could  perform  the 
feat  of  putting  a  bullet  through  a  hat  on  the  opposite  side  of  a  tree  every 
time,  by  placing  an  axe  blade  for  the  ball  to  glance. 

From  June  30,  1878,  to  June  26,  1879,  sheep  were  killed 
in  the  county  to  the  number  of  165,  and  were  paid  for  at  the 
rate  of  $3.50  each.  During  the  same  period  the  county  paid 
$129  for  86  red  fox  scalps,  $72  for  90  gray  fox  scalps,  and 
$50  for  20  wild  cats  scalps;  not  a  cent,  so  far  as  reported,  for 
the  scalps  of  worthless  dogs. 

March  31, 1879,  Jacob  Fawley  caught  the  "boss  otter"  of 
Brock's  Gap,  the  said  otter  weighing  15  pounds,  and  measuring; 
3  feet  10  inches  from  end  of  nose  to  end  of  tail. 



In  1879  a  big  crane  was  killed  in  the  county. 

In  February,  1880,  seven  bears  were  killed  in  Peaked 

In  Januray,  1881,  Samuel  Smith  and  his  two  sons  killed  the 
"daddy  bear"  in  West  Rockingham.  He  weighed  300  pounds 
dressed.  In  the  following  February  a  160-pound  bear  was 
killed  by  Geo.  W.  Long  in  Dayton.  The  next  month  a  large 
bear  was  killed  near  Rawley  Springs. 

In  1882  deer  were  frequently  seen  in  the  vicinity  of  Mt. 
Clinton.  One  was  killed  not  ten  feet  from  the  kitchen  window 
of  one  home,  and  another  in  a  nearby  field. 

In  January,  1891,  it  was  reported  that  Wallace  B.  Minnick 
of  Broadway  had  killed,  during  the  past  season,  13  bears, 
several  of  them  weighing  over  300  pounds  each. 

In  February,  1891,  Messrs.  Wittig  &  Son,  of  Dovesville, 
were  said  to  have  shipped  to  Washington  1643  rabbits,  from 
November  to  January,  inclusive. 

The  same  year  Robt.  Higgs  shot  an  eagle,  near  Lacey 
Springs,  which  measured  5  feet  7  inches  from  tip  to  tip  of 

During  the  winter  of  1892-3  A.  M.  Turner  of  West  Rock- 
ingham killed  10  black  bears,  ranging  in  weight  from  100  to 
500  pounds.    The  skins  were  sold  at  an  average  of  $20  each. 

In  March,  1893,  a  gray  fox  attacked  a  child,  then  a 
woman,  near  McGaheysville.  The  woman  finally  killed  it 
with  a  piece  of  scantling. 

In  1897  J.  C.  Funkhouser  shot  a  bald  eagle  near  Keezle^ 
town.  It  weighed  9^  pounds,  and  measured  6Jfeet  10  inches 
from  tip  to  tip. 


All  of  us  have  heard  or  known  of  the  days  of '  'wagoning, ' ' 
when  the  farmer  or  his  son  would  load  the  flour,  bacon,  or 
other  products  of  his  labor  in  the  great  wagon,  and  set  out 
for  Fredericksburg,  Scottsville,  Alexandria,  or  some  other 
important  market.  It  may  not  be  generally  known,  however, 
that  for  many  years  hundreds  of  tons  of  flour,  lumber,  iron, 
and  other  articles  of  trade  were  taken  down  the  Valley  in 
boats  on  the  main  streams  of  the  Shenandoah  River.  Con- 
cerning this  river  trade  Mr.  Richard  Mauzy,  a  venerable 
citizen  of  McGaheysville,  writes  as  follows: 

' 'Between  1830  and  1840  Zack  Raines^  as  leader,  or  'boss, ' 
with  the  soubriquet  'Commodore,'  and  a  number  of  others 
made  their  living  by  boating  to  Harper's  Ferry.  There — the 
flour  having  been  disposed  of — the  boats  were  sold  for  the 
lumber  in  their  construction,  and  the  boatmen  would  walk 
back  to  their  homes. 

'  'The  floatboats  used  were  made  of  heavy  undressed  lum- 
ber, and  were  guided  by  rudders  at  each  end.  At  the  dams  in 
the  river,  next  to  the  shore,  chutes  were  placed,  constructed  of 
strong  timber,  for  the  passage  of  the  boats.  When  the  rise 
in  the  river  was  sufficient,  the  boats  would  go  over  the  dams." 

An  idea  of  the  magnitude  of  this  river  trade  from  Port 
Republic  and  other  points  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  county 
may  be  obtained  from  the  following  advertisement,  which 
appeared  in  the  Rockingham  Register  of  January  16,  1841: 


The  subscriber  takes  this  method  of  informing  his  customers  and  the 
public,  that  he  still  continues  the  business  of  Boating  Flour  and  other 
produce  of  this  country  to  market;  and,  owing  to  the  failure  of  crops, 
his  terms  hereafter  will  be— 

1-  "Commodore"  Zachariah  Raines  died  February  3,  1871,  aged  59. 


For  Flour  taken  from  the  neighborhood  of  Mt.  Crawford  to  George- 
town, $1.25. 

From  Port  Republic  and  his  own  neighborhood,  $1. 20. 

And  an  additional  charge  of  12^  cents  per  barrel  when  taken  to 
Baltimore.  He  will  also  deliver  Flour  at  Harper's  Ferry,  on  the  Canal 
or  Rail-road,  at  $1.00  per  barrel. 

Having  a  saw-mill  of  his  own,  to  enable  him  to  build  his  own  boats, 
and  having  hands  of  his  own  to  go  with  the  water,— he  will  take  Flour 
from  his  own  yard  at  $1.12^  per  barrel.  All  barrels  delivered  in  good 
order— no  cooperage  to  be  charged.  Last  season  he  and  his  hands  took 
through  the  Shenandoah  locks  5,623  barrels.  He  was  not  forgotten  when 
there  was  a  great  deal  of  business  to  do,  and  he  flatters  himself  that  his 
customers  will  not  forsake  him  when  there  is  a  little  to  do.  He  avails 
himself  of  this  opportunity  to  return  his  thanks  to  those  who  have  here- 
tofore encouraged  him  in  his  business,  and  flatters  himself  that  his  long 
experience  and  success  in  his  business  will  enable  him  to  give  general 
satisfaction.  He  leaves  as  security  for  his  returns,  1,492  acres  of  real 
property,  and  between  ....  and  $4,000  worth  of  personal  property. 
The  public's  humble  servant, 

Jacob  Sipe. 

This  notice  makes  the  fact  obvious  that  Mr.  Raines  was 
not  the  only  man  in  the  river  trade  w^orthy  to  be  called 

About  twelve  years  ago  a  gentleman  who  signed  himself 
"Gabriel"  wrote  an  exceedingly  interesting  article  on  the 
subject  before  us  for  the  Page  Courier,  published  at  Luray, 
Va.     We  give  herewith  his  account  in  full. 

Old  Boating  Days  on  the  Shenandoah. 

The  Shenandoah  River  used  to  be  the  great  commercial  highway  of 
this  Valley,  and  boating  in  those  days  gave  employment  to  many 
men.  My  first  recollections  of  the  River  date  back  to  the  day  that 
my  father  moved  on  its  banks  near  the  old  Columbia  Bridge.  The  sec- 
ond day  after  we  moved  my  father  and  three  uncles  went  up  the  River  to 
the  Furnace  (now  Shenandoah  City)  and  in  a  few  days  we  heard  that  the 
fleet  was  in  Kite's  dam,  so  my  grand-mother  took  me  to  the  High  Rock 
to  see  the  boats  come  through  the  shoot.  We  got  in  sight  just  in  time  to 
see  the  first  boat  go  thro,  strike  a  great  rock,  split  in  twain,  and  the 
whole  cargo  of  pigiron  went  to  the  bottom.  Each  boat  was  manned  by 
six  men,  and  when  the  boat  broke  those  on  it  were  carried  to  such  deep 
water  that  they  had  to  swim.  There  were  18  boats  in  this  fleet,  and  soon 
the  men  began  to  wade  in  and  gather  the  iron  together  in  a  pile.  The 
broken  boat  was  then  taken  to  the  bank  and  repaired,  reloaded  and  started 



on  its  way  again.  This  was  in  March,  I  think,  so  you  can  see  that  a  River 
sailor  had  his  perils  and  hardships.  William  Lowry  was,  I  think,  the 
steersman  on  the  broken  boat. 

Nearly  all  boats  were  provided  with  tin  horns  about  8  feet  long,  and 
when  they  would  start  from  stations  on  the  River,  all  would  blow.  War 
songs  were  the  favorite  tunes,  and  the  music  they  made  would  make  your 
hair  stand  on  end.     These  horns  could  be  heard  for  five  miles. 

These  boats  were  9i  x  76  feet.  In  low  water  they  carried  8  tons  and 
flush  water  12  tons  of  iron;  8  to  12  thousand  feet  of  lumber  or  110  barrels 
of  flour  made  a  load.  Iron  was  then  worth  $60  per  ton;  lumber  $1.80  to 
$2.25  per  100;  flour  $8  per  barrel.  A  great  deal  of  bark,  hoop-poles,  rails, 
shingles,  posts,  apples,  brandy,  potatoes,  and  corn  was  boated  off  also; 
tho  iron,  flour,  and  lumber  were  the  principal  exports  in  those  days. 

Boats  sold  at  the  journey's  end  for  from  $18  to  $25.  Boatsmen  got 
from  $14  to  $18  for  the  trip.  It  generally  took  from  5  to  7  days  to  make 
the  trip— 3  or  4  to  take  the  boat  down  and  2  or  3  to  walk  back. 

The  stations  along  the  River  had  names  just  like  our  railroad  stations. 
Here  are  some  of  them:  Starting  at  Shenandoah,  we  came  first  to  Wel- 
fley's  Mill,  then  Wm.  Kite's  Mill,  Roland  Kite's  Mill,  and  so  on,  each 
of  which  all  the  way  down  the  River  old  boatsmen  and  residents  along 
the  River  will  remember;  but  I  have  not  space  to  mention  them  here. 
The  deepest  water  in  the  River  those  days  between  Port  Republic  and 
Harper's  Ferry  was  at  Gray  Horse  Eddies,  below  Castleman's  Ferry. 
[Castleman's  Ferry  is  in  Clarke  County.] 

These  are  the  names  of  some  of  the  old  boatsmen:  Hamp  Miller, 
Frank  Rucker,  Coronee  Comer,  Billie  Melton,  Alec  Kite,  Bud  Cave,  Wm. 
Strickler,  Merrell  Comer,  Bud,  William,  Cap,  Dick,  Dan,  George,  Ben, 
John  and  Al  Dofflemoyer;  Ben  and  Dug  Dovel;  Columbus  Kite,  Jack 
Kite,  Commodore  Turner,  William,  Reuben,  Dick,  and  Henry  Lucas; 
Fred  Phillips,  Wm.  and  Jack  Alger;  M.  V.  Louderback,  John  Gaines, 
Bogus  Lucas,  James  Bateman,  Shinnol  Croft,  Bax  Bugan,  Ton 
Morris,  James,  Sim,  and  Davy  Keyser;  Chris,  Aleck,  Charley